Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Hydrothermal Related Abstracts

14 UV-Enhanced Room-Temperature Gas-Sensing Properties of ZnO-SnO2 Nanocomposites Obtained by Hydrothermal Treatment

Authors: Luís F. da Silva, Ariadne C. Catto, Osmando F. Lopes, Khalifa Aguir, Valmor R. Mastelaro, Caue Ribeiro, Elson Longo

Abstract:

Gas detection is important for controlling industrial, and vehicle emissions, agricultural residues, and environmental control. In last decades, several semiconducting oxides have been used to detect dangerous or toxic gases. The excellent gas-sensing performance of these devices have been observed at high temperatures (~250 °C), which forbids the use for the detection of flammable and explosive gases. In this way, ultraviolet light activated gas sensors have been a simple and promising alternative to achieve room temperature sensitivity. Among the semiconductor oxides which exhibit a good performance as gas sensor, the zinc oxide (ZnO) and tin oxide (SnO2) have been highlighted. Nevertheless, their poor selectivity is the main disadvantage for application as gas sensor devices. Recently, heterostructures combining these two semiconductors (ZnO-SnO2) have been studied as an alternative way to enhance the gas sensor performance (sensitivity, selectivity, and stability). In this work, we investigated the influence of mass ratio Zn:Sn on the properties of ZnO-SnO2 nanocomposites prepared by hydrothermal treatment for 4 hours at 200 °C. The crystalline phase, surface, and morphological features were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron (HR-TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The gas sensor measurements were carried out at room-temperature under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation using different ozone levels (0.06 to 0.61 ppm). The XRD measurements indicate the presence of ZnO and SnO2 crystalline phases, without the evidence of solid solution formation. HR-TEM analysis revealed that a good contact between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the ZnO nanorods, which are very important since interface characteristics between nanostructures are considered as challenge to development new and efficient heterostructures. Electrical measurements proved that the best ozone gas-sensing performance is obtained for ZnO:SnO2 (50:50) nanocomposite under UV light irradiation. Its sensitivity was around 6 times higher when compared to SnO2 pure, a traditional ozone gas sensor. These results demonstrate the potential of ZnO-SnO2 heterojunctions for the detection of ozone gas at room-temperature when irradiated with UV light irradiation.

Keywords: Hydrothermal, zno-sno2, ozone sensor, uv-activation, room-temperature

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13 Effect of Synthesis Method on Structural, Morphological Properties of Zr0.8Y0.2-xLax Oxides (x=0, 0.1, 0.2)

Authors: Abdelaziz Ghrib, Samir Hattali, Mouloud Ghrib, Mohamed Lamine Aouissia, David Ruch

Abstract:

In the present study, the solid solutions with a chemical composition of Zr0.8Y0.2-xLaxO2 (x=0, 0.1, 0.2) were synthesized via two routes, by hydrothermal method using NaOH as precipitating agent at 230°C for 15h and by the sol–gel process using citric acid as complexing agent. Compounds have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Thermo gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) techniques for appropriate characterization of the distinct thermal events occurring during synthesis. All the compounds crystallize in cubic fluorite structure, as indicated by X-ray diffraction studie. The microstructure of oxides synthesized by sol-gel showed porosity that increased with the lanthanum La3+ contents compared to hydrothermal method which gives a single crystal oxide.

Keywords: Hydrothermal, solubility, oxide, sol-gel, rare earth, ternary mixture

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12 The Effect of Chelate to RE Ratio on Upconversion Emissions Property of NaYF4: Yb3+ and Tm3+ Nanocrystals

Authors: M. Kaviani Darani, S. Bastani, M. Ghahari, P. Kardar

Abstract:

In this paper the NaYF4: Yb3+, Tm3+ nanocrystals were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Different chelating ligand type (citric acid, butanoic acid, and AOT) was selected to investigate the effect of their concentration on upconversion efficiency. Crystal structure and morphology have been well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Photo luminescence were recorded on a spectrophotometer equipped with 980 nm laser diode az excitation source and an integerating sphere. The products with various morphologies range from sphere to cubic, hexagonal,prism and nanorods were prepared at different ratios. The particle size was found to be dependent on the nucleation rate, which, in turn, was affected by type and concentration of ligands. The optimum amount of chelate to RE ratio was obtained 0.75, 1.5, and 1 for Citric Acid, Butanoic Acid and AOT, respectively. Emissions in the UV (1D2-3H6), blue-violet(1D2-3F4), blue (1G4-3H6), red (1G4-3F4), and NIR (1G4-3H5) were observed and were the direct result of subsequent transfers of energy from the Yb3+ ion to the Tm3+ ion.

Keywords: Hydrothermal, Upconversion Nanoparticles, NaYF4, lanthanide

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11 Synthesis and Characterization of Graphene Composites with Application for Sustainable Energy

Authors: Bogdan S. Vasile, Ecaterina Andronescu, Daniel F. Sava, Anton Ficai, Georgeta Voicu

Abstract:

The energy crisis and environmental contamination are very serious problems, therefore searching for better and sustainable renewable energy is a must. It is predicted that the global energy demand will double until 2050. Solar water splitting and photocatalysis are considered as one of the solutions to these issues. The use of oxide semiconductors for solar water splitting and photocatalysis started in 1972 with the experiments of Fujishima and Honda on TiO2 electrodes. Since then, the evolution of nanoscience and characterization methods leads to a better control of size, shape and properties of materials. Although the past decade advancements are astonishing, for these applications the properties have to be controlled at a much finer level, allowing the control of charge-carrier lives, energy level positions, charge trapping centers, etc. Graphene has attracted a lot of attention, since its discovery in 2004, due to the excellent electrical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties that it possesses. These properties make it an ideal support for photocatalysts, thus graphene composites with oxide semiconductors are of great interest. We present in this work the synthesis and characterization of graphene-related materials and oxide semiconductors and their different composites. These materials can be used in constructing devices for different applications (batteries, water splitting devices, solar cells, etc), thus showing their application flexibility. The synthesized materials are different morphologies and sizes of TiO2, ZnO and Fe2O3 that are obtained through hydrothermal, sol-gel methods and graphene oxide which is synthesized through a modified Hummer method and reduced with different agents. Graphene oxide and the reduced form could also be used as a single material for transparent conductive films. The obtained single materials and composites were characterized through several methods: XRD, SEM, TEM, IR spectroscopy, RAMAN, XPS and BET adsorption/desorption isotherms. From the results, we see the variation of the properties with the variation of synthesis parameters, size and morphology of the particles.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Composites, Graphene, Hydrothermal

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10 Post Growth Annealing Effect on Deep Level Emission and Raman Spectra of Hydrothermally Grown ZnO Nanorods Assisted by KMnO4

Authors: Ashish Kumar, Tejendra Dixit, I. A. Palani, Vipul Singh

Abstract:

Zinc oxide, with its interesting properties such as large band gap (3.37eV), high exciton binding energy (60 meV) and intense UV absorption has been studied in literature for various applications viz. optoelectronics, biosensors, UV-photodetectors etc. The performance of ZnO devices is highly influenced by morphologies, size, crystallinity of the ZnO active layer and processing conditions. Recently, our group has shown the influence of the in situ addition of KMnO4 in the precursor solution during the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods (NRs) on their near band edge (NBE) emission. In this paper, we have investigated the effect of post-growth annealing on the variations in NBE and deep level (DL) emissions of as grown ZnO nanorods. These observed results have been explained on the basis of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopic analysis, which clearly show that improved crystalinity and quantum confinement in ZnO nanorods.

Keywords: Hydrothermal, nanorods, ZnO, KMnO4

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9 Mesoporous Carbon Sphere/Nickel Cobalt Sulfide Core-Shell Microspheres for Supercapacitor Electrode Material

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Jae-Jin Shim, Marjorie Baynosa

Abstract:

The depletion of non-renewable sources had led to the continuous development of various energy storage systems in order to cope with the world’s demand in energy. Supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention because they can store more energy than conventional capacitors and have higher power density than batteries. The combination of carbon-based material and metal chalcogenides are now being considered in response to the search for active electrode materials exhibiting high electrochemical performance. In this study, a hierarchical mesoporous carbon [email protected] cobalt sulfide ([email protected]) core-shell was synthesized using a simple hydrothermal method. The [email protected] core-shell microstructures exhibited a high capacitance of 724.4 F g−1 at 2 A g−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. Good specific retention of 86.1% and high Coulombic efficiency of 97.9% was obtained after 2000 charge-discharge cycles. The electrode exhibited a high energy density of 58.0 Wh kg−1 (1440 W kg−1) and high power density of 7200 W kg−1 (34.2 Wh kg−1). The reaction involved green synthesis without further sulfurization or post-heat treatment. Through this study, a cost-effective and facile synthesis of [email protected] as an active electrode showed favorable electrochemical performance.

Keywords: Hydrothermal, electrochemical, supercapacitor, carbon sphere, nickel cobalt sulfide

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8 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Carbon Sphere/Nickel Cobalt Sulfide Core/Shell Microstructure and Its Electrochemical Performance

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Jae-Jin Shim, Marjorie Baynosa

Abstract:

Electrochemical supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention because of their high potential as an efficient energy storage system. The combination of carbon-based material and transition metal oxides/sulfides are studied because they have long and improved cycle life as well as high energy and power densities. In this study, a hierarchical mesoporous carbon sphere/nickel cobalt sulfide (CS/Ni-Co-S) core/shell structure was synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method without any further sulfurization or post-heat treatment. The CS/Ni-Co-S core/shell microstructures exhibited a high capacitance of 724 F g−1 at 2 A g−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. After 2000 charge-discharge cycles, it retained 86.1% of its original capacitance, with high Coulombic efficiency of 97.9%. The electrode exhibited a high energy density of 58.0 Wh kg−1 at an energy density of 1440 W kg−1, and high power density of 7200 W kg−1 at an energy density of 34.2 Wh kg−1. The successful synthesis was considered to be simple and cost-effective which supports the viability of this composite as an alternative activated material for high performance supercapacitors.

Keywords: Hydrothermal, electrochemical, supercapacitor, carbon sphere, nickel cobalt sulfide

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7 Hydrothermally Fabricated 3-D Nanostructure Metal Oxide Sensors

Authors: Mohammad Alenezi

Abstract:

Hierarchical nanostructures with higher dimensionality, consisting of nanostructure building blocks such as nanowires, nanotubes, or nanosheets are very attractive. They hold great properties like the high surface-to-volume ratio and well-ordered porous structures, which can be very challenging to attain for other mono-morphological nanostructures. Well-ordered hierarchical nanostructures with high surface-to-volume ratios facilitate gas diffusion into their surfaces as well as scattering of light. Therefore, hierarchical nanostructures are expected to perform highly as gas sensors. A multistage controlled hydrothermal synthesis method to fabricate high-performance single ZnO brushlike hierarchical nanostructure gas sensor from initial nanowires is reported. The performance of the sensor based on brush-like hierarchical nanostructure is analyzed and compared to that of a nanowire gas sensor. The hierarchical gas sensor demonstrated high sensitivity toward low concentration of acetone at high speed of response. The enhancement in the hierarchical sensor performance is attributed to the increased surface to volume ratio, reduction in dimensionality of the nanowire building blocks, formation of junctions between the initial nanowire and the secondary nanowires, and enhanced gas diffusion into the surfaces of the hierarchical nanostructures.

Keywords: Sensor, Hydrothermal, nanostructure, metal oxide

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6 Preparation of 3D Graphene with Microwave-Hydrothermal Assistance for Ultrahigh Performance of Capacitive Deionization

Authors: Wahid Dianbudiyanto, Shou Heng Liu

Abstract:

Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a prospective desalination technology, which can be operated at low voltage, low temperature and potentially consume low energy for brackish water desalination. To obtain the optimal electrosorption, an electrode should possess high electrical conductivity, large surface area, good wettability, highly mesoporous structure which provide efficient pathways for ion distribution. In this work, a 3D structure graphene was fabricated using hydrothermal method which is assisted with microwave treatments to form 3D rGO (3DG-Mw-Hyd). The prepared samples have excellent specific capacitance (189.2 F / g) and ultrahigh electrosorption capacity (30 mg/g) for the desalination of 500 mg / l NaCl. These results are superior to the electrode which is fabricated only using the hydrothermal method without microwave assistance (3DG-Hyd) and traditional reflux method. Physical characterizations such as SEM, TEM, and XRD have been used to study the property difference of the materials. The preliminary results show that 3DG-Mw-Hyd is one of the promising electrodes for CDI in the practical applications.

Keywords: Graphene, Microwave, Hydrothermal, capacitive deionization, electrosorption

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5 Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of Poly(Vinylideneflouride-Hexafluoropropylene)/ZnO Nanocomposites

Authors: P. Hemalatha, Deepalekshmi Ponnamma, Mariam Al Ali Al-Maadeed

Abstract:

The Poly(vinylideneflouride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/ zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomposites films were successfully prepared by mixing the fine ZnO particles into PVDF-HFP solution followed by film casting and sandwich techniques. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and properties of the obtained nanocomposites. The dielectric properties of the PVDF-HFP/ZnO nanocomposites were analyzed in detail. In comparison with pure PVDF-HFP, the dielectric constant of the nanocomposite (1wt% ZnO) was significantly improved. The piezoelectric co-efficients of the nanocomposites films were measured. Experimental results revealed the influence of filler on the properties of PVDF-HFP and enhancement in the output performance and dielectric properties reflects the ability for energy storage capabilities.

Keywords: Hydrothermal, Organic Compounds, dielectric constant, nanoflowers

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4 Role of Cellulose Fibers in Tuning the Microstructure and Crystallographic Phase of α-Fe₂O₃ and α-FeOOH Nanoparticles

Authors: Indu Chauhan, Bhupendra S. Butola, Paritosh Mohanty

Abstract:

It is very well known that properties of material changes as their size approach to nanoscale level due to the high surface area to volume ratio. However, in last few decades, a tenet ‘structure dictates function’ is quickly being adopted by researchers working with nanomaterials. The design and exploitation of nanoparticles with tailored shape and size has become one of the primary goals of materials science researchers to expose the properties of nanostructures. To date, various methods, including soft/hard template/surfactant assisted route hydrothermal reaction, seed mediated growth method, capping molecule-assisted synthesis, polyol process, etc. have been adopted to synthesize the nanostructures with controlled size and shape and monodispersity. However controlling the shape and size of nanoparticles is an ultimate challenge of modern material research. In particular, many efforts have been devoted to rational and skillful control of hierarchical and complex nanostructures. Thus in our research work, role of cellulose in manipulating the nanostructures has been discussed. Nanoparticles of α-Fe₂O₃ (diameter ca. 15 to 130 nm) were immobilized on the cellulose fiber surface by a single step in situ hydrothermal method. However, nanoflakes of α-FeOOH having thickness ca. ~25 nm and length ca. ~250 nm were obtained by the same method in absence of cellulose fibers. A possible nucleation and growth mechanism of the formation of nanostructures on cellulose fibers have been proposed. The covalent bond formation between the cellulose fibers and nanostructures has been discussed with supporting evidence from the spectroscopic and other analytical studies such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The role of cellulose in manipulating the nanostructures has been discussed.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Hydrothermal, cellulose fibers, α-Fe₂O₃, α-FeOOH, nanoflakes

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3 Reuse of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash for the Synthesis of Zeolite: Effects of Different Operation Conditions

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Chen, Yi-Jie Lin

Abstract:

This study tries to reuse the fly ash of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) for the synthesis of zeolites. The fly ashes were treated with NaOH alkali fusion at different temperatures for 40 mins and then synthesized the zeolites with hydrothermal method at 105oC for different operation times. The effects of different operation conditions and the optimum synthesis parameters were explored. The specific surface area, surface morphology, species identification, adsorption capacity, and the reuse potentials of the synthesized zeolites were analyzed and evaluated. Experimental results showed that the optimum operation conditions for the synthesis of zeolite from the mixed fly ash were Si/Al=20, alkali/ash=1.5, alkali fusion reaction with NaOH at 800oC for 40 mins, hydrolysis with L/S=200 at 105oC for 24 hr, and hydrothermal synthesis at 105oC for 48 hr. The largest specific surface area of synthesized zeolite could be increased to 943.05m2/g. The influence of different operation parameters on the synthesis of zeolite from mixed fly ash followed the sequence of Si/Al > hydrolysis L/S> hydrothermal time > alkali fusion temperature > alkali/ash ratio. The XRD patterns of synthesized zeolites were identified to be similar with the ZSM-23 zeolite. The adsorption capacities of synthesized zeolite for pollutants were increased as rising the specific surface area of synthesized zeolite. In summary, MSWI fly ash can be treated and reused to synthesize the zeolite with high specific surface area by the alkali fusion and hydrothermal method. The zeolite can be reuse for the adsorption of various pollutants. They have great potential for development.

Keywords: Hydrothermal, fly ash, Zeolite, alkali fusion

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2 The Optimum Operating Conditions for the Synthesis of Zeolite from Waste Incineration Fly Ash by Alkali Fusion and Hydrothermal Methods

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Chen, Yi-Jie Lin

Abstract:

The fly ash of waste incineration processes is usually hazardous and the disposal or reuse of waste incineration fly ash is difficult. In this study, the waste incineration fly ash was converted to useful zeolites by the alkali fusion and hydrothermal synthesis method. The influence of different operating conditions (the ratio of Si/Al, the ratio of hydrolysis liquid to solid, and hydrothermal time) was investigated to seek the optimum operating conditions for the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash. The results showed that concentrations of heavy metals in the leachate of Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) were all lower than the regulatory limits except lead. The optimum operating conditions for the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash by the alkali fusion and hydrothermal synthesis method were Si/Al=40, NaOH/ash=1.5, alkali fusion at 400 oC for 40 min, hydrolysis with Liquid to Solid ratio (L/S)= 200 at 105 oC for 24 h, and hydrothermal synthesis at 105 oC for 24 h. The specific surface area of fly ash could be significantly increased from 8.59 m2/g to 651.51 m2/g (synthesized zeolite). The influence of different operating conditions on the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash followed the sequence of Si/Al ratio > hydrothermal time > hydrolysis L/S ratio. The synthesized zeolites can be reused as good adsorbents to control the air or wastewater pollutants. The purpose of fly ash detoxification, reduction and waste recycling/reuse is achieved successfully.

Keywords: Hydrothermal, fly ash, Zeolite, alkali fusion

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1 Environmental Catalysts for Refining Technology Application: Reduction of CO Emission and Gasoline Sulphur in Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit

Authors: Loganathan Kumaresan, Velusamy Chidambaram, Arumugam Velayutham Karthikeyani, Alex Cheru Pulikottil, Madhusudan Sau, Gurpreet Singh Kapur, Sankara Sri Venkata Ramakumar

Abstract:

Environmentally driven regulations throughout the world stipulate dramatic improvements in the quality of transportation fuels and refining operations. The exhaust gases like CO, NOx, and SOx from stationary sources (e.g., refinery) and motor vehicles contribute to a large extent for air pollution. The refining industry is under constant environmental pressure to achieve more rigorous standards on sulphur content in the fuel used in the transportation sector and other off-gas emissions. Fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) is a major secondary process in refinery for gasoline and diesel production. CO-combustion promoter additive and gasoline sulphur reduction (GSR) additive are catalytic systems used in FCCU to assist the combustion of CO to CO₂ in the regenerator and regulate sulphur in gasoline faction respectively along with main FCC catalyst. Effectiveness of these catalysts is governed by the active metal used, its dispersion, the type of base material employed, and retention characteristics of additive in FCCU such as attrition resistance and density. The challenge is to have a high-density microsphere catalyst support for its retention and high activity of the active metals as these catalyst additives are used in low concentration compare to the main FCC catalyst. The present paper discusses in the first part development of high dense microsphere of nanocrystalline alumina by hydro-thermal method for CO combustion promoter application. Performance evaluation of additive was conducted under simulated regenerator conditions and shows CO combustion efficiency above 90%. The second part discusses the efficacy of a co-precipitation method for the generation of the active crystalline spinels of Zn, Mg, and Cu with aluminium oxides as an additive. The characterization and micro activity test using heavy combined hydrocarbon feedstock at FCC unit conditions for evaluating gasoline sulphur reduction activity are studied. These additives were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction, NH₃-TPD & N₂ sorption analysis, TPR analysis to establish structure-activity relationship. The reaction of sulphur removal mechanisms involving hydrogen transfer reaction, aromatization and alkylation functionalities are established to rank GSR additives for their activity, selectivity, and gasoline sulphur removal efficiency. The sulphur shifting in other liquid products such as heavy naphtha, light cycle oil, and clarified oil were also studied. PIONA analysis of liquid product reveals 20-40% reduction of sulphur in gasoline without compromising research octane number (RON) of gasoline and olefins content.

Keywords: Hydrothermal, nanocrystalline, spinel, sulphur reduction

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