Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Hydrolysis Related Abstracts

18 Qualitative Characteristics of Meat from Lambs Fed Hydrolyzed Sugarcane

Authors: A. G. Silva Sobrinho, G. M. Manzi, N. L. L. Lima, F. A. Almeida, V. Endo, N. M. B. L. Zeola, L. G. A. Cirne


We used 24 Ile de France lambs, weighing between 15 and 32 kg (BW). Treatments were supplemented with concentrate: “in nature” sugarcane (IN), sugarcane hydrolyzed using 0.6% calcium oxide (CaO) under aerobic condition (AER), and sugarcane hydrolyzed using 0.6% CaO under anaerobic condition (ANA), constituting a completely randomized design with eight repetitions per treatment. Lambs were housed in individual stalls and fed into the through, allowing 10% of leftovers. Lambs were slaughtered when body weight reached 32 kg. The following parameters were determined on Longissimus lumborum muscle of hot and cold carcasses: pH and color, 45 minutes and 24 hours after slaughtering. Qualitative analysis of the meat were performed in the loins, water-holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (CL), and shear force (SF). We used a completely randomized design with three treatments and eight repetitions. Means were compared by Tukey test at 5% significance. A higher value for redness (a*) 45 minutes after slaughter (10.48) was found for lambs fed sugarcane hydrolyzed under anaerobic conditions. The other qualitative characteristics of meat were not affected by treatments (P >0.05). The comparison of meat quality resulting from the treatments shows that it is possible to feed in nature sugarcane to lambs, thus waiving hydrolyses process and the spending with alkalizing agent.

Keywords: Meat Quality, Hydrolysis, oxide

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17 Effect of Ultrasound on the Hydrolysis of Soy Oil Catalyzed by 1,3-Specific Lipase Abstract

Authors: Jamal Abd Awadallak, Thiago Olinek Reinehr, Eduardo Raizer, Deise Molinari, Edson Antonio, Camila da Silva da Silva


The hydrolysis of soy oil catalyzed by 1,3-specific enzyme (Lecitase Ultra) in a well-stirred bioreactor was studied. Two forms of applications of the ultrasound were evaluated aiming to increase reaction rates, wherein the use of probe ultrasound associated with the use of surfactant to pre-emulsify the substrate showed the best results. Two different reaction periods were found: the first where the ultrasound has great influence on reaction rates, and the second where ultrasound influence is minimal. Studies on the time of pre-emulsification, surfactant concentration and enzyme concentration showed that the initial rate of hydrolysis depends on the interfacial area between the oil phase and the aqueous phase containing the enzyme.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Hydrolysis, Free fatty acids, specific enzyme, lecitase ultra

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16 Determination of Effect Factor for Effective Parameter on Saccharification of Lignocellulosic Material by Concentrated Acid

Authors: Sina Aghili, Ali Arasteh Nodeh


Tamarisk usage as a new group of lignocelluloses material to produce fermentable sugars in bio-ethanol process was studied. The overall aim of this work was to establish the optimum condition for acid hydrolysis of this new material and a mathematical model predicting glucose release as a function of operation variable. Sulfuric acid concentration in the range of 20 to 60%(w/w), process temperature between 60 to 95oC, hydrolysis time from 120 to 240 min and solid content 5,10,15%(w/w) were used as hydrolysis conditions. HPLC was used to analysis of the product. This analysis indicated that glucose was the main fermentable sugar and was increased with time, temperature and solid content and acid concentration was a parabola influence in glucose production.The process was modeled by a quadratic equation. Curve study and model were found that 42% acid concentration, 15 % solid content and 90oC were in optimum condition.

Keywords: Wood, Hydrolysis, saccharification, fermentable sugar

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15 Process Development for the Conversion of Organic Waste into Valuable Products

Authors: Ife O. Bolaji


Environmental concerns arising from the use of fossil fuels has increased the interest in the development of renewable and sustainable sources of energy. This would minimize the dependence on fossil fuels and serve as future alternatives. Organic wastes contain carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, which can be utilised as carbon sources for the production of bio-based products. Cellulose is the most abundant natural biopolymer, being the main structural component of lignocellulosic materials. The aim of this project is to develop a biological process for the hydrolysis and fermentation of organic wastes into ethanol and organic acids. The hydrolysis and fermentation processes are integrated in a single vessel using undefined mixed culture microorganisms. The anaerobic fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose was investigated in continuous and batch reactors at 25°C with an appropriate growth medium for cellulase formation, hydrolysis, and fermentation. The reactors were inoculated with soil (B1, C1, C3) or sludge from an anaerobic digester (B2, C2) and the breakdown of cellulose was monitored by measuring the production of ethanol, organic acids and the residual cellulose. The batch reactors B1 and B2 showed negligible microbial activity due to inhibition while the continuous reactors, C1, C2 and C3, exhibited little cellulose hydrolysis which was concealed by the cellulose accumulation in the reactor. At the end of the continuous operation, the reactors C1, C2 and C3 were operated under batch conditions. 48%, 34% and 42% cellulose had been fermented by day 88, 55 and 55 respectively of the batch fermentation. Acetic acid, ethanol, propionic acid and butyric acids were the main fermentation products in the reactors. A stable concentration of 0.6 g/l ethanol and 5 g/L acetic acid was maintained in C3 for several weeks due to reduced activity of methanogens caused by the decrease in pH. Thus far, the results have demonstrated that mixed microbial culture is capable of hydrolysing and fermenting cellulose under lenient conditions. The fermentation of cellulose has been found effective in a combination of continuous and batch processes.

Keywords: Organic Waste, Hydrolysis, Mixed Culture, Cellulose

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14 High Pressure Delignification Process for Nanocrystalline Cellulose Production from Agro-Waste Biomass

Authors: Nhol Kao, Sati Bhattacharya, Rahul Gupta, Sakinul Islam


Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) has been widely used for miscellaneous applications due to its superior properties over other nanomaterials. However, the major problems associated with the production of NCC are long reaction time, low production rate and inefficient process. The mass production of NCC within a short period of time is still a great challenge. The main objective of this study is to produce NCC from rice husk agro waste biomass from a high pressure delignification process (HPDP), followed by bleaching and hydrolysis processes. The HPDP has not been explored for NCC production from rice husk biomass (RHB) until now. In order to produce NCC, powder rice husk (PRH) was placed into a stainless steel reactor at 80 ˚C under 5 bars. Aqueous solution of NaOH (4M) was used for the dissolution of lignin and other amorphous impurities from PRH. After certain experimental times (1h, 3.5h and 6h), bleaching and hydrolysis were carried out on delignified samples. NaOCl (20%) and H2SO4 (4M) solutions were used for bleaching and hydrolysis processes, respectively. The NCC suspension from hydrolysis was sonicated and neutralized by buffer solution for various characterisations. Finally NCC suspension was dried and analyzed by FTIR, XRD, SEM, AFM and TEM. The chemical composition of NCC and PRH was estimated by TAPPI (Technical Association of Pulp and Paper Industry) standard methods to observe the product purity. It was found that, the 6h of the HPDP was more efficient to produce good quality NCC than that at 1h and 3.5h due to low separation of non-cellulosic components from RHB. The analyses indicated the crystallinity of NCC to be 71 %, particle size of 20-50 nm (diameter) and 100-200 nm in length.

Keywords: Hydrolysis, Nanocrystalline cellulose, NCC, bleaching, high pressure delignification, agro-waste biomass

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13 Screening of Factors Affecting the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches in Aqueous Ionic Liquid and Locally Produced Cellulase System

Authors: Parveen Jamal, Md. Z. Alam, Amal A. Elgharbawy, Muhammad Moniruzzaman, Nassereldeen A. Kabbashi


The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is one of the obstacles in the process of sugar production, due to the presence of lignin that protects the cellulose molecules against cellulases. Although the pretreatment of lignocellulose in ionic liquid (IL) system has been receiving a lot of interest; however, it requires IL removal with an anti-solvent in order to proceed with the enzymatic hydrolysis. At this point, introducing a compatible cellulase enzyme seems more efficient in this process. A cellulase enzyme that was produced by Trichoderma reesei on palm kernel cake (PKC) exhibited a promising stability in several ILs. The enzyme called PKC-Cel was tested for its optimum pH and temperature as well as its molecular weight. One among evaluated ILs, 1,3-diethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate [DEMIM] DMP was applied in this study. Evaluation of six factors was executed in Stat-Ease Design Expert V.9, definitive screening design, which are IL/ buffer ratio, temperature, hydrolysis retention time, biomass loading, cellulase loading and empty fruit bunches (EFB) particle size. According to the obtained data, IL-enzyme system shows the highest sugar concentration at 70 °C, 27 hours, 10% IL-buffer, 35% biomass loading, 60 Units/g cellulase and 200 μm particle size. As concluded from the obtained data, not only the PKC-Cel was stable in the presence of the IL, also it was actually stable at a higher temperature than its optimum one. The reducing sugar obtained was 53.468±4.58 g/L which was equivalent to 0.3055 g reducing sugar/g EFB. This approach opens an insight for more studies in order to understand the actual effect of ILs on cellulases and their interactions in the aqueous system. It could also benefit in an efficient production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass.

Keywords: Pretreatment, Hydrolysis, cellulase, lignocellulose

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12 Production and Purification of Monosaccharides by Hydrolysis of Sugar Cane Bagasse in an Ionic Liquid Medium

Authors: T. R. Bandara, H. Jaelani, G. J. Griffin


The conversion of lignocellulosic waste materials, such as sugar cane bagasse, to biofuels such as ethanol has attracted significant interest as a potential element for transforming transport fuel supplies to totally renewable sources. However, the refractory nature of the cellulosic structure of lignocellulosic materials has impeded progress on developing an economic process, whereby the cellulose component may be effectively broken down to glucose monosaccharides and then purified to allow downstream fermentation. Ionic liquid (IL) treatment of lignocellulosic biomass has been shown to disrupt the crystalline structure of cellulose thus potentially enabling the cellulose to be more readily hydrolysed to monosaccharides. Furthermore, conventional hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials yields byproducts that are inhibitors for efficient fermentation of the monosaccharides. However, selective extraction of monosaccharides from an aqueous/IL phase into an organic phase utilizing a combination of boronic acids and quaternary amines has shown promise as a purification process. Hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse immersed in an aqueous solution with IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate) was conducted at different pH and temperature below 100 ºC. It was found that the use of a high concentration of hydrochloric acid to acidify the solution inhibited the hydrolysis of bagasse. At high pH (i.e. basic conditions), using sodium hydroxide, catalyst yields were reduced for total reducing sugars (TRS) due to the rapid degradation of the sugars formed. For purification trials, a supported liquid membrane (SLM) apparatus was constructed, whereby a synthetic solution containing xylose and glucose in an aqueous IL phase was transported across a membrane impregnated with phenyl boronic acid/Aliquat 336 to an aqueous phase. The transport rate of xylose was generally higher than that of glucose indicating that a SLM scheme may not only be useful for purifying sugars from undesirable toxic compounds, but also for fractionating sugars to improve fermentation efficiency.

Keywords: biomass, Purification, Hydrolysis, bagasse, monosaccharide, supported liquid membrane

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11 Production of Bioethanol through Hydrolysis of Agro-Industrial Banana Crop Residues

Authors: Sánchez Acuña, Juan Camilo, Granados Gómez, Mildred Magaly, Navarrete Rodríguez, Luisa Fernanda


Nowadays, the main biofuels source production as bioethanol is food crops. This means a high competition between foods and energy production. For this reason, it is necessary to take into account the use of new raw materials friendly to the environment. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential of the agro-industrial banana crop residues in the production of bioethanol. A factorial design of 24 was used, the design has variables such as pH, time and concentration of hydrolysis, another variable is the time of fermentation that is of 7 or 15 days. In the hydrolysis phase, the pH is acidic (H2SO4) or basic (NaOH), the time is 30 or 15 minutes and the concentration is 0.1 or 0.5 M. It was observed that basic media, low concentrations, fermentation, and higher pretreatment times produced better performance in terms of biofuel obtained.

Keywords: biofuels, Bioethanol, Hydrolysis, banana waste

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10 Determination of Hydrolisis Condition in the Extraction of Fatty Acids from Pinchagua's (Opisthonema libertate) Heads, a By-Product of Sardine Industry

Authors: Belen Carrillo, Mauricio Mosquera


Fatty acids are bioactive compounds widely used as nutritional supplements in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Bluefish such as sardines have a large variety of these fatty acids in their composition. The objective of this project is to extract these compounds from fishing wastes, to do this, heads of known species as Pinchagua (Opistonema libertate) were used. The conducted study represents a simplified alternative for obtaining and simultaneous saponification of oil through basic hydrolysis, which separates lipids from protein and saponifies sample all the same time to isolate the fatty acid accurately through salts formation. To do these different concentrations of sodium hydroxide were used, it was demonstrated at a concentration of 1 M the highest yield of saponified oil recovery corresponding a value of 3,64% was obtained. Subsequently, the saponified oil was subjected to an acid hydrolysis in which fatty acids were isolated. Different sulfuric acid concentrations and temperatures for the process were tested. Thus, it was shown that the great fatty acids variety were obtained at a 60 °C temperature and sulfuric acid concentration of 50% v/v. Among the obtained compounds the presence of acids such as palmitic, lauric, caproic and myristic are highlighted. Applications of this type of elements are varied and widely used in the nutritional supplements development. Thus, the described methodology proposes a simple mechanism in the revaluation of fishing industry wastes that allow directly generate high added value elements.

Keywords: Hydrolysis, Fatty Acids, Pinchagua, saponification

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9 Membrane Technologies for Obtaining Bioactive Fractions from Blood Main Protein: An Exploratory Study for Industrial Application

Authors: Fatima Arrutia, Francisco Amador Riera


The meat industry generates large volumes of blood as a result of meat processing. Several industrial procedures have been implemented in order to treat this by-product, but are focused on the production of low-value products, and in many cases, blood is simply discarded as waste. Besides, in addition to economic interests, there is an environmental concern due to bloodborne pathogens and other chemical contaminants found in blood. Consequently, there is a dire need to find extensive uses for blood that can be both applicable to industrial scale and able to yield high value-added products. Blood has been recognized as an important source of protein. The main blood serum protein in mammals is serum albumin. One of the top trends in food market is functional foods. Among them, bioactive peptides can be obtained from protein sources by microbiological fermentation or enzymatic and chemical hydrolysis. Bioactive peptides are short amino acid sequences that can have a positive impact on health when administered. The main drawback for bioactive peptide production is the high cost of the isolation, purification and characterization techniques (such as chromatography and mass spectrometry) that make unaffordable the scale-up. On the other hand, membrane technologies are very suitable to apply to the industry because they offer a very easy scale-up and are low-cost technologies, compared to other traditional separation methods. In this work, the possibility of obtaining bioactive peptide fractions from serum albumin by means of a simple procedure of only 2 steps (hydrolysis and membrane filtration) was evaluated, as an exploratory study for possible industrial application. The methodology used in this work was, firstly, a tryptic hydrolysis of serum albumin in order to release the peptides from the protein. The protein was previously subjected to a thermal treatment in order to enhance the enzyme cleavage and thus the peptide yield. Then, the obtained hydrolysate was filtered through a nanofiltration/ultrafiltration flat rig at three different pH values with two different membrane materials, so as to compare membrane performance. The corresponding permeates were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technology in order to obtain the peptide sequences present in each permeate. Finally, different concentrations of every permeate were evaluated for their in vitro antihypertensive and antioxidant activities though ACE-inhibition and DPPH radical scavenging tests. The hydrolysis process with the previous thermal treatment allowed achieving a degree of hydrolysis of the 49.66% of the maximum possible. It was found that peptides were best transmitted to the permeate stream at pH values that corresponded to their isoelectric points. Best selectivity between peptide groups was achieved at basic pH values. Differences in peptide content were found between membranes and also between pH values for the same membrane. The antioxidant activity of all permeates was high compared with the control only for the highest dose. However, antihypertensive activity was best for intermediate concentrations, rather than higher or lower doses. Therefore, although differences between them, all permeates were promising regarding antihypertensive and antioxidant properties.

Keywords: Hydrolysis, Bioactive Peptides, bovine serum albumin, membrane filtration

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8 Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Sugar Cane Bagasse Using Recombinant Hemicellulases

Authors: Lorena C. Cintra, Izadora M. De Oliveira, Amanda G. Fernandes, Francieli Colussi, Rosália S. A. Jesuíno, Fabrícia P. Faria, Cirano J. Ulhoa


Xylan is the main component of hemicellulose and for its complete degradation is required cooperative action of a system consisting of several enzymes including endo-xylanases (XYN), β-xylosidases (XYL) and α-L-arabinofuranosidases (ABF). The recombinant hemicellulolytic enzymes an endoxylanase (HXYN2), β-xylosidase (HXYLA), and an α-L-arabinofuranosidase (ABF3) were used in hydrolysis tests. These three enzymes are produced by filamentous fungi and were expressed heterologously and produced in Pichia pastoris previously. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of recombinant hemicellulolytic enzymes on the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). The interaction between the three recombinant enzymes during SCB pre-treated by steam explosion hydrolysis was performed with different concentrations of HXYN2, HXYLA and ABF3 in different ratios in according to a central composite rotational design (CCRD) 23, including six axial points and six central points, totaling 20 assays. The influence of the factors was assessed by analyzing the main effects and interaction between the factors, calculated using Statistica 8.0 software (StatSoft Inc. Tulsa, OK, USA). The Pareto chart was constructed with this software and showed the values of the Student’s t test for each recombinant enzyme. It was considered as response variable the quantification of reducing sugars by DNS (mg/mL). The Pareto chart showed that the recombinant enzyme ABF3 exerted more significant effect during SCB hydrolysis, with higher concentrations and with the lowest concentration of this enzyme. It was performed analysis of variance according to Fisher method (ANOVA). In ANOVA for the release of reducing sugars (mg/ml) as the variable response, the concentration of ABF3 showed significance during hydrolysis SCB. The result obtained by ANOVA, is in accordance with those presented in the analysis method based on the statistical Student's t (Pareto chart). The degradation of the central chain of xylan by HXYN2 and HXYLA was more strongly influenced by ABF3 action. A model was obtained, and it describes the performance of the interaction of all three enzymes for the release of reducing sugars, and can be used to better explain the results of the statistical analysis. The formulation capable of releasing the higher levels of reducing sugars had the following concentrations: HXYN2 with 600 U/g of substrate, HXYLA with 11.5 U.g-1 and ABF3 with 0.32 U.g-1. In conclusion, the recombinant enzyme that has a more significant effect during SCB hydrolysis was ABF3. It is noteworthy that the xylan present in the SCB is arabinoglucoronoxylan, due to this fact debranching enzymes are important to allow access of enzymes that act on the central chain.

Keywords: Experimental Design, Hydrolysis, recombinant enzymes, sugar cane bagasse

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7 Quantum Chemical Prediction of Standard Formation Enthalpies of Uranyl Nitrates and Its Degradation Products

Authors: Laurent Cantrel, Mohamad Saab, Florent Real, Francois Virot, Valerie Vallet


All spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants use the PUREX process (Plutonium Uranium Refining by Extraction), which is a liquid-liquid extraction method. The organic extracting solvent is a mixture of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and hydrocarbon solvent such as hydrogenated tetra-propylene (TPH). By chemical complexation, uranium and plutonium (from spent fuel dissolved in nitric acid solution), are separated from fission products and minor actinides. During a normal extraction operation, uranium is extracted in the organic phase as the UO₂(NO₃)₂(TBP)₂ complex. The TBP solvent can form an explosive mixture called red oil when it comes in contact with nitric acid. The formation of this unstable organic phase originates from the reaction between TBP and its degradation products on the one hand, and nitric acid, its derivatives and heavy metal nitrate complexes on the other hand. The decomposition of the red oil can lead to violent explosive thermal runaway. These hazards are at the origin of several accidents such as the two in the United States in 1953 and 1975 (Savannah River) and, more recently, the one in Russia in 1993 (Tomsk). This raises the question of the exothermicity of reactions that involve TBP and all other degradation products, and calls for a better knowledge of the underlying chemical phenomena. A simulation tool (Alambic) is currently being developed at IRSN that integrates thermal and kinetic functions related to the deterioration of uranyl nitrates in organic and aqueous phases, but not of the n-butyl phosphate. To include them in the modeling scheme, there is an urgent need to obtain the thermodynamic and kinetic functions governing the deterioration processes in liquid phase. However, little is known about the thermodynamic properties, like standard enthalpies of formation, of the n-butyl phosphate molecules and of the UO₂(NO₃)₂(TBP)₂ UO₂(NO₃)₂(HDBP)(TBP) and UO₂(NO₃)₂(HDBP)₂ complexes. In this work, we propose to estimate the thermodynamic properties with Quantum Methods (QM). Thus, in the first part of our project, we focused on the mono, di, and tri-butyl complexes. Quantum chemical calculations have been performed to study several reactions leading to the formation of mono-(H₂MBP), di-(HDBP), and TBP in gas and liquid phases. In the gas phase, the optimal structures of all species were optimized using the B3LYP density functional. Triple-ζ def2-TZVP basis sets were used for all atoms. All geometries were optimized in the gas-phase, and the corresponding harmonic frequencies were used without scaling to compute the vibrational partition functions at 298.15 K and 0.1 Mpa. Accurate single point energies were calculated using the efficient localized LCCSD(T) method to the complete basis set limit. Whenever species in the liquid phase are considered, solvent effects are included with the COSMO-RS continuum model. The standard enthalpies of formation of TBP, HDBP, and H2MBP are finally predicted with an uncertainty of about 15 kJ mol⁻¹. In the second part of this project, we have investigated the fundamental properties of three organic species that mostly contribute to the thermal runaway: UO₂(NO₃)₂(TBP)₂, UO₂(NO₃)₂(HDBP)(TBP), and UO₂(NO₃)₂(HDBP)₂ using the same quantum chemical methods that were used for TBP and its derivatives in both the gas and the liquid phase. We will discuss the structures and thermodynamic properties of all these species.

Keywords: Hydrolysis, PUREX process, red oils, quantum chemical methods

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6 Kinetics Analysis of Lignocellulose Hydrolysis and Glucose Consumption Using Aspergillus niger in Solid State

Authors: Wahyudi Budi Sediawan, Akida Mulyaningtyas


One decisive stage in bioethanol production from plant biomass is the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials into simple sugars such as glucose. The produced glucose is then fermented into ethanol. This stage is popularly done in biological method by using cellulase that is produced by certain fungi. As it is known, glucose is the main source of nutrition for most microorganisms. Therefore, cutting cellulose into glucose is actually an attempt of microorganism to provide nutrition for itself. So far, this phenomenon has received less attention while it is necessary to identify the quantity of sugar consumed by the microorganism. In this study, we examined the phenomenon of sugar consumption by microorganism on lignocellulosic hydrolysis. We used oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) as the source of lignocellulose and Aspergillus niger as cellulase-producing fungus. In Indonesia, OPEFB is plantation waste that is difficult to decompose in nature and causes environmental problems. First, OPEFB was pretreated with 1% of NaOH at 170 oC to destroy lignin that hindered A.niger from accessing cellulose. The hydrolysis was performed by growing A.niger on pretreated OPEFB in solid state to minimize the possibility of contamination. The produced glucose was measured every 24 hours for 9 days. We analyzed the kinetics of both reactions, i.e., hydrolysis and glucose consumption, simultaneously. The constants for both reactions were assumed to follow the Monod equation. The results showed that the reaction constant of glucose consumption (μC) was higher than of cellulose hydrolysis (μH), i.e., 11.8 g/L and 0.62 g/L for glucose consumption and hydrolysis respectively. However, in general, the reaction rate of hydrolysis is greater than of glucose consumption since the cellulose concentration as substrate in hydrolysis is much higher than glucose as substrate in the consumption reaction.

Keywords: Kinetics, Bioethanol, Hydrolysis, Aspergillus niger

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5 Identification of Fluorinated Methylsiloxanes in Environmental Matrices Near a Manufacturing Plant in Eastern China

Authors: Lin Xu, Liqin Zhi, Wenxia Wei, Yaqi Cai


Recently, replacing some of the methyl groups in polydimethylsiloxanes with other functional groups has been extensively explored to obtain modified polymethylsiloxanes with special properties that enable new industrial applications. Fluorinated polysiloxanes, one type of these modified polysiloxanes, are based on a siloxane backbone with fluorinated groups attached to the side chains of polysiloxanes. As a commercially significant material, poly[methyl(trifluoropropyl)siloxane] (PMTFPS) has sufficient fluorine content to be useful as a fuel-and oil-resistant elastomer, which combines both the chemical and solvent resistance of fluorocarbons and the wide temperature range applicability of organosilicones. PMTFPS products can be used in many applications in which resistance to fuel, oils and hydrocarbon solvents is required, including use as lubricants in bearings, sealants, and elastomers for aerospace and automotive fuel systems. Fluorinated methylsiloxanes, a type of modified methylsiloxane, include tris(trifluoropropyl)trimethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3F) and tetrakis(trifluoropropyl)tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4F), both of which contain trifluoropropyl groups in the side chains of cyclic methylsiloxanes. D3F, as an important monomer in the manufacture of PMTFPS, is often present as an impurity in PMTFPS. In addition, the synthesis of PMTFPS from D3F could form other fluorinated methylsiloxanes with low molecular weights (such as D4F). The yearly demand and production volumes of D3F increased rapidly all over world. Fluorinated methylsiloxanes might be released into the environment via different pathways during the production and application of PMTFPS. However, there is a lack of data concerning the emission, environmental occurrence and potential environmental impacts of fluorinated methylsiloxanes. Here, we report fluorinated methylsiloxanes (D3F and D4F) in surface water and sediment samples collected near a fluorinated methylsiloxane manufacturing plant in Weihai, China. The concentrations of D3F and D4F in surface water ranged from 3.29 to 291 ng/L and from 7.02 to 168 ng/L, respectively. The concentrations of D3F and D4F in sediment ranged from 11.8 to 5478 ng/g and from 17.2 to 6277 ng/g, respectively. In simulation experiment, the half-lives of D3F and D4F at different pH values (5.2, 6.4, 7.2, 8.3 and 9.2) varied from 80.6 to 154 h and from 267 to 533 h respectively. CF₃(CH₂)₂MeSi(OH)₂ was identified as one of the main hydrolysis products of fluorinated methylsiloxanes. It was also detected in the river samples at concentrations of 72.1-182.9 ng/L. In addition, the slow rearrangement of D3F (spiked concentration = 500 ng/L) to D4F (concentration = 11.0-22.7 ng/L) was also found during 336h hydrolysis experiment.

Keywords: Hydrolysis, Sediment, fluorinated methylsiloxanes, environmental matrices

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4 Optimization of Alkali Assisted Microwave Pretreatments of Sorghum Straw for Efficient Bioethanol Production

Authors: Partha Roy, Chandrajit Balomajumder, Bahiru Tsegaye


The limited supply and related negative environmental consequence of fossil fuels are driving researcher for finding sustainable sources of energy. Lignocellulose biomass like sorghum straw is considered as among cheap, renewable and abundantly available sources of energy. However, lignocellulose biomass conversion to bioenergy like bioethanol is hindered due to the reluctant nature of lignin in the biomass. Therefore, removal of lignin is a vital step for lignocellulose conversion to renewable energy. The aim of this study is to optimize microwave pretreatment conditions using design expert software to remove lignin and to release maximum possible polysaccharides from sorghum straw for efficient hydrolysis and fermentation process. Sodium hydroxide concentration between 0.5-1.5%, v/v, pretreatment time from 5-25 minutes and pretreatment temperature from 120-2000C were considered to depolymerize sorghum straw. The effect of pretreatment was studied by analyzing the compositional changes before and after pretreatments following renewable energy laboratory procedure. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the significance of the model used for optimization. About 32.8%-48.27% of hemicellulose solubilization, 53% -82.62% of cellulose release, and 49.25% to 78.29% lignin solubilization were observed during microwave pretreatment. Pretreatment for 10 minutes with alkali concentration of 1.5% and temperature of 1400C released maximum cellulose and lignin. At this optimal condition, maximum of 82.62% of cellulose release and 78.29% of lignin removal was achieved. Sorghum straw at optimal pretreatment condition was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The efficiency of hydrolysis was measured by analyzing reducing sugars by 3, 5 dinitrisylicylic acid method. Reducing sugars of about 619 mg/g of sorghum straw were obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis. This study showed a significant amount of lignin removal and cellulose release at optimal condition. This enhances the yield of reducing sugars as well as ethanol yield. The study demonstrates the potential of microwave pretreatments for enhancing bioethanol yield from sorghum straw.

Keywords: Optimization, Hydrolysis, Cellulose, lignocellulose

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3 Impact of Corn Gluten Hydrolysate on Seedling Growth

Authors: Dinesh Goyal, Jyotika Chopra


A study was initiated to examine the effects of corn gluten hydrolysate on seedlings growth and its development. Corn gluten is the byproduct of starch industry rich in proteins was hydrolysed by acid and alkali, and the impact of hydrolysate was studied on seed germination of Vigna radiata, Phaseolus vulagris (Fabaceae) and Triticum aestivum and Oryza sativa (Gramineae). For this, the optimum hydrolysis was obtained by 4NHCl and 4M NaOH where insoluble protein in gluten was broken down to glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid which was initially confirmed by biuret test, xanthoproteic, solubility and chromatographic tests. The seeds of above families were separately treated with different dilutions of corn gluten hydrolysate ranging from 1-100% to see effects produced by these dilutions on seed germination, plumule, and radical growth. The seedlings were put in the Petri plates and placed in the optimized conditions of temperature (37˚C) and photoperiod of 16:8 hours. The results indicate the plumule of all seeds shows the increase in growth pattern up to 25.75%. Whereas radical shows the increase in growth up to 25.88% till 10% of dilution of corn and wheat gluten hydrolysate with respect to water as blank. Further, there is decrease in growth from 30- 100% of dilutions of both, the hydrolysate indicates the inhibitory effects which unveil about the careful usage of gluten hydrolysate.

Keywords: Characterization, Hydrolysis, seedling growth, corn gluten

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2 Modelling and Simulation of Bioethanol Production from Food Waste Using CHEMCAD Software

Authors: Tumisang Seodigeng, Hilary Rutto, Kgomotso Matobole, Noluzuko Monakali


On a global scale, there is an alarming generation of food waste. Food waste is generated across the food supply chain. Worldwide urbanization, as well as global economic growth, have contributed to this amount of food waste the environment is receiving. Food waste normally ends on illegal dumping sites when not properly disposed, or disposed to landfills. This results in environmental pollution due to inadequate waste management practices. Food waste is rich in organic matter and highly biodegradable; hence, it can be utilized for the production of bioethanol, a type of biofuel. In so doing, alternative energy will be created, and the volumes of food waste will be reduced in the process. This results in food waste being seen as a precious commodity in energy generation instead of a pollutant. The main aim of the project was to simulate a biorefinery, using a software called CHEMCAD 7.12. The resulting purity of the ethanol from the simulation was 98.9%, with the feed ratio of 1: 2 for food waste and water. This was achieved by integrating necessary unit operations and optimisation of their operating conditions.

Keywords: Simulation, Modelling, Fermentation, Bioethanol, Hydrolysis, Food Waste

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1 Treatment with Triton-X 100: An Enhancement Approach for Cardboard Bioprocessing

Authors: Ahlam Said Al Azkawi, Nallusamy Sivakumar, Saif Nasser Al Bahri


Diverse approaches and pathways are under development with the determination to develop cellulosic biofuels and other bio-products eventually at commercial scale in “bio-refineries”; however, the key challenge is mainly the high level of complexity in processing the feedstock which is complicated and energy consuming. To overcome the complications in utilizing the naturally occurring lignocellulose biomass, using waste paper as a feedstock for bio-production may solve the problem. Besides being abundant and cheap, bioprocessing of waste paper has evolved in response to the public concern from rising landfill cost from shrinking landfill capacity. Cardboard (CB) is one of the major components of municipal solid waste and one of the most important items to recycle. Although 50-70% of cardboard constitute is known to be cellulose and hemicellulose, the presence of lignin around them cause hydrophobic cross-link which physically obstructs the hydrolysis by rendering it resistant to enzymatic cleavage. Therefore, pretreatment is required to disrupt this resistance and to enhance the exposure of the targeted carbohydrates to the hydrolytic enzymes. Several pretreatment approaches have been explored, and the best ones would be those can influence cellulose conversion rates and hydrolytic enzyme performance with minimal or less cost and downstream processes. One of the promising strategies in this field is the application of surfactants, especially non-ionic surfactants. In this study, triton-X 100 was used as surfactants to treat cardboard prior enzymatic hydrolysis and compare it with acid treatment using 0.1% H2SO4. The effect of the surfactant enhancement was evaluated through its effect on hydrolysis rate in respect to time in addition to evaluating the structural changes and modification by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and through compositional analysis. Further work was performed to produce ethanol from CB treated with triton-X 100 via separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The hydrolysis studies have demonstrated enhancement in saccharification by 35%. After 72 h of hydrolysis, a saccharification rate of 98% was achieved from CB enhanced with triton-X 100, while only 89 of saccharification achieved from acid pre-treated CB. At 120 h, the saccharification % exceeded 100 as reducing sugars continued to increase with time. This enhancement was not supported by any significant changes in the cardboard content as the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content remained same after treatment, but obvious structural changes were observed through SEM images. The cellulose fibers were clearly exposed with very less debris and deposits compared to cardboard without triton-X 100. The XRD pattern has also revealed the ability of the surfactant in removing calcium carbonate, a filler found in waste paper known to have negative effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. The cellulose crystallinity without surfactant was 73.18% and reduced to 66.68% rendering it more amorphous and susceptible to enzymatic attack. Triton-X 100 has proved to effectively enhance CB hydrolysis and eventually had positive effect on the ethanol yield via SSF. Treating cardboard with only triton-X 100 was a sufficient treatment to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production.

Keywords: Enhancement, treatment, Ethanol, Hydrolysis, cardboard, Triton-X 100

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