Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Hygiene Related Abstracts

5 Challenges for the Implementation of Community Led Total Sanitation in Rural Malawi

Authors: Save Kumwenda, Khumbo Kalulu, Kondwani Chidziwisano, Limbani Kalumbi, Vincent Doyle, Bagrey Ngwira


Introduction: The Malawi Government in partnership with Non-Governmental Organizations adopted Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) in 2008 as an approach in sanitation and hygiene promotion with an aim of declaring Malawi Open Defeacation Free (ODF) by 2015. While there is a significant body of research into CLTS available in public domain, there is little research done on challenges faced in implementing CLTS in Malawi. Methods: A cross-sectional qualitative study was carried out in three districts of Ntcheu, Balaka, and Phalombe. Data was collected using Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and Key informant interviews (KII) and analysed manually. Results: In total, 96 people took part in FGDs and 9 people in KII. It was shown that choice of leaders after triggering was commonly done by chiefs, facilitators, and VHC without following CLTS principles as opposed to identifying individuals who showed leadership skills. Despite capacity building initiatives involving District Coordinating Teams, lack of resources to undertake follow-ups contributed to failure to sustain ODF in the community. It was also found that while most respondents appreciating the need for no subsidies, the elderly and those with disabilities felt the need for external support because do not have money for buying strong logs, slabs for durable toilet floor and also to hire people to build latrines for them. Conclusion: Effective implementation of CLTS requires comprehensive consideration of various issues that may affect its success.

Keywords: Sanitation, Hygiene, Malawi, open defecation, community-led, faecal matter

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4 Effect of Climate Change and Water Sources: Sustainability of Rural Water Sanitation and Hygiene of Tanahun District

Authors: Bharat Sapkota


Nepal is the one of the victim country of climate change. Decreasing snow line, sometimes higher and sometime non-rain fall are common phenomena in hill area. Natural flood disaster and drought is also common every year in certain place of the country. So this paper analyze the effect of climate and natural water sources for sustainability of water sanitation and hygiene of Tanahun district. It is one of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project Western Nepal Phase-II (RWSSP-WN Phase-II) project district out of 14 project districts of western and mid-western Nepal. RWSSP-WN II is a bilateral development cooperation of governments of Nepal and Finland. Big investment is still going on in water sanitation and hygiene sector but sustainability is still a challenge throughout the country. So RWSSP-WN has started the strengthen of the capacity of local Governments to deliver services in water supply, sanitation and hygiene and its sustainability through the implementation of cross cutting approach of climate change and disaster risk reduction. The study shows that the average yield in 685 natural point sources were around 0.045 l/s in 2014 but it was twice as high in 2004 i.e. 0.09 l/s. The maximum measured yield in 2014 was 1.87 l/s, whereas, the maximum yield was 3 l/s in 2004. Likewise, spring source mean and maximum yield measured in 2014 were 0.16 l/s and 3.33 l/s respectively, whereas, mean and maximum yields in 2004 were 0.204 l/s and 3 l/s respectively. Small streams average yield measured in 2014 was 0.32 l/s with the maximum of around 4.99 l/s. In 2004, mean and maximum yields of streams were 0.485 l/s and 5 l/s respectively. The overall climate between years 2002 to 2013 and measured yield data between 2004 and 2014 shows climate as one of the causes of water source decline. The temperature is rising with pace of 0.041°C per year and rainfall is decreased by 16.8 mm/year. The Khosla’s empirical formula shows decrease of 1.7 cm/year in runoff. At present sustainability of water, sanitation and hygiene is more challenge due to sources decreasing in the district. Sanitation and hygiene total behavior change and watershed conservation as well as design and implementation of recharge pound construction are the way forward of sustainability of water, sanitation and hygiene.

Keywords: Climate Change, Sustainability, Water Sanitation, Hygiene

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3 Challenges to Ensure Food Safety through Sanitation and Hygiene Coverage in Bangladesh

Authors: Moshiur Rahman, Tahmida Jakia


Bangladesh, a densely populated South Asian country is home to more than 160 million people. In two decades ago, the people of this developing nation drank heavily contaminated surface water. Over the past thirty years, the country, and its development partners, has undertaken extensive efforts to provide microbiologically safe groundwater based drinking water through the use of tube-wells. About 85% of the people now drink tube-well water from about 11 million tube-wells/hand pumps. However, diarrhoeal and other water-related diseases are still reported among the major causes of morbidity and mortality among Bangladeshi children. This implies that the mode of transmission of pathogens through water and/or other modes continue. In addition, massive scale arsenic contamination has been recently reported in the ground water. Thirty five million people may be at risk of consuming arsenic contaminated water exceeding 0.05 mg/l in Bangladesh. Drinking of arsenic contaminated water has been linked with skin problems, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, eye problems, cancer of the internal organs, and other diseases. In the study area, Narail district, recent investigations about existing water quality situations indicated presence of low to high levels of arsenic, salinity, iron, manganese and bacteriological contamination risks. As challenges for safe water exist; it is likely that sanitation and food hygiene practices are poor which lead threat to ensure food security.The main attempt of this study is to find out the challenges to ensure food security andprovide probable solutions to ensure food safety towards 0.7 million of people in study area. A survey has been conducted at Lohagara and Kalia sub district of Narail district with a pretested questionnaire. Primary data are collected through a questionnaire, while secondary data are collected from pertinent offices as well as academic journals. FGD has also been done to know the knowledge regarding water, sanitation as well as food preparation and consumption practice of community people in study area. The major focus of this study is to assess the state of sanitation and food hygiene condition of rural people. It is found that most of the villagers have lack of knowledge about food safety. Open defecation rate is high which lead threat to ensure food security.

Keywords: Challenges, Food Safety, Hygiene, Bangladesh

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2 [Keynote Talk]: Surveillance of Food Safety Compliance of Hong Kong Street Food

Authors: Mabel Y. C. Yau, Roy C. F. Lai, Hugo Y. H. Or


This study is a pilot surveillance of hygiene compliance and food microbial safety of both licensed and mobile vendors selling Chinese ready–to-eat snack foods in Hong Kong. The study reflects similar situations in running mobile food vending business on trucks. Hong Kong is about to launch the Food Truck Pilot Scheme by the end of 2016 or early 2017. Technically, selling food on the vehicle is no different from hawking food on the street or vending food on the street. Each type of business bears similar food safety issues and cast the same impact on public health. Present findings demonstrate exemplarily situations that also apply to food trucks. 9 types of Cantonese style snacks of 32 samples in total were selected for microbial screening. A total of 16 vending sites including supermarkets, street markets, and snack stores were visited. The study finally focused on a traditional snack, the steamed rice cake with red beans called Put Chai Ko (PCK). PCK is a type of classical Cantonese pastry sold on push carts on the street. It used to be sold at room temperature and served with bamboo sticks in the old days. Some shops would have them sold steam fresh. Microbial examinations on aerobic counts, yeast, and mould, coliform, salmonella as well as Staphylococcus aureus detections were carried out. Salmonella was not detected in all samples. Since PCK does not contain ingredients of beef, poultry, eggs or dairy products, the risk of the presence of Salmonella in PCK was relatively lower although other source of contamination might be possible. Coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus was found in 6 of the 14 samples sold at room temperature. Among these 6 samples, 3 were PCK. One of the samples was in an unacceptable range of total colony forming units higher than 105. The rest were only satisfactory. Observational evaluations were made with checklists on personal hygiene, premises hygiene, food safety control, food storage, cleaning and sanitization as well as waste disposals. The maximum score was 25 if total compliance were obtained. The highest score among vendors was 20. Three stores were below average, and two of these stores were selling PCK. Most of the non-compliances were on food processing facilities, sanitization conditions and waste disposal. In conclusion, although no food poisoning outbreaks happened during the time of the investigation, the risk of food hazard existed in these stores, especially among street vendors. Attention is needed in the traditional practice of food selling, and that food handlers might not have sufficient knowledge to properly handle food products. Variations in food qualities existed among supply chains or franchise eateries or shops. It was commonly observed that packaging and storage conditions are not properly enforced in the retails. The same situation could be reflected across the food business. It did indicate need of food safety training in the industry and loopholes in quality control among business.

Keywords: Food Safety, Microbial, Hygiene, cantonese snacks, street food

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1 Assessment of Microbiological Feed Safety from Serbian Market from 2013 to 2017

Authors: Danijela Vuković, Radovan Čobanović, Milorad Plačkić


The expansion of population imposes increase in usage of animal meat, on whose quality directly affects the quality of the feed that the animals are fed with. The selection of raw materials, hygiene during the technological process, various hydrothermal treatments, methods of mixing etc. have an influence on the quality of feed. Monitoring of the feed is very important to obtain information about the quality of feed and the possible prevention of animal diseases which can lead to different human diseases outbreaks. In this study parameters of feed safety were monitored. According to the mentioned, the goal of this study was to evaluate microbiological safety of feed (feedstuffs and complete mixtures). Total number of analyzed samples was 4399. Analyzed feed samples were collected in various retail shops and feed factories during the period of 44 months (from January 2013 untill September 2017). Samples were analyzed on Salmonella spp. and Clostridium perfringens in quantity of 50g according to Serbian regulation. All microorganisms were tested according to ISO methodology: Salmonella spp. ISO 6579:2002 and Clostridium perfringens ISO 7937:2004. Out of 4399 analyzed feed samples 97,5% were satisfactory and 2,5% unsatisfactory concerning Salmonella spp. As far as Clostridium perfringens is concerned 100% of analyzed samples were satisfactory. The obtained results suggest that technological processing of feed in Serbia is at high level when it comes to safety and hygiene of the products, but there are still possibilities for progress and improvement which only can be reached trough the permanent monitoring of feed.

Keywords: Safety, Microbiology, Hygiene, feed

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