Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

hydrogen sulphide Related Abstracts

5 Methods for Mitigating Corrosion Caused by Biogenic Sulfuric Acid in Sewerage Systems: State of the Art Review

Authors: M. Cortés, E. Vera, M. Avella

Abstract:

Corrosion is an imminent process in nature, which affects all types of materials. In sewerage systems, the corrosion process caused by microorganisms, also known as biogenic sulfuric acid attack, has been studied. This affects the structural integrity of the concrete drainage pipes and the sewage treatment plants. This article is a review of research which focuses on the study of how to reduce the production of hydrogen sulfide, how to improve the resistance of concrete through the use of additives and the implementation of antimicrobial techniques to reduce bacterial growth.

Keywords: Concrete, Nano Materials, Corrosion, zeolites, bactericides, biogenic sulfuric acid, hydrogen sulphide

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4 Quantification of Hydrogen Sulfide and Methyl Mercaptan in Air Samples from a Waste Management Facilities

Authors: R. F. Vieira, S. A. Figueiredo, V. F. Domingues, C. Delerue-matos, O. M. Freitas

Abstract:

The presence of sulphur compounds like hydrogen sulphide and mercaptans is one of the reasons for waste-water treatment and waste management being associated with odour emissions. In this context having a quantifying method for these compounds helps in the optimization of treatment with the goal of their elimination, namely biofiltration processes. The aim of this study was the development of a method for quantification of odorous gases in waste treatment plants air samples. A method based on head space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography - flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) was used to analyse H2S and Metil Mercaptan (MM). The extraction was carried out with a 75-μm Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fiber coating at 22 ºC for 20 min, and analysed by a GC 2010 Plus A from Shimadzu with a sulphur filter detector: splitless mode (0.3 min), the column temperature program was from 60 ºC, increased by 15 ºC/min to 100 ºC (2 min). The injector temperature was held at 250 ºC, and the detector at 260 ºC. For calibration curve a gas diluter equipment (digital Hovagas G2 - Multi Component Gas Mixer) was used to do the standards. This unit had two input connections, one for a stream of the dilute gas and another for a stream of nitrogen and an output connected to a glass bulb. A 40 ppm H2S and a 50 ppm MM cylinders were used. The equipment was programmed to the selected concentration, and it automatically carried out the dilution to the glass bulb. The mixture was left flowing through the glass bulb for 5 min and then the extremities were closed. This method allowed the calibration between 1-20 ppm for H2S and 0.02-0.1 ppm and 1-3.5 ppm for MM. Several quantifications of air samples from inlet and outlet of a biofilter operating in a waste management facility in the north of Portugal allowed the evaluation the biofilters performance.

Keywords: Quantification, Biofiltration, hydrogen sulphide, mercaptans

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3 Monitoring CO2 and H2S Emission in Live Austrian and UK Concrete Sewer Pipes

Authors: Anna Romanova, Morteza A. Alani

Abstract:

Corrosion of concrete sewer pipes induced by sulfuric acid is an acknowledged problem and a ticking time-bomb to sewer operators. Whilst the chemical reaction of the corrosion process is well-understood, the indirect roles of other parameters in the corrosion process which are found in sewer environment are not highly reflected on. This paper reports on a field studies undertaken in Austria and United Kingdom, where the parameters of temperature, pH, H2S and CO2 were monitored over a period of time. The study establishes that (i) effluent temperature and pH have similar daily pattern and peak times, When examined in minutes scale, (ii) H2S and CO2 have an identical hourly pattern, (iii) H2S instant or shifted relation to effluent temperature is governed by the root mean square value of CO2.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, concrete corrosion, sewer pipe, hydrogen sulphide, sulfuric acid

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2 Evaluation of the Spatial Regulation of Hydrogen Sulphide Producing Enzymes in the Placenta during Labour

Authors: F. Saleh, F. Lyall, A. Abdulsid, L. Marks

Abstract:

Background: Labour in human is a complex biological process that involves interactions of neurological, hormonal and inflammatory pathways, with the placenta being a key regulator of these pathways. It is known that uterine contractions and labour pain cause physiological changes in gene expression in maternal and fetal blood, and in placenta during labour. Oxidative and inflammatory stress pathways are implicated in labour and they may cause alteration of placental gene expression. Additionally, in placental tissues, labour increases the expression of genes involved in placental oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, angiogenic regulators and apoptosis. Recently, Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) has been considered as an endogenous gaseous mediator which promotes vasodilation and exhibits cytoprotective anti-inflammatory properties. The endogenous H2S is synthesised predominantly by two enzymes: cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE). As the H2S pathway has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory characteristics thus, we hypothesised that the expression of CBS and CSE in placental tissues would alter during labour. Methods: CBS and CSE expressions were examined in placentas using western blotting and RT-PCR in inner, middle and outer placental zones in placentas obtained from healthy non labouring women who delivered by caesarian section. These were compared with the equivalent zone of placentas obtained from women who had uncomplicated labour and delivered vaginally. Results: No differences in CBS and CSE mRNA or protein levels were found between the different sites within placentas in either the labour or non-labour group. There were no significant differences in either CBS or CSE expression between the two groups at the inner site and middle site. However, at the outer site there was a highly significant decrease in CBS protein expression in the labour group when compared to the non-labour group (p = 0.002). Conclusion: To the best of author’s knowledge, this is the first report to suggest that, CBS is expressed in a spatial manner within the human placenta. Further work is needed to clarify the precise function and mechanism of this spatial regulation although it is likely that inflammatory pathways regulation is a complex process in which this plays a role.

Keywords: Labour, Oxidative Stress, Anti-Inflammatory, hydrogen sulphide

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1 Application of Nitric Acid Modified Cocos nucifera, Pennisetum glaucum and Sorghum bicolor Activated Carbon for Adsorption of H₂S Gas

Authors: Z. N. Ali, O. A. Babatunde, S. Garba, H. M. S. Haruna

Abstract:

The potency of modified and unmodified activated carbons prepared from shells of Cocos nucifera (coconut shell), straws of Pennisetum glaucum (millet) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) for adsorption of hydrogen sulphide gas were investigated using an adsorption apparatus (stainless steel cylinder) at constant temperature (ambient temperature). The adsorption equilibria states were obtained when the pressure indicated on the pressure gauge remained constant. After modification with nitric acid, results of the scanning electron microscopy of the unmodified and modified activated carbons showed that HNO3 greatly improved the formation of micropores and mesopores on the activated carbon surface. The adsorption of H2S gas was found to be highest in modified Cocos nucifera activated carbon with maximum monolayer coverage of 28.17 mg/g, and the adsorption processes were both physical and chemical with the physical process being predominant. The adsorption data were well fitted into the Langmuir isotherm model with the adsorption capacities of the activated carbons in the order modified Cocos nucifera > modified Pennisetum glaucum > modified Sorghum bicolor > unmodified Cocos nucifera > unmodified Pennisetum glaucum > unmodified Sorghum bicolour.

Keywords: Modification, hydrogen sulphide, activated carbon adsorption, nitric acid, stainless steel cylinder

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