Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

hydrothermal method Related Abstracts

5 Comparison of Methods for the Synthesis of Eu+++, Tb+++, and Tm+++ Doped Y2O3 Nanophosphors by Sol-Gel and Hydrothermal Methods for Bioconjugation

Authors: Ravindra P. Singh, Drupad Ram, Dinesh K. Gupta


Rare earth ions doped metal oxides are a class of luminescent materials which have been proved to be excellent for applications in field emission displays and cathode ray tubes, plasma display panels. Under UV irradiation Eu+++ doped Y2O3 is a red phosphor and Tb+++ doped Y 2O3 is a green phosphor. It is possible that, due to their high quantum efficiency, they might serve as improved luminescent markers for identification of biomolecules, as already reported for CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals. However, for any biological applications these particle powders must be suspended in water while retaining their phosphorescence. We hereby report synthesis and characterization of Eu+++ and Tb+++ doped yttrium oxide nanoparticles by sol-gel and hydrothermal processes. Eu+++ and Tb+++ doped Y2O3 nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal process using yttrium oxo isopropoxide [Y5O(OPri)13] (crystallized twice) and it’s acetyl acetone modified product [Y(O)(acac)] as precursors. Generally the sol-gel derived metal oxides are required to be annealed to the temperature ranging from 400°C-800°C in order to develop crystalline phases. However, this annealing also results in the development of aggregates which are undesirable for bio-conjugation experiments. In the hydrothermal process, we have achieved crystallinity of the nanoparticles at 300°C and the development of crystalline phases has been found to be proportional to the time of heating of the reactor. The average particle sizes as calculated from XRD were found to be 28 nm, 32 nm, and 34 nm by hydrothermal process. The particles were successfully suspended in chloroform in the presence of trioctyl phosphene oxide and TEM investigations showed the presence of single particles along with agglomerates.

Keywords: XRD, TEM, sol-gel, nanophosphors, Y2O3:Eu+3, Y2O3:Tb+3, hydrothermal method

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4 Ultra-Fast Growth of ZnO Nanorods from Aqueous Solution: Technology and Applications

Authors: Bartlomiej S. Witkowski, Lukasz Wachnicki, Sylwia Gieraltowska, Rafal Pietruszka, Marek Godlewski


Zinc oxide is extensively studied II-VI semiconductor with a direct energy gap of about 3.37 eV at room temperature and high transparency in visible light spectral region. Due to these properties, ZnO is an attractive material for applications in photovoltaic, electronic and optoelectronic devices. ZnO nanorods, due to a well-developed surface, have potential of applications in sensor technology and photovoltaics. In this work we present a new inexpensive method of the ultra-fast growth of ZnO nanorods from the aqueous solution. This environment friendly and fully reproducible method allows growth of nanorods in few minutes time on various substrates, without any catalyst or complexing agent. Growth temperature does not exceed 50ºC and growth can be performed at atmospheric pressure. The method is characterized by simplicity and allows regulation of size of the ZnO nanorods in a large extent. Moreover the method is also very safe, it requires organic, non-toxic and low-price precursors. The growth can be performed on almost any type of substrate through the homo-nucleation as well as hetero-nucleation. Moreover, received nanorods are characterized by a very high quality - they are monocrystalline as confirmed by XRD and transmission electron microscopy. Importantly oxygen vacancies are not found in the photoluminescence measurements. First results for obtained by us ZnO nanorods in sensor applications are very promising. Resistance UV sensor, based on ZnO nanorods grown on a quartz substrates shows high sensitivity of 20 mW/m2 (2 μW/cm2) for point contacts, especially that the results are obtained for the nanorods array, not for a single nanorod. UV light (below 400 nm of wavelength) generates electron-hole pairs, which results in a removal from the surfaces of the water vapor and hydroxyl groups. This reduces the depletion layer in nanorods, and thus lowers the resistance of the structure. The so-obtained sensor works at room temperature and does not need the annealing to reset to initial state. Details of the technology and the first sensors results will be presented. The obtained ZnO nanorods are also applied in simple-architecture photovoltaic cells (efficiency over 12%) in conjunction with low-price Si substrates and high-sensitive photoresistors. Details informations about technology and applications will be presented.

Keywords: Photovoltaic Cells, hydrothermal method, photoresistor, ZnO nanorods

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3 Preparation of Protective Coating Film on Metal Alloy

Authors: Rana Th. A. Al-Rubaye


A novel chromium-free protective coating films based on a zeolite coating was growing onto a FeCrAlloy metal using in –situ hydrothermal method. The zeolite film was obtained using in-situ crystallization process that is capable of coating large surfaces with complex shape and in confined spaces has been developed. The zeolite coating offers an advantage of a high mechanical stability and thermal stability. The physico-chemical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X–ray analysis (EDX) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The transition from oxide-on-alloy wires to hydrothermally synthesised uniformly zeolite coated surfaces was followed using SEM and XRD. In addition, the robustness of the prepared coating was confirmed by subjecting these to thermal cycling (ambient to 550°C).

Keywords: FeCrAlloy, hydrothermal method, zsm-5 zeolite, zeolite coatings

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2 Different Methods of Fe3O4 Nano Particles Synthesis

Authors: Afshin Farahbakhsh, Arezoo Hakimi


Herein, we comparison synthesized Fe3O4 using, hydrothermal method, Mechanochemical processes and solvent thermal method. The Hydrothermal Technique has been the most popular one, gathering interest from scientists and technologists of different disciplines, particularly in the last fifteen years. In the hydrothermal method Fe3O4 microspheres, in which many nearly monodisperse spherical particles with diameters of about 400nm, in the mechanochemical method regular morphology indicates that the particles are well crystallized and in the solvent thermal method Fe3O4 nanoparticles have good properties of uniform size and good dispersion.

Keywords: hydrothermal method, Fe3O4 nanoparticles, mechanochemical processes, solvent thermal method

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1 Binder-Free Porous Photocathode Based on Cuprous Oxide for High-Performing P-Type Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Marinela Miclau, Melinda Vajda, Nicolae Miclau, Daniel Ursu


Characterized by a simple structure, easy and low cost fabrication, the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) attracted the interest of the scientific community as an attractive alternative of conventional Si-based solar cells and thin-film solar cells. Over the past 20 years, the main efforts have attempted to enhance the efficiency of n-type DSSCs, the highest efficiency record of 14.30% was achieved using the co-sensitization of two metal-free organic dyes and Co (II/III) tris(phenanthroline)-based redox electrolyte. In the last years, the development of the efficient p-type DSSC has become a research focus owing to the fact that the concept of tandem solar cell was proposed as the solution to increase the power conversion efficiency. A promising alternative for the photocathodes of p-type DSSC, cuprous (Cu2O) and cupric (CuO) oxides have been investigated because of its nontoxic nature, low cost, high natural abundance, a good absorption coefficient for visible light and a higher dielectric constant than NiO. In case of p-type DSSC based on copper oxides with I3-/I- as redox mediator, the highest conversion efficiency of 0.42% (Cu2O) and 0.03% (CuO) has achieved. Towards the increase in the performance, we have fabricated and analyzed the performance of p-type DSSC prepared with the binder-free porous Cu2O photocathodes. Porous thin film could be an attractive alternative for DSSC because of their large surface areas which enable the efficient absorption of the dyes and light. We propose a simple and one-step hydrothermal method for the preparation of porous Cu2O thin film using copper substrate, cupric acetate and ethyl cellulose. The cubic structure of Cu2O has been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and porous morphology of thin film was emphasized by Scanning Electron Microscope Inspect S (SEM). Optical and Mott-Schottky measurements attest of the high quality of the Cu2O thin film. The binder-free porous Cu2O photocathode has confirmed the excellent photovoltaic properties, the best value reported for p-type DSSC (1%) in similar conditions being reached.

Keywords: dye-sensitized solar cell, hydrothermal method, cuprous oxide, porous photocathode

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