Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Hybrid Related Abstracts

11 Technical and Economic Potential of Partial Electrification of Railway Lines

Authors: Rafael Martins Manzano Silva, Jean-Francois Tremong

Abstract:

Electrification of railway lines allows to increase speed, power, capacity and energetic efficiency of rolling stocks. However, this process of electrification is complex and costly. An electrification project is not just about design of catenary. It also includes installation of structures around electrification, as substation installation, electrical isolation, signalling, telecommunication and civil engineering structures. France has more than 30,000 km of railways, whose only 53% are electrified. The others 47% of railways use diesel locomotive and represent only 10% of the circulation (tons.km). For this reason, a new type of electrification, less expensive than the usual, is requested to enable the modernization of these railways. One solution could be the use of hybrids trains. This technology opens up new opportunities for less expensive infrastructure development such as the partial electrification of railway lines. In a partially electrified railway, the power supply of theses hybrid trains could be made either by the catenary or by the on-board energy storage system (ESS). Thus, the on-board ESS would feed the energetic needs of the train along the non-electrified zones while in electrified zones, the catenary would feed the train and recharge the on-board ESS. This paper’s objective deals with the technical and economic potential identification of partial electrification of railway lines. This study provides different scenarios of electrification by replacing the most expensive places to electrify using on-board ESS. The target is to reduce the cost of new electrification projects, i.e. reduce the cost of electrification infrastructures while not increasing the cost of rolling stocks. In this study, scenarios are constructed in function of the electrification’s cost of each structure. The electrification’s cost varies considerably because of the installation of catenary support in tunnels, bridges and viaducts is much more expensive than in others zones of the railway. These scenarios will be used to describe the power supply system and to choose between the catenary and the on-board energy storage depending on the position of the train on the railway. To identify the influence of each partial electrification scenario in the sizing of the on-board ESS, a model of the railway line and of the rolling stock is developed for a real case. This real case concerns a railway line located in the south of France. The energy consumption and the power demanded at each point of the line for each power supply (catenary or on-board ESS) are provided at the end of the simulation. Finally, the cost of a partial electrification is obtained by adding the civil engineering costs of the zones to be electrified plus the cost of the on-board ESS. The study of the technical and economic potential ends with the identification of the most economically interesting scenario of electrification.

Keywords: Hybrid, railway, Storage, electrification

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10 Hybrid Polymer Microfluidic Platform for Studying Endothelial Cell Response to Micro Mechanical Environment

Authors: Junghoon Lee, Mitesh Rathod, Jungho Ahn, Noo Li Jeon

Abstract:

Endothelial cells respond to cues from both biochemical as well as micro mechanical environment. Significant effort has been directed to understand the effects of biochemical signaling, however, relatively little is known about regulation of endothelial cell biology by the micro mechanical environment. Numerous studies have been performed to understand how physical forces regulate endothelial cell behavior. In this regard, past studies have majorly focused on exploring how fluid shear stress governs endothelial cell behavior. Parallel plate flow chambers and rectangular microchannels are routinely employed for applying fluid shear force on endothelial cells. However, these studies fall short in mimicking the in vivo like micro environment from topological aspects. Few studies have only used circular microchannels to replicate in vivo like condition. Seldom efforts have been directed to elucidate the combined effect of topology, substrate rigidity and fluid shear stress on endothelial cell response. In this regard, we demonstrate a facile fabrication process to develop a hybrid polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic platform to study endothelial cell biology. On a single chip microchannels with different cross sections i.e., circular, rectangular and square have been fabricated. In addition, our fabrication approach allows variation in the substrate rigidity along the channel length. Two different variants of polydimethylsiloxane, namely Sylgard 184 and Sylgard 527, were utilized to achieve the variation in rigidity. Moreover, our approach also enables in creating Y bifurcation circular microchannels. Our microfluidic platform thus facilitates for conducting studies pertaining to endothelial cell morphology with respect to change in topology, substrate rigidity and fluid flow on a single chip. The hybrid platform was tested by culturing Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells in circular microchannels with varying substrate rigidity, and exposed to fluid shear stress of 12 dynes/cm² and static conditions. Results indicate the cell area response to flow induced shear stress was governed by the underlying substrate mechanics.

Keywords: Hybrid, PDMS, microfluidic platform, shear flow, substrate rigidity

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9 Modern Hybrid of Older Black Female Stereotypes in Hollywood Film

Authors: Jr., Frederick W. Gooding, Mark Beeman

Abstract:

Nearly a century ago, the groundbreaking 1915 film ‘The Birth of a Nation’ popularized the way Hollywood made movies with its avant-garde, feature-length style. The movie's subjugating and demeaning depictions of African American women (and men) reflected popular racist beliefs held during the time of slavery and the early Jim Crow era. Although much has changed concerning race relations in the past century, American sociologist Patricia Hill Collins theorizes that the disparaging images of African American women originating in the era of plantation slavery are adaptable and endure as controlling images today. In this context, a comparative analysis of the successful contemporary film, ‘Bringing Down the House’ starring Queen Latifah is relevant as this 2004 film was designed to purposely defy and ridicule classic stereotypes of African American women. However, the film is still tied to the controlling images from the past, although in a modern hybrid form. Scholars of race and film have noted that the pervasive filmic imagery of the African American woman as the loyal mammy stereotype faded from the screen in the post-civil rights era in favor of more sexualized characters (i.e., the Jezebel trope). Analyzing scenes and dialogue through the lens of sociological and critical race theory, the troubling persistence of African American controlling images in film stubbornly emerge in a movie like ‘Bringing Down the House.’ Thus, these controlling images, like racism itself, can adapt to new social and economic conditions. Although the classic controlling images appeared in the first feature length film focusing on race relations a century ago, ‘The Birth of a Nation,’ this black and white rendition of the mammy figure was later updated in 1939 with the classic hit, ‘Gone with the Wind’ in living color. These popular controlling images have loomed quite large in the minds of international audiences, as ‘Gone with the Wind’ is still shown in American theaters currently, and experts at the British Film Institute in 2004 rated ‘Gone with the Wind’ as the number one movie of all time in UK movie history based upon the total number of actual viewings. Critical analysis of character patterns demonstrate that images that appear superficially benign contribute to a broader and quite persistent pattern of marginalization within the aggregate. This approach allows experts and viewers alike to detect more subtle and sophisticated strands of racial discrimination that are ‘hidden in plain sight’ despite numerous changes in the Hollywood industry that appear to be more voluminous and diverse than three or four decades ago. In contrast to white characters, non-white or minority characters are likely to be subtly compromised or marginalized relative to white characters if and when seen within mainstream movies, rather than be subjected to obvious and offensive racist tropes. The hybrid form of both the older Jezebel and Mammy stereotypes exhibited by lead actress Queen Latifah in ‘Bringing Down the House’ represents a more suave and sophisticated merging of past imagery ideas deemed problematic in the past as well as the present.

Keywords: Hybrid, African Americans, stereotypes, Hollywood film

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8 Planning Politics of Dhaka City: Recent Urbanization and Gentrification

Authors: N. M. Esa Abrar Khan

Abstract:

This paper will describe how a city planning can be abusive and promote gentrification in Dhaka city area in an extreme remorseless way. To our knowledge, Dhaka is enormously overpopulated, and its somewhat unrest political situation and corruption is promoting not only bruised urban growth but also this growth leering people socially and mentally. Due to globalization, whole world is in a rat race of development fiesta and Bangladesh is no longer falling back in this race. Recent political agenda is to develop the country anyhow, whether it is a good development or not. In the name of development, Dhaka city is becoming overwhelmed with flyovers, needless shopping malls and commercial complexes. This drastic urbanization is promoting gentrification. Gentrification is the process of societal change which intimidate the existing group of people from a certain place and encouraging affluent group of people on that place and eventually they take the control of that place. Process of gentrification is more capitalistic rather socially democratic. Architects are indirectly or directly related with this social change and politics is the catalyst of these social alteration. The methodology of this paper was mainly dependent on mass interviews including political leaders and activist’s interviews. Also, photographic analysis, empirical research etc. helped to create this paper. Secondary data were collected from different published and unpublished documents, relevant research articles, and books. From the study, it is clearly can be said that architects and urban designers are promoting social imbalance. The paper tried to suggest how architects and other designers can help to resist gentrification and can remain the social heterogeneity.

Keywords: Migration, Hybrid, Urban, Globalization, Gentrification, Bangladesh

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7 Evaluation and Selection of Elite Jatropha Genotypes for Biofuel

Authors: Bambang Heliyanto, Rully Dyah Purwati, Hasnam, Fadjry Djufry

Abstract:

Jatropha curcas L., a drought tolerant and monoecious perennial shrub, has received attention worldwide during the past decade. Realizing the facts, the Indonesian government has decided to option for Jatropha and palm oil for in country biofuel production. To support the program development of high yielding jatropha varieties is necessary. This paper reviews Jatropha improvement program in Indonesia using mass selection and hybrid development. To start with, at the end of 2005, in-country germplasm collection was mobilized to Lampung and Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) provinces and successfully collected 15 provenances/sub-provenances which serves as a base population for selection. A significant improvement has been achieved through a simple recurrent breeding selection during 2006 to 2007. Seed yield productivity increased more than double, from 0.36 to 0.97 ton dry seed per hectare during the first selection cycle (IP-1), and then increased to 2.2 ton per hectare during the second cycles (IP-2) in Lampung provenance. Similar result was also observed in NTB provenance. Seed yield productivity increased from 0.43 ton to 1 ton dry seed per hectare in the first cycle (IP-1), and then 1.9 ton in the second cycle (IP-2). In 2008, the population IP-3 resulted from the third cycle of selection have been identified which were capable of producing 2.2 to 2.4 ton seed yield per hectare. To improve the seed yield per hectare, jatropha hybrid varieties was developed involving superior provenances. As a result a Jatropha Energy Terbarukan (JET) variety-2 was released in 2017 with seed yield potential of 2.6 ton per hectare. The use of this high yielding genotypes for biofuel is discussed.

Keywords: biofuel, Hybrid, Provenance, jatropha curcas, improve population

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6 Hybridization and Evaluation of Jatropha to Improve High Yield Varieties in Indonesia

Authors: Bambang Heliyanto, Rully D. Purwati, M. Machfud, Joko Hartono, Tantri D.A. Anggraeni

Abstract:

The availability of fuel in the world will be reduced in next few years, it is necessary to find alternative energy sources. Jatropha curcas L. is one of oil crops producing non-edible oil which is potential for bio-diesel. Jatropha cultivation and development program in Indonesia is facing several problems especially low seed yield resulting in inefficient crop cultivation cost. To cope with the problem, development of high yielding varieties is necessary. Development of new varieties to improve seed yield was conducted by hybridization and selection and resulted in fourteen potential genotypes. The yield potential of the fourteen genotypes were evaluated and compared with two check varieties. The objective of the evaluation was to find Jatropha hybrids with some characters i.e. their productivity was higher than check varieties, oil content > 40% and harvesting age ≤ 110 days. Hybridization and individual plant selection were carried out from 2010 to 2014. Evaluation of high yield was conducted in Asembagus experimental station, Situbondo, East Java in three years (2015-2017). The experimental designed was Randomized Complete Block Design with three replication, and plot size 10 m x 8 m. The characters observed were number of capsules per plant, dry seed yield (kg/ha) and seed oil content (%). The results of this experiment indicated that all the hybrids evaluated have higher productivity than check variety IP-3A. There were two superior hybrids i.e. HS-49xSP-65/32 and HS-49xSP-19/28 with highest seed yield per hectare and number of capsules per plant for three years.

Keywords: Hybrid, Bio Energy, jatropha, high seed yield

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5 Utilization of Hybrid Teaching Methods to Improve Writing Skills of Undergraduate Students

Authors: Tahira Zaman

Abstract:

The paper intends to discover the utility of hybrid teaching methods to aid undergraduate students to improve their English academic writing skills. A total of 45 undergraduate students were selected randomly from three classes from varying language abilities, with the research design of monitoring and rubrics evaluation as a means of measure. Language skills of the students were upgraded with the help of experiential learning methods using reflective writing technique, guided method in which students were merely directed to correct form of writing techniques along with self-guided method for the students to produce a library research-based article measured through a standardized rubrics provided. The progress of the students was monitored and checked through rubrics and self-evaluation and concluded that a change was observed in the students’ writing abilities.

Keywords: Hybrid, self evaluation, reflective writing

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4 Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Ti6Al4V Part with Wrought Alloy to Powder-Bed Additive Manufactured Interface

Authors: Amnon Shirizly, Ohad Dolev

Abstract:

In recent years, the implementation and use of Metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) parts increase. As a result, the demand for bigger parts rises along with the desire to reduce it’s the production cost. Generally, in powder bed Additive Manufacturing technology the part size is limited by the machine build volume. In order to overcome this limitation, the parts can be built in one or more machine operations and mechanically joint or weld them together. An alternative option could be a production of wrought part and built on it the AM structure (mainly to reduce costs). In both cases, the mechanical properties of the interface have to be defined and recognized. In the current study, the authors introduce guidelines on how to examine the interface between wrought alloy and powder-bed AM. The mechanical and metallurgical properties of the Ti6Al4V materials (wrought alloy and powder-bed AM) and their hybrid interface were examined. The mechanical properties gain from tensile test bars in the built direction and fracture toughness samples in various orientations. The hybrid specimens were built onto a wrought Ti6Al4V start-plate. The standard fracture toughness (CT25 samples) and hybrid tensile specimens' were heat treated and milled as a post process to final diminutions. In this Study, the mechanical tensile tests and fracture toughness properties supported by metallurgical observation will be introduced and discussed. It will show that the hybrid approach of utilizing powder bed AM onto wrought material expanding the current limitation of the future manufacturing technology.

Keywords: Hybrid, Additive manufacturing, fracture-toughness, powder bed

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3 Parallelizing the Hybrid Pseudo-Spectral Time Domain/Finite Difference Time Domain Algorithms for the Large-Scale Electromagnetic Simulations Using Massage Passing Interface Library

Authors: Donggun Lee, Q-Han Park

Abstract:

Due to its coarse grid, the Pseudo-Spectral Time Domain (PSTD) method has advantages against the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method in terms of memory requirement and operation time. However, since the efficiency of parallelization is much lower than that of FDTD, PSTD is not a useful method for a large-scale electromagnetic simulation in a parallel platform. In this paper, we propose the parallelization technique of the hybrid PSTD-FDTD (HPF) method which simultaneously possesses the efficient parallelizability of FDTD and the quick speed and low memory requirement of PSTD. Parallelization cost of the HPF method is exactly the same as the parallel FDTD, but still, it occupies much less memory space and has faster operation speed than the parallel FDTD. Experiments in distributed memory systems have shown that the parallel HPF method saves up to 96% of the operation time and reduces 84% of the memory requirement. Also, by combining the OpenMP library to the MPI library, we further reduced the operation time of the parallel HPF method by 50%.

Keywords: Hybrid, parallelization, MPI, OpenMP, FDTD, PSTD

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2 An Experimental Investigation of the Variation of Evaporator Efficiency According to Load Amount and Textile Type in Hybrid Heat Pump Dryers

Authors: Gokhan Sir, Muhammed Ergun, Onder Balioglu

Abstract:

Nowadays, laundry dryers containing heaters and heat pumps are used to provide fast and efficient drying. In this system, as the drying capacity changes, the sensible and latent heat transfer rate in the evaporator changes. Therefore, the drying time measured for the unit capacity increases as the drying capacity decreases. The objective of this study is to investigate the evaporator efficiency according to load amount and textile type in hybrid heat pump dryers. Air side flow rate and system temperatures (air side and refrigeration side) were monitored instantly, and the specific moisture extraction rate (SMER), evaporator efficiency, and heat transfer mechanism between the textile and hybrid heat pump system were examined. Evaporator efficiency of heat pump dryers for cotton and synthetic based textile types in load amounts of 2, 5, 8 and 10 kg were investigated experimentally. As a result, the maximum evaporator efficiency (%72) was obtained in drying cotton and synthetic based textiles with a capacity of 5 kg; the minimum evaporator efficiency (%40) was obtained in drying cotton and synthetic based textiles with a capacity of 2 kg. The experimental study also reveals that capacity-dependent flow rate changes are the major factor for evaporator efficiency.

Keywords: Hybrid, Textile, Heat pump, evaporator, laundry dryer

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1 Numerical Simulation of Phase Transfer during Cryosurgery for an Irregular Tumor Using Hybrid Approach

Authors: Rama Bhargava, Surabhi Nishad

Abstract:

The infusion of nanofluids has dramatically enhanced the heat-carrying capacity of the fluids, applicable to many engineering and medical process where the temperature below freezing is required. Cryosurgery is an efficient therapy for the treatment of cancer, but sometimes the excessive cooling may harm the nearby healthy cells. Efforts are therefore done to develop a model which can cause to generate the low temperature as required. In the present study, a mathematical model is developed based on the bioheat transfer equation to simulate the heat transfer from the probe on a tumor (with irregular domain) using the hybrid technique consisting of element free Galerkin method with αα-family of approximation. The probe is loaded will nano-particles. The effects of different nanoparticles, namely Al₂O₃, Fe₃O₄, Au on the heat-producing rate, is obtained. It is observed that the temperature can be brought to (60°C)-(-30°C) at a faster freezing rate on the infusion of different nanoparticles. Besides increasing the freezing rate, the volume of the nanoparticle can also control the size and growth of ice crystals formed during the freezing process. The study is also made to find the time required to achieve the desired temperature. The problem is further extended for multi tumors of different shapes and sizes. The irregular shape of the frozen domain and the direction of ice growth are very sensitive issues, posing a challenge for simulation. The Meshfree method has been one of the accurate methods in such problems as a domain is naturally irregular. The discretization is done using the nodes only. MLS approximation is taken in order to generate the shape functions. Sufficiently accurate results are obtained.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Hybrid, Cryosurgery, EFGM

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