Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

hydrogenation Related Abstracts

6 Hydrogen Storage in Carbonized Coconut Meat (Kernel)

Authors: Viney Dixit, Rohit R. Shahi, Ashish Bhatnagar, P. Jain, T. P. Yadav, O. N. Srivastava


Carbons are being widely investigated as hydrogen storage material owing to their light weight, fast hydrogen absorption kinetics and low cost. However, these materials suffer from low hydrogen storage capacity at room temperature. The aim of the present study is to synthesize carbon based material which shows moderate hydrogen storage at room temperature. For this purpose, hydrogenation characteristics of natural precursor coconut kernel is studied in this work. The hydrogen storage measurement reveals that the as-synthesized materials have good hydrogen adsorption and desorption capacity with fast kinetics. The synthesized material absorbs 8 wt.% of hydrogen at liquid nitrogen temperature and 2.3 wt.% at room temperature. This could be due to the presence of certain elements (KCl, Mg, Ca) which are confirmed by TEM.

Keywords: hydrogenation, carbonization, coconut kernel, KCl

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5 The Catalytic Properties of PtSn/Al2O3 for Acetic Acid Hydrogenation

Authors: Mingchuan Zhou, Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying, Haitao Zhang


Alumina supported platinum and tin catalysts with different loadings of Pt and Sn were prepared and characterized by low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption, H2-temperature programed reduction and CO pulse chemisorption. Pt and Sn below 1% loading were suitable for acetic acid hydrogenation. The best performance over 0.75Pt1Sn/Al2O3 can reach 87.55% conversion of acetic acid and 47.39% selectivity of ethanol. The operating conditions of acetic acid hydrogenation over 1Pt1Sn/Al2O3 were investigated. High reaction temperature can enhance the conversion of acetic acid, but it decreased total selectivity of ethanol and acetyl acetate. High pressure and low weight hourly space velocity were beneficial to both conversion of acetic acid and selectivity to ethanol.

Keywords: hydrogenation, operating condition, acetic acid, PtSn

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4 Nitrate Photoremoval in Water Using Nanocatalysts Based on Ag / Pt over TiO2

Authors: Ana M. Antolín, Sandra Contreras, Francesc Medina, Didier Tichit


Introduction: High levels of nitrates (> 50 ppm NO3-) in drinking water are potentially risky to human health. In the recent years, the trend of nitrate concentration in groundwater is rising in the EU and other countries. Conventional catalytic nitrate reduction processes into N2 and H2O lead to some toxic intermediates and by-products, such as NO2-, NH4+, and NOx gases. Alternatively, photocatalytic nitrate removal using solar irradiation and heterogeneous catalysts is a very promising and ecofriendly technique. It has been scarcely performed and more research on highly efficient catalysts is still needed. In this work, different nanocatalysts supported on Aeroxide Titania P25 (P25) have been prepared varying: 0.5-4 % wt. Ag); Pt (2, 4 % wt.); Pt precursor (H2PtCl6/K2PtCl6); and impregnation order of both metals. Pt was chosen in order to increase the selectivity to N2 and decrease that to NO2-. Catalysts were characterized by nitrogen physisorption, X-Ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy, TEM and X Ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The aim was to determine the influence of the composition and the preparation method of the catalysts on the conversion and selectivity in the nitrate reduction, as well as going through an overall and better understanding of the process. Nanocatalysts synthesis: For the mono and bimetallic catalysts preparation, wise-drop wetness impregnation of the precursors (AgNO3, H2PtCl6, K2PtCl6) followed by a reduction step (NaBH4) was used to obtain the metal colloids. Results and conclusions: Denitration experiments were performed in a 350 mL PTFE batch reactor under inert standard operational conditions, ultraviolet irradiations (λ=254 nm (UV-C); λ=365 nm (UV-A)), and presence/absence of hydrogen gas as a reducing agent, contrary to most studies using oxalic or formic acid. Samples were analyzed by Ionic Chromatography. Blank experiments using respectively P25 (dark conditions), hydrogen only and UV irradiations without hydrogen demonstrated a clear influence of the presence of hydrogen on nitrate reduction. Also, they demonstrated that UV irradiation increased the selectivity to N2. Interestingly, the best activity was obtained under ultraviolet lamps, especially at a closer wavelength to visible light irradiation (λ = 365 nm) and H2. 2% Ag/P25 leaded to the highest NO3- conversion among the monometallic catalysts. However, nitrite quantities have to be diminished. On the other hand, practically no nitrate conversion was observed with the monometallics based on Pt/P25. Therefore, the amount of 2% Ag was chosen for the bimetallic catalysts. Regarding the bimetallic catalysts, it is observed that the metal impregnation order, amount and Pt precursor highly affects the results. Higher selectivity to the desirable N2 gas is obtained when Pt was firstly added, especially with K2PtCl6 as Pt precursor. This suggests that when Pt is secondly added, it covers the Ag particles, which are the most active in this reaction. It could be concluded that Ag allows the nitrate reduction step to nitrite, and Pt the nitrite reduction step toward the desirable N2 gas.

Keywords: photocatalysis, heterogeneous catalysis, hydrogenation, nitrate removal, nanocatalyst

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3 Continuous Catalytic Hydrogenation and Purification for Synthesis Non-Phthalate

Authors: Chia-Ling Li


The scope of this article includes the production of 10,000 metric tons of non-phthalate per annum. The production process will include hydrogenation, separation, purification, and recycling of unprocessed feedstock. Based on experimental data, conversion and selectivity were chosen as reaction model parameters. The synthesis and separation processes of non-phthalate and phthalate were established by using Aspen Plus software. The article will be divided into six parts: estimation of physical properties, integration of production processes, purification case study, utility consumption, economic feasibility study and identification of bottlenecks. The purities of products was higher than 99.9 wt. %. Process parameters have important guiding significance to the commercialization of hydrogenation of phthalate.

Keywords: Economic analysis, hydrogenation, Process Simulation, non-phthalate

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2 Acoustic Emission for Investigation of Processes Occurring at Hydrogenation of Metallic Titanium

Authors: Valery V. Mokrushin, Maxim V. Tsarev, Anatoly A. Kuznetsov, Pavel G. Berezhko, Sergey M. Kunavin, Eugeny V. Zhilkin, Vyacheslav V. Yaroshenko, Olga Y. Yunchina, Sergey A. Mityashin


The acoustic emission is caused by short-time propagation of elastic waves that are generated as a result of quick energy release from sources localized inside some material. In particular, the acoustic emission phenomenon lies in the generation of acoustic waves resulted from the reconstruction of material internal structures. This phenomenon is observed at various physicochemical transformations, in particular, at those accompanying hydrogenation processes of metals or intermetallic compounds that make it possible to study parameters of these transformations through recording and analyzing the acoustic signals. It has been known that at the interaction between metals or inter metallides with hydrogen the most intensive acoustic signals are generated as a result of cracking or crumbling of an initial compact powder sample as a result of the change of material crystal structure under hydrogenation. This work is dedicated to the study into changes occurring in metallic titanium samples at their interaction with hydrogen and followed by acoustic emission signals. In this work the subjects for investigation were specimens of metallic titanium in two various initial forms: titanium sponge and fine titanium powder made of this sponge. The kinetic of the interaction of these materials with hydrogen, the acoustic emission signals accompanying hydrogenation processes and the structure of the materials before and after hydrogenation were investigated. It was determined that in both cases interaction of metallic titanium and hydrogen is followed by acoustic emission signals of high amplitude generated on reaching some certain value of the atomic ratio [H]/[Ti] in a solid phase because of metal cracking at a macrolevel. The typical sizes of the cracks are comparable with particle sizes of hydrogenated specimens. The reasons for cracking are internal stresses initiated in a sample due to the increasing volume of a solid phase as a result of changes in a material crystal lattice under hydrogenation. When the titanium powder is used, the atomic ratio [H]/[Ti] in a solid phase corresponding to the maximum amplitude of an acoustic emission signal are, as a rule, higher than when titanium sponge is used.

Keywords: cracking, hydrogenation, acoustic emission signal, titanium specimen

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1 Analysis of Reduced Mechanisms for Premixed Combustion of Methane/Hydrogen/Propane/Air Flames in Geometrically Modified Combustor and Its Effects on Flame Properties

Authors: E. Salem


Combustion has been used for a long time as a means of energy extraction. However, in recent years, there has been a further increase in air pollution, through pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, acid etc. In order to solve this problem, there is a need to reduce carbon and nitrogen oxides through learn burning modifying combustors and fuel dilution. A numerical investigation has been done to investigate the effectiveness of several reduced mechanisms in terms of computational time and accuracy, for the combustion of the hydrocarbons/air or diluted with hydrogen in a micro combustor. The simulations were carried out using the ANSYS Fluent 19.1. To validate the results “PREMIX and CHEMKIN” codes were used to calculate 1D premixed flame based on the temperature, composition of burned and unburned gas mixtures. Numerical calculations were carried for several hydrocarbons by changing the equivalence ratios and adding small amounts of hydrogen into the fuel blends then analyzing the flammable limit, the reduction in NOx and CO emissions, then comparing it to experimental data. By solving the conservations equations, several global reduced mechanisms (2-9-12) were obtained. These reduced mechanisms were simulated on a 2D cylindrical tube with dimensions of 40 cm in length and 2.5 cm diameter. The mesh of the model included a proper fine quad mesh, within the first 7 cm of the tube and around the walls. By developing a proper boundary layer, several simulations were performed on hydrocarbon/air blends to visualize the flame characteristics than were compared with experimental data. Once the results were within acceptable range, the geometry of the combustor was modified through changing the length, diameter, adding hydrogen by volume, and changing the equivalence ratios from lean to rich in the fuel blends, the results on flame temperature, shape, velocity and concentrations of radicals and emissions were observed. It was determined that the reduced mechanisms provided results within an acceptable range. The variation of the inlet velocity and geometry of the tube lead to an increase of the temperature and CO2 emissions, highest temperatures were obtained in lean conditions (0.5-0.9) equivalence ratio. Addition of hydrogen blends into combustor fuel blends resulted in; reduction in CO and NOx emissions, expansion of the flammable limit, under the condition of having same laminar flow, and varying equivalence ratio with hydrogen additions. The production of NO is reduced because the combustion happens in a leaner state and helps in solving environmental problems.

Keywords: hydrogenation, combustor, equivalence-ratio, premixed flames

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