Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Hydraulic Conductivity Related Abstracts

13 Corellation between Soil Electrical Resistivity and Metal Corrosion Based on Soil Types for Structure Designs

Authors: L. O. A. Oyinkanola, J.A. Fajemiroye

Abstract:

Soil resistivity measurements are an important parameter employed in the designing earthing installations. Thus, The knowledge of soil resistivity with respect to how it varies with related parameters such as moisture content, Temperature and depth at the intended site is very vital to determine how the desired earth resistance value can be attained and sustained over the life of the installation with the lowest cost and effort. The relationship between corrosion and soil resistivity has been investigated in this work. Varios soil samples: Sand, Gravel, Loam, Clay and Silt were collected from different spot within the vicinity.

Keywords: Corrosion, Hydraulic Conductivity, Clay, resistivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
12 Modeling the Performance of Natural Sand-Bentonite Barriers after Infiltration with Polar and Non-Polar Hydrocarbon Leachates

Authors: Altayeb Qasem, Mousa Bani Baker, Amani Nawafleh

Abstract:

The complexity of the sand-bentonite liner barrier system calls for an adequate model that reflects the conditions depending on the barrier materials and the characteristics of the permeates which lead to hydraulic conductivity changes when liners infiltrated with polar, no-polar, miscible and immiscible liquids. This paper is dedicated to developing a model for evaluating the hydraulic conductivity in the form of a simple indicator for the compatibility of the liner versus leachate. Based on two liner compositions (95% sand: 5% bentonite; and 90% sand: 10% bentonite), two pressures (40 kPa and 100 kPa), and three leachates: water, ethanol and biofuel. Two characteristics of the leacahtes were used: viscosity of permeate and its octanol-water partitioning coefficient (Kow). Three characteristics of the liners mixtures were evaluated which had impact on the hydraulic conductivity of the liner system: the initial content of bentonite (%), the free swelling index, and the shrinkage limit of the initial liner’s mixture. Engineers can use this modest tool to predict a potential liner failure in sand-bentonite barriers.

Keywords: viscosity, Theoretical modeling, Hydraulic Conductivity, liner performance, sand-bentonite barriers, free swelling index, shrinkage limit, octanol-water partitioning coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
11 Influence of Compactive Efforts on the Hydraulic Conductivity of Bagasse Ash Treated Black Cotton Soil

Authors: T. S. Ijimdiya, K. J. Osinubi

Abstract:

This study examines the influence of compactive efforts on hydraulic conductivity behaviour of compacted black cotton soil treated with bagasse ash which is necessary in assessing the performance of the soil - bagasse ash mixture for use as a suitable barrier material in waste containment application. Black cotton soil treated with up to 12% bagasse ash (obtained from burning the fibrous residue from the extraction of sugar juice from sugarcane) by dry weight of soil for use in waste containment application. The natural soil classifies as A-7-6 or CH in accordance with the AASHTO and the Unified Soil Classification System, respectively. The treated soil samples were prepared at molding water contents of -2, 0, +2, and +4 % of optimum moisture contents and compacted using four compactive efforts of Reduced British Standard Light (RBSL), British Standard light (BSL), West African Standard (WAS) and British Standard Heavy (BSH). The results obtained show that hydraulic conductivity decreased with increase in bagasse ash content, moulding water content and compaction energy.

Keywords: Hydraulic Conductivity, bagasse ash treatment, black cotton soil, moulding water contents, compactive efforts

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
10 Effect of Fiber Inclusion on the Geotechnical Parameters of Clayey Soil Subjected to Freeze-Thaw Cycles

Authors: Arun Prasad, P. B. Ramudu, Deep Shikha, Deep Jyoti Singh

Abstract:

A number of studies have been conducted recently to investigate the influence of randomly oriented fibers on some engineering properties of cohesive soils.Freezing and thawing of soil affects the strength, durability and permeability of soil adversely. Experiments were carried out in order to investigate the effect of inclusion of randomly distributed polypropylene fibers on the strength, hydraulic conductivity and durability of local soil (CL) subjected to freeze–thaw cycles. For evaluating the change in strength of soil, a series of unconfined compression tests as well as tri-axial tests were carried out on reinforced and unreinforced soil samples. All the samples were subjected to seven cycles of freezing and thawing. Freezing was carried out at a temperature of - 15 to -18 °C; and thawing was carried out by keeping the samples at room temperature. The reinforcement of soil samples was done by mixing with polypropylene fibers, 12 mm long and with an aspect ratio of 240. The content of fibers was varied from 0.25 to 1% by dry weight of soil. The maximum strength of soil was found in samples having a fiber content of 0.75% for all the samples that were prepared at optimum moisture content (OMC), and if the OMC was increased (+2% OMC) or decreased (-2% OMC), the maximum strength observed at 0.5% fiber inclusion. The effect of fiber inclusion and freeze–thaw on the hydraulic conductivity was studied increased from around 25 times to 300 times that of the unreinforced soil, without subjected to any freeze-thaw cycles. For studying the increased durability of soil, mass loss after each freeze-thaw cycle was calculated and it was found that samples reinforced with polypropylene fibers show 50-60% less loss in weight than that of the unreinforced soil.

Keywords: Fiber Reinforcement, Hydraulic Conductivity, freezingand thawing, unconfined compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
9 A Constructed Wetland as a Reliable Method for Grey Wastewater Treatment in Rwanda

Authors: Hussein Bizimana, Osman Sönmez

Abstract:

Constructed wetlands are current the most widely recognized waste water treatment option, especially in developing countries where they have the potential for improving water quality and creating valuable wildlife habitat in ecosystem with treatment requirement relatively simple for operation and maintenance cost. Lack of grey waste water treatment facilities in Kigali İnstitute of Science and Technology in Rwanda, causes pollution in the surrounding localities of Rugunga sector, where already a problem of poor sanitation is found. In order to treat grey water produced at Kigali İnstitute of Science and Technology, with high BOD concentration, high nutrients concentration and high alkalinity; a Horizontal Sub-surface Flow pilot-scale constructed wetland was designed and can operate in Kigali İnstitute of Science and Technology. The study was carried out in a sedimentation tank of 5.5 m x 1.42 m x 1.2 m deep and a Horizontal Sub-surface constructed wetland of 4.5 m x 2.5 m x 1.42 m deep. The grey waste water flow rate of 2.5 m3/d flew through vegetated wetland and sandy pilot plant. The filter media consisted of 0.6 to 2 mm of coarse sand, 0.00003472 m/s of hydraulic conductivity and cattails (Typha latifolia spp) were used as plants species. The effluent flow rate of the plant is designed to be 1.5 m3/ day and the retention time will be 24 hrs. 72% to 79% of BOD, COD, and TSS removals are estimated to be achieved, while the nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphate) removal is estimated to be in the range of 34% to 53%. Every effluent characteristic will meet exactly the Rwanda Utility Regulatory Agency guidelines primarily because the retention time allowed is enough to make the reduction of contaminants within effluent raw waste water. Treated water reuse system was developed where water will be used in the campus irrigation system again.

Keywords: Hydraulic Conductivity, Constructed Wetlands, grey waste water, cattails

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
8 Estimation of Aquifer Properties Using Pumping Tests: Case Study of Pydibhimavaram Industrial Area, Srikakulam, India

Authors: R. Srinivasa Rao, G. Venkata Rao, P. Kalpana

Abstract:

Adequate and reliable estimates of aquifer parameters are of utmost importance for proper management of vital groundwater resources. At present scenario the ground water is polluted because of industrial waste disposed over the land and the contaminants are transported in the aquifer from one area to another area which is depending on the characteristics of the aquifer and contaminants. To know the contaminant transport, the accurate estimation of aquifer properties is highly needed. Conventionally, these properties are estimated through pumping tests carried out on water wells. The occurrence and movement of ground water in the aquifer are characteristically defined by the aquifer parameters. The pumping (aquifer) test is the standard technique for estimating various hydraulic properties of aquifer systems, viz, transmissivity (T), hydraulic conductivity (K), storage coefficient (S) etc., for which the graphical method is widely used. The study area for conducting pumping test is Pydibheemavaram Industrial area near the coastal belt of Srikulam, AP, India. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the aquifer properties for developing contaminant transport model for the study area.

Keywords: Industrial Waste, Hydraulic Conductivity, aquifer, contaminant transport, pumping test

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
7 Valorization of Local Materials in the Waterproofing Technique of Landfills Site "TLS"

Authors: M. Debieche, F. Kaoua

Abstract:

This paper deals with the use two locals materials abundant in our country, with the view to use a mixture in the waterproofing the landfills. Our interest comes from the necessity to the environment protection, which has recently considerably grown. The site's waterproofing technique, in the landfills sites, is nowadays a very necessary condition to protect the environment, which requires the use of appropriate materials. To this end, an optimal mixture ensuring good performance in terms of hydraulic conductivity, durability and shear strength, mixtures based of sand at different concentrations of sodium bentonite, at compact state are prepared and studied. This study showed that a low permeability of mixture (sand / bentonite) can be achieved 6% of sodium bentonite. This mixture confers also good mechanical behavior, expressed by the recorded, reduction of friction (φ) and the increase of the cohesion (C). Thus, the selected formulation represents an optimal mixture for waterproofing systems. It guarantees an economical and ecological advantages.

Keywords: Sustainability, Sand, Hydraulic Conductivity, sodium bentonite

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
6 Estimation of Aquifer Parameters Using Vertical Electrical Sounding in Ochudo City, Abakaliki Urban Nigeria

Authors: Moses. O. Eyankware, Benard I. Odoh, Omoleomo O. Omo-Irabor, Alex O. I. Selemo

Abstract:

Knowledge of hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity is essential for the determination of natural water flow through an aquifer. These parameters are commonly estimated from the analysis of electrical conductivity, soil properties and fluid flow data. In order to achieve a faster and cost effective analysis of aquifer parameters in Ochudo City in Abakaliki, this study relied on non-invasive geophysical methods. As part of this approach, Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) was conducted at 20 sites in the study area for the identification of the vertical variation in subsurface lithology and for the characterization of the groundwater system. The area variously consists of between five to seven geoelectric layers of different thicknesses. Depth to aquifer ranges from 9.94 m-134.0 m while the thickness of the identified aquifer varies between 8.43 m and 44.31 m. Based on the electrical conductivity values of water samples collected from two boreholes and two hand-dug wells within the study area, the hydraulic conductivity was determined to range from 0.10 to 0.433 m/day. The estimated thickness of the aquifer and calculated hydraulic conductivity were used to derive the aquifer transmissivity. The results indicate that this parameter ranges from 1.58-7.56 m²/day with a formation factor of between 0.31-3.6.

Keywords: Hydraulic Conductivity, vertical electrical sounding (VES), transmissivity, Asu river group, abakaliki

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
5 The Effect of Nanoclay on the Hydraulic Conductivity of Clayey Sand Soils

Authors: Javad Saeidaskari, Mohammad Hassan Baziar

Abstract:

Soil structures have been frequently damaged during piping, earthquake and other types of failures. As far as adverse circumstances were developed subsequent to piping or other similar failure types, hydraulic parameters of soil such as hydraulic conductivity should be considered. As a result, acquiring an approach to diminish soil permeability is inevitable. There are many ground improvement methods to reduce seepage, which are classified under soil treatment and stabilization methods. Recently, one of the soil improvement methods is known as nanogeotechnology. This study aims to investigate the influence of Cloisite 30B nanoclay on permeability of compacted clayey sand soils. The samples are prepared by mixing two soil types, including Kaolin clay and Firouzkooh sand, in 1:9 and 1:5 clay:sand (by mass) proportions. In experimental procedure, initially, the optimum water content and maximum dry unit weight of each samples were obtained for compaction. Then, series of permeability tests were conducted by triaxial apparatus on prepared specimens with identical relative density of 95% of maximum dry density and water content of 1% wet of optimum for different weight percentages of nanoclay (1% to 4%). Therefore, in this paper, the effect of time on treated specimen was appraised, as well as two approaches of manual mixing and ball milling were compared to reveal the importance of dispersion issue. The results show that adding nanoclay up to 3%, as its optimum content, causes notable reduction in permeability (1.60e-03 to 5.51e-05 cm/s and 3.32e-04 to 8.44e-07 cm/s in samples with 1:9 and 1:5 mixture proportions, respectively). The hydraulic conductivity of treated clayey sand (1:5 mixture proportion with 3% nanoclay) decreases gradually from 8.44e-07 to 3.00e-07 cm/s within 90 days and then tends to be consistent. The influence of mixing method on permeability results shows that the utilization of ball mill mixing effectively leads to lower values than those of manual mixing, in other words, by adding 3% nanoclay, hydraulic conductivity of specimen declines from 8.44e-07 to 2.00e-07 cm/s. In order to evaluate the interaction between soil particles and, to ensure proper dispersion of nanoparticles through clayey sand mixture, they were magnified by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM). In conclusion, the nanoclay particles in vicinity of moisture can cause soil stabilization to prevent water penetration, which eventually result in lower usage of clay and operation costs.

Keywords: Hydraulic Conductivity, nanoclay, cloisite 30b, clayey sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
4 Strength and Permeability of the Granular Pavement Materials Treated with Polyacrylamide Based Additive

Authors: Romel N. Georgees, Rayya A Hassan, Robert P. Evans, Piratheepan Jegatheesan

Abstract:

Among other traditional and non-traditional additives, polymers have shown an efficient performance in the field and improved sustainability. Polyacrylamide (PAM) is one such additive that has demonstrated many advantages including a reduction in permeability, an increase in durability and the provision of strength characteristics. However, information about its effect on the improved geotechnical characteristics is very limited to the field performance monitoring. Therefore, a laboratory investigation was carried out to examine the basic and engineering behaviors of three types of soils treated with a PAM additive. The results showed an increase in dry density and unconfined compressive strength for all the soils. The results further demonstrated an increase in unsoaked CBR and a reduction in permeability for all stabilized samples.

Keywords: Hydraulic Conductivity, CBR, unconfined compressive strength, PAM

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
3 Chronic Hypertension, Aquaporin and Hydraulic Conductivity: A Perspective on Pathological Connections

Authors: Chirag Raval, Jimmy Toussaint, Tieuvi Nguyen, Hadi Fadaifard, George Wolberg, Steven Quarfordt, Kung-ming Jan, David S. Rumschitzki

Abstract:

Numerous studies examine aquaporins’ role in osmotic water transport in various systems but virtually none focus on aquaporins’ role in hydrostatically-driven water transport involving mammalian cells save for our laboratory’s recent study of aortic endothelial cells. Here we investigate aquaporin-1 expression and function in the aortic endothelium in two high-renin rat models of hypertension, the spontaneously hypertensive genomically altered Wystar-Kyoto rat variant and Sprague-Dawley rats made hypertensive by two kidney, one clip Goldblatt surgery. We measured aquaporin-1 expression in aortic endothelial cells from whole rat aortas by quantitative immunohistochemistry, and function by measuring the pressure driven hydraulic conductivities of excised rat aortas with both intact and denuded endothelia on the same vessel. We use them to calculate the effective intimal hydraulic conductivity, which is a combination of endothelial and subendothelial components. We observed well-correlated enhancements in aquaporin-1 expression and function in both hypertensive rat models as well as in aortas from normotensive rats whose expression was upregulated by 2h forskolin treatment. Upregulated aquaporin-1 expression and function may be a response to hypertension that critically determines conduit artery vessel wall viability and long-term susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Numerous studies examine aquaporins’ role in osmotic water transport in various systems but virtually none focus on aquaporins’ role in hydrostatically-driven water transport involving mammalian cells save for our laboratory’s recent study of aortic endothelial cells. Here we investigate aquaporin-1 expression and function in the aortic endothelium in two high-renin rat models of hypertension, the spontaneously hypertensive genomically altered Wystar-Kyoto rat variant and Sprague-Dawley rats made hypertensive by two kidney, one clip Goldblatt surgery. We measured aquaporin-1 expression in aortic endothelial cells from whole rat aortas by quantitative immunohistochemistry, and function by measuring the pressure driven hydraulic conductivities of excised rat aortas with both intact and denuded endothelia on the same vessel. We use them to calculate the effective intimal hydraulic conductivity, which is a combination of endothelial and subendothelial components. We observed well-correlated enhancements in aquaporin-1 expression and function in both hypertensive rat models as well as in aortas from normotensive rats whose expression was upregulated by 2h forskolin treatment. Upregulated aquaporin-1 expression and function may be a response to hypertension that critically determines conduit artery vessel wall viability and long-term susceptibility to atherosclerosis.

Keywords: Hydraulic Conductivity, acute hypertension, aquaporin-1, hydrostatic pressure, aortic endothelial cells, transcellular flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
2 Using Complete Soil Particle Size Distributions for More Precise Predictions of Soil Physical and Hydraulic Properties

Authors: Habib Khodaverdiloo, Fatemeh Afrasiabi, Farrokh Asadzadeh, Martinus Th. Van Genuchten

Abstract:

The soil particle-size distribution (PSD) is known to affect a broad range of soil physical, mechanical and hydraulic properties. Complete descriptions of a PSD curve should provide more information about these properties as opposed to having only information about soil textural class or the soil sand, silt and clay (SSC) fractions. We compared the accuracy of 19 different models of the cumulative PSD in terms of fitting observed data from a large number of Iranian soils. Parameters of the six most promising models were correlated with measured values of the field saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs), the mean weight diameter of soil aggregates (MWD), bulk density (ρb), and porosity (∅). These same soil properties were correlated also with conventional PSD parameters (SSC fractions), selected geometric PSD parameters (notably the mean diameter dg and its standard deviation σg), and several other PSD parameters (D50 and D60). The objective was to find the best predictions of several soil physical quality indices and the soil hydraulic properties. Neither SSC nor dg, σg, D50 and D60 were found to have a significant correlation with both Kfs or logKfs, However, the parameters of several cumulative PSD models showed statistically significant correlation with Kfs and/or logKfs (|r| = 0.42 to 0.65; p ≤ 0.05). The correlation between MWD and the model parameters was generally also higher than either with SSC fraction and dg, or with D50 and D60. Porosity (∅) and the bulk density (ρb) also showed significant correlation with several PSD model parameters, with ρb additionally correlating significantly with various geometric (dg), mechanical (D50 and D60), and agronomic (clay and sand) representations of the PSD. The fitted parameters of selected PSD models furthermore showed statistically significant correlations with Kfs,, MWD and soil porosity, which may be viewed as soil quality indices. Results of this study are promising for developing more accurate pedotransfer functions.

Keywords: Hydraulic Conductivity, particle size distribution, soil texture, pedotransfer functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
1 Geo-Engineering Properties of Lime Stabilized Expansive Soil with Shredded Waste Tyre

Authors: Upasana Pattnaik, Akshaya Kumar Sabat

Abstract:

The compaction properties, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), soaked California bearing ratio (CBR), hydraulic conductivity, and swelling pressure of lime stabilized expansive soil-shredded waste tyre mixes have been discussed in this paper. Shredded waste tyres, passing 4.75 mm Indian Standard (IS) sieve and retained on 75µ IS sieve have been used in the experimental programme. First of all expansive soil-shredded waste tyre mixes were prepared by adding shredded waste tyre from 0 to 20% at an increment of 5%.Standard Proctor compaction, UCS and soaked CBR tests were conducted on these mixes. The optimum percentage of shredded waste tyre found out was 10%.In the second phase of the experiment, lime was added to sample having optimum percentage of expansive soil and shredded waste tyre from 2 to 6% at an increment of 1%.Compaction, UCS, soaked CBR, hydraulic conductivity, and swelling pressure tests were conducted on lime stabilized expansive soil-shredded waste tyre mixes. The optimum percentage of lime for stabilization was found out to be 5%.At the optimum percentage of lime the stabilized expansive soil-shredded waste tyre mix had increased strength, reduced hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure.

Keywords: lime, Hydraulic Conductivity, expansive soil, shredded waste tyre, soaked california bearing ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 132