Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Hydrometallurgy Related Abstracts

7 Ferrites of the MeFe2O4 System (Me – Zn, Cu, Cd) and Their Two Faces

Authors: B. S. Boyanov, A. B. Peltekov, K. I. Ivanov

Abstract:

The ferrites of Zn, Cd, Cu, and mixed ferrites with NiO, MnO, MgO, CoO, ZnO, BaO combine the properties of dielectrics, semiconductors, ferro-magnets, catalysts, etc. The ferrites are used in an impressive range of applications due to their remarkable properties. A specific disadvantage of ferrites is that they are undesirably obtained in a lot of processes connected with metal production. They are very stable and poorly soluble compounds. The obtained ZnFe2O4 in zinc production connecting about 15% of the total zinc remains practically insoluble in dilute solutions of sulfuric acid. This decreases the degree of recovery of zinc and necessitates to further process the zinc-containing cake. In this context, the ferrites; ZnFe2O4, CdFe2O4, and CuFe2O4 are synthesized in laboratory conditions using ceramic technology. Their homogeneity and structure are proven by X-Ray diffraction analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The synthesized ferrites are subjected to strong acid and high temperature leaching with solutions of H2SO4, HCl, and HNO3 (7, 10 and 15 %). The results indicate that the highest degree of leaching of Zn, Cd, and Cu from the ferrites is achieved by use of HCl. The resulting values for the degree of leaching of metals using H2SO4 are lower, but still remain significantly higher for all of the experimental conditions compared to the values obtained using HNO3. Five zinc sulfide concentrates are characterized for iron content by chemical analysis, Web-based Information System, and iron phases by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The charging was optimized using the criterion of minimal amount of zinc ferrite produced when roasting the concentrates in a fluidized bed. The results obtained are interpreted in terms of the hydrometallurgical zinc production and maximum recovery of zinc, copper and cadmium from initial zinc sulfide concentrates after their roasting.

Keywords: Hydrometallurgy, solubility, inorganic acids, zinc ferrite

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6 Recovery of Zn from Different Çinkur Leach Residues by Acidic Leaching

Authors: Mehmet Ali Topçu, Aydın Ruşen

Abstract:

Çinkur is the only plant in Turkey that produces zinc from primary ore containing zinc carbonate from its establishment until 1997. After this year, zinc concentrate coming from Iran was used in this plant. Therefore, there are two different leach residues namely Turkish leach residue (TLR) and Iranian leach residue (ILR), in Çinkur stock piles. This paper describes zinc recovery by sulphuric acid (H2SO4) treatment for each leach residue and includes comparison of blended of TLR and ILR. Before leach experiments; chemical, mineralogical and thermal analysis of three different leach residues was carried out by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), respectively. Leaching experiments were conducted at optimum conditions; 100 oC, 150 g/L H2SO4 and 2 hours. In the experiments, stirring rate was kept constant at 600 r/min which ensures complete mixing in leaching solution. Results show that zinc recovery for Iranian LR was higher than Turkish LR due to having different chemical composition from each other.

Keywords: Leaching, Metal Recovery, Hydrometallurgy, Metal Extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
5 Recovery of Metals from Electronic Waste by Physical and Chemical Recycling Processes

Authors: Muammer Kaya

Abstract:

The main purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of various physical and chemical processes for electronic waste (e-waste) recycling, their advantages and shortfalls towards achieving a cleaner process of waste utilization, with especial attention towards extraction of metallic values. Current status and future perspectives of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) recycling are described. E-waste characterization, dismantling/ disassembly methods, liberation and classification processes, composition determination techniques are covered. Manual selective dismantling and metal-nonmetal liberation at – 150 µm at two step crushing are found to be the best. After size reduction, mainly physical separation/concentration processes employing gravity, electrostatic, magnetic separators, froth floatation etc., which are commonly used in mineral processing, have been critically reviewed here for separation of metals and non-metals, along with useful utilizations of the non-metallic materials. The recovery of metals from e-waste material after physical separation through pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical or biohydrometallurgical routes is also discussed along with purification and refining and some suitable flowsheets are also given. It seems that hydrometallurgical route will be a key player in the base and precious metals recoveries from e-waste. E-waste recycling will be a very important sector in the near future from economic and environmental perspectives.

Keywords: Recycling, E-Waste, Metal Recovery, Hydrometallurgy, WEEE, pirometallurgy, biometallurgy

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
4 Hydrometallurgical Production of Nickel Ores from Field Bugetkol

Authors: A. T. Zhakiyenova, E. E. Zhatkanbaev, Zh. K. Zhatkanbaeva

Abstract:

Nickel plays an important role in mechanical engineering and creation of military equipment; practically all steel are alloyed by nickel and other metals for receiving more durable, heat-resistant, corrosion-resistant steel and cast iron. There are many ways of processing of nickel in the world. Generally, it is igneous metallurgy methods. In this article, the review of majority existing ways of technologies of processing silicate nickel - cobalt ores is considered. Leaching of ores of a field Bugetkol is investigated by solution of sulfuric acid. We defined a specific consumption of sulfuric acid in relation to the mass of ore and to the mass of metal.

Keywords: Leaching, Hydrometallurgy, Nickel, matte, cobalt, degree of extraction, igneous metallurgy

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
3 Biosorption of Gold from Chloride Media in a Simultaneous Adsorption-Reduction Process

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Yen Ning Lee

Abstract:

Conventional hydrometallurgical processing of metals involves the use of large quantities of toxic chemicals. Realizing a need to develop sustainable technologies, extensive research studies are being carried out to recover and recycle base, precious and rare earth metals from their pregnant leach solutions (PLS) using green chemicals/biomaterials prepared from biomass wastes derived from agriculture, marine and forest resources. Our innovative research showed that bio-adsorbents prepared from such biomass wastes can effectively adsorb precious metals, especially gold after conversion of their functional groups in a very simple process. The highly effective ‘Adsorption-coupled-Reduction’ phenomenon witnessed appears promising for the potential use of this gold biosorption process in the mining industry. Proper management and effective use of biomass wastes as value added green chemicals will not only reduce the volume of wastes being generated every day in our society, but will also have a high-end value to the mining and mineral processing industries as those biomaterials would be cheap, but very selective for gold recovery/recycling from low grade ore, leach residue or e-wastes.

Keywords: biomass, Sustainability, Adsorption, Reduction, Hydrometallurgy, Gold, biosorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
2 Recovery of Au and Other Metals from Old Electronic Components by Leaching and Liquid Extraction Process

Authors: Tomasz Smolinski, Irena Herdzik-Koniecko, Marta Pyszynska, M. Rogowski

Abstract:

Old electronic components can be easily found nowadays. Significant quantities of valuable metals such as gold, silver or copper are used for the production of advanced electronic devices. Old useless electronic device slowly became a new source of precious metals, very often more efficient than natural. For example, it is possible to recover more gold from 1-ton personal computers than seventeen tons of gold ore. It makes urban mining industry very profitable and necessary for sustainable development. For the recovery of metals from waste of electronic equipment, various treatment options based on conventional physical, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes are available. In this group hydrometallurgy processes with their relatively low capital cost, low environmental impact, potential for high metal recoveries and suitability for small scale applications, are very promising options. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology has great experience in hydrometallurgy processes especially focused on recovery metals from industrial and agricultural wastes. At the moment, urban mining project is carried out. The method of effective recovery of valuable metals from central processing units (CPU) components has been developed. The principal processes such as acidic leaching and solvent extraction were used for precious metals recovery from old processors and graphic cards. Electronic components were treated by acidic solution at various conditions. Optimal acid concentration, time of the process and temperature were selected. Precious metals have been extracted to the aqueous phase. At the next step, metals were selectively extracted by organic solvents such as oximes or tributyl phosphate (TBP) etc. Multistage mixer-settler equipment was used. The process was optimized.

Keywords: Leaching, Metal Recovery, Hydrometallurgy, Electronic Waste, solvent extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
1 HCl-Based Hydrometallurgical Recycling Route for Metal Recovery from Li-Ion Battery Wastes

Authors: Claudia Schier, Arvid Biallas, Bernd Friedrich

Abstract:

The demand for Li-ion-batteries owing to their benefits, such as; fast charging time, high energy density, low weight, large temperature range, and a long service life performance is increasing compared to other battery systems. These characteristics are substantial not only for battery-operated portable devices but also in the growing field of electromobility where high-performance energy storage systems in the form of batteries are highly requested. Due to the sharp rising production, there is a tremendous interest to recycle spent Li-Ion batteries in a closed-loop manner owed to the high content of valuable metals such as cobalt, manganese, and lithium as well as regarding the increasing demand for those scarce applied metals. Currently, there are just a few industrial processes using hydrometallurgical methods to recover valuable metals from Li-ion-battery waste. In this study, the extraction of valuable metals from spent Li-ion-batteries is investigated by pretreated and subsequently leached battery wastes using different precipitation methods in a comparative manner. For the extraction of lithium, cobalt, and other valuable metals, pelletized battery wastes with an initial Li content of 2.24 wt. % and cobalt of 22 wt. % is used. Hydrochloric acid with 4 mol/L is applied with 1:50 solid to liquid (s/l) ratio to generate pregnant leach solution for subsequent precipitation steps. In order to obtain pure precipitates, two different pathways (pathway 1 and pathway 2) are investigated, which differ from each other with regard to the precipitation steps carried out. While lithium carbonate recovery is the final process step in pathway 1, pathway 2 requires a preliminary removal of lithium from the process. The aim is to evaluate both processes in terms of purity and yield of the products obtained. ICP-OES is used to determine the chemical content of leach liquor as well as of the solid residue.

Keywords: Metal Recovery, Hydrometallurgy, hydrochloric acid, Li-ion-batteries

Procedia PDF Downloads 6