Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Hybrid Related Abstracts

41 Numerical Treatment of Block Method for the Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir

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Discrete linear multistep block method of uniform order for the solution of first order Initial Value Problems (IVPs) in Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) is presented in this paper. The approach of interpolation and collocation approximation are adopted in the derivation of the method which is then applied to first order ordinary differential equations with associated initial conditions. The continuous hybrid formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some grids and off – grid points to obtain four discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. Furthermore, a stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on ordinary differential equations, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: Hybrid, block method, first order ordinary differential equations, self-starting

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40 On the Approximate Solution of Continuous Coefficients for Solving Third Order Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir

Abstract:

This paper derived four newly schemes which are combined in order to form an accurate and efficient block method for parallel or sequential solution of third order ordinary differential equations of the form y^'''= f(x,y,y^',y^'' ), y(α)=y_0,〖y〗^' (α)=β,y^('' ) (α)=μ with associated initial or boundary conditions. The implementation strategies of the derived method have shown that the block method is found to be consistent, zero stable and hence convergent. The derived schemes were tested on stiff and non-stiff ordinary differential equations, and the numerical results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: Hybrid, block method, self-starting, linear multistep, third order ordinary differential equations

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39 Examination of the Water and Nutrient Utilization of Maize Hybrids on Chernozem Soil

Authors: L. G. Karancsi

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The research was set up on chernozem soil at the Látókép AGTC MÉK research area of the University of Debrecen in Hungary. We examined the yield, the yield production per 1kg NPK fertilizer and the water and nutrient utilization of hybrid PR37N01 and PR37M81 in 2013. We found that PR37N01 produced the most yield at the level of N120+P (17,476kg ha-1) while PR37M81 reached the highest yield at level N150+PK (16,754kg ha-1). Studies related to yield production per 1kg NPK indicated that the best results were achieved at level N30+PK compared to the control treatment. Yield production per 1kg NPK was17.6kg kg-1 by P37N01 and 44.2kg kg-1 by PR37M81. By comparing the water utilization of hybrids we found that the worst water utilization results were reached in the control treatment (PR37N01: 26.2kg mm-1, PR37M81: 19.5kg mm-1). The best water utilization values were produced at level N120+PK in the case of hybrid PR37N01 (32.1kg mm-1) and at N150+PK in the case of hybrid PR37M81 (30.8kg mm-1). We established the values of the nutrient reaction and the fertilizer optimum of hybrids. We discovered a strong relationship between the amount of fertilizer applied and the yield produced (r2= 0.8228–0.9515). The best nutrient response was induced by hybrid PR37N01, while the weakest results were reached by hybrid PR37M81.

Keywords: Hybrid, nutrient, Yield, maize, water utilization

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38 Dry Modifications of PCL/Chitosan/PCL Tissue Scaffolds

Authors: Hilal Turkoglu Sasmazel, Ozan Ozkan

Abstract:

Natural polymers are widely used in tissue engineering applications, because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability and solubility in the physiological medium. On the other hand, synthetic polymers are also widely utilized in tissue engineering applications, because they carry no risk of infectious diseases and do not cause immune system reaction. However, the disadvantages of both polymer types block their individual usages as tissue scaffolds efficiently. Therefore, the idea of usage of natural and synthetic polymers together as a single 3D hybrid scaffold which has the advantages of both and the disadvantages of none has been entered to the literature. On the other hand, even though these hybrid structures support the cell adhesion and/or proliferation, various surface modification techniques applied to the surfaces of them to create topographical changes on the surfaces and to obtain reactive functional groups required for the immobilization of biomolecules, especially on the surfaces of synthetic polymers in order to improve cell adhesion and proliferation. In a study presented here, to improve the surface functionality and topography of the layer by layer electrospun 3D poly-epsilon-caprolactone/chitosan/poly-epsilon-caprolactone hybrid tissue scaffolds by using atmospheric pressure plasma method, thus to improve cell adhesion and proliferation of these tissue scaffolds were aimed. The formation/creation of the functional hydroxyl and amine groups and topographical changes on the surfaces of scaffolds were realized by using two different atmospheric pressure plasma systems (nozzle type and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) type) carried out under different gas medium (air, Ar+O2, Ar+N2). The plasma modification time and distance for the nozzle type plasma system as well as the plasma modification time and the gas flow rate for DBD type plasma system were optimized with monitoring the changes in surface hydrophilicity by using contact angle measurements. The topographical and chemical characterizations of these modified biomaterials’ surfaces were carried out with SEM and ESCA, respectively. The results showed that the atmospheric pressure plasma modifications carried out with both nozzle type plasma and DBD plasma caused topographical and functionality changes on the surfaces of the layer by layer electrospun tissue scaffolds. However, the shelf life studies indicated that the hydrophilicity introduced to the surfaces was mainly because of the functionality changes. Therefore, according to the optimized results, samples treated with nozzle type air plasma modification applied for 9 minutes from a distance of 17 cm and Ar+O2 DBD plasma modification applied for 1 minute under 70 cm3/min O2 flow rate were found to have the highest hydrophilicity compared to pristine samples.

Keywords: plasma, Hybrid, Biomaterial, chitosan

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37 Speed Control of Hybrid Stepper Motor by Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Controller

Authors: Talha Ali Khan

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This paper presents an adaptive neuro-fuzzy interference system (ANFIS), which is applied to a hybrid stepper motor (HSM) to regulate its speed. The dynamic response of the HSM with the ANFIS controller is studied during the starting process and under different load disturbance. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is compared with that of the conventional PI controller. The proposed method solves the problem of nonlinearities and load changes of the HSM drives. The proposed controller ensures fast and precise dynamic response with an excellent steady state performance. Matlab/Simulink program is used for this dynamic simulation study.

Keywords: Hybrid, Speed Control, ANFIS, stepper motor

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36 Hybrid Artificial Bee Colony and Least Squares Method for Rule-Based Systems Learning

Authors: Ahcene Habbi, Yassine Boudouaoui

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This paper deals with the problem of automatic rule generation for fuzzy systems design. The proposed approach is based on hybrid artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization and weighted least squares (LS) method and aims to find the structure and parameters of fuzzy systems simultaneously. More precisely, two ABC based fuzzy modeling strategies are presented and compared. The first strategy uses global optimization to learn fuzzy models, the second one hybridizes ABC and weighted least squares estimate method. The performances of the proposed ABC and ABC-LS fuzzy modeling strategies are evaluated on complex modeling problems and compared to other advanced modeling methods.

Keywords: Learning, Hybrid, Swarm Optimization, automatic design, fuzzy rules

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35 Simulation and Optimization of Hybrid Energy System Autonomous PV-Diesel-Wind Power with Battery Storage for Relay Antenna Telecommunication

Authors: Tahri Toufik, Bouchachia Mohamed, Braikia Oussama

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The objective of this work is the design and optimization of a hybrid PV-Diesel-Wind power system with storage in order to power a relay antenna telecommunication isolated in Chlef region. The aim of the simulation of this hybrid system by the HOMER software is to determine the size and the number of each element of the system and to determine the optimal technical and economic configuration using monthly average values per year for a fixed charge antenna relay telecommunication of 22kWh/d.

Keywords: Hybrid, HOMER, PV-diesel-wind system, relay antenna telecommunication

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34 Quantitative Analysis of Multiprocessor Architectures for Radar Signal Processing

Authors: Deepak Kumar, Debasish Deb, Reena Mamgain

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Radar signal processing requires high number crunching capability. Most often this is achieved using multiprocessor platform. Though multiprocessor platform provides the capability of meeting the real time computational challenges, the architecture of the same along with mapping of the algorithm on the architecture plays a vital role in efficiently using the platform. Towards this, along with standard performance metrics, few additional metrics are defined which helps in evaluating the multiprocessor platform along with the algorithm mapping. A generic multiprocessor architecture can not suit all the processing requirements. Depending on the system requirement and type of algorithms used, the most suitable architecture for the given problem is decided. In the paper, we study different architectures and quantify the different performance metrics which enables comparison of different architectures for their merit. We also carried out case study of different architectures and their efficiency depending on parallelism exploited on algorithm or data or both.

Keywords: Hybrid, Parallel, Efficiency, Radar Signal Processing, Pipeline, load imbalance, multiprocessor architecture, buffer requirement, cluster of processors (COPs)

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33 Construction and Validation of a Hybrid Lumbar Spine Model for the Fast Evaluation of Intradiscal Pressure and Mobility

Authors: Dicko Ali Hamadi, Tong-Yette Nicolas, Gilles Benjamin, Faure Francois, Palombi Olivier

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A novel hybrid model of the lumbar spine, allowing fast static and dynamic simulations of the disc pressure and the spine mobility, is introduced in this work. Our contribution is to combine rigid bodies, deformable finite elements, articular constraints, and springs into a unique model of the spine. Each vertebra is represented by a rigid body controlling a surface mesh to model contacts on the facet joints and the spinous process. The discs are modeled using a heterogeneous tetrahedral finite element model. The facet joints are represented as elastic joints with six degrees of freedom, while the ligaments are modeled using non-linear one-dimensional elastic elements. The challenge we tackle is to make these different models efficiently interact while respecting the principles of Anatomy and Mechanics. The mobility, the intradiscal pressure, the facet joint force and the instantaneous center of rotation of the lumbar spine are validated against the experimental and theoretical results of the literature on flexion, extension, lateral bending as well as axial rotation. Our hybrid model greatly simplifies the modeling task and dramatically accelerates the simulation of pressure within the discs, as well as the evaluation of the range of motion and the instantaneous centers of rotation, without penalizing precision. These results suggest that for some types of biomechanical simulations, simplified models allow far easier modeling and faster simulations compared to usual full-FEM approaches without any loss of accuracy.

Keywords: Modeling, Hybrid, lumbar spine, fast simulation

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32 Correlation between the Sowing Date and Yield of Maize on Chernozem Soil, in Connection with the Leaf Area Index and Photosynthesis

Authors: Enikő Bene

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Our sowing date experiment took place in the Demonstration Garden of Institution of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Center of University of Debrecen, in 2012-2014. The thesis contains data of test year 2014. Our purpose, besides several other examinations, was to observe how sowing date influences leaf area index and activity of photosynthesis of maize hybrids, and how those factors affect fruiting. In the experiment we monitored the change of the leaf area index and the photosynthesis of hybrids with four different growing seasons. The results obtained confirm that not only the environmental and agricultural factors in the growing season have effect on the yield, but also other factors like the leaf area index and the photosynthesis are determinative parameters, and all those factors together, modifying effects of each other, develop average yields

Keywords: Hybrid, sowing date, leaf area index, photosynthetic capacity

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31 Design and Synthesis of Gradient Nanocomposite Materials

Authors: Pu Ying-Chih, Yang Yin-Ju, Hang Jian-Yi, Jang Guang-Way

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Organic-Inorganic hybrid materials consisting of graded distributions of inorganic nano particles in organic polymer matrices were successfully prepared by the sol-gel process. Optical and surface properties of the resulting nano composites can be manipulated by changing their compositions and nano particle distribution gradients. Applications of gradient nano composite materials include sealants for LED packaging and screen lenses for smartphones. Optical transparency, prism coupler, TEM, SEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDX), Izod impact strength, conductivity, pencil hardness, and thermogravimetric characterizations of the nano composites were performed and the results will be presented.

Keywords: Hybrid, nanocomposite, gradient, Organic-Inorganic

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30 Hybrid versus Cemented Fixation in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Mid-Term Follow-Up

Authors: Pedro Gomes, Luís Sá Castelo, António Lopes, Marta Maio, Pedro Mota, Adélia Avelar, António Marques Dias

Abstract:

Introduction: Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) has contributed to improvement of patient`s quality of life, although it has been associated with some complications including component loosening and polyethylene wear. To prevent these complications various fixation techniques have been employed. Hybrid TKA with cemented tibial and cementless femoral components have shown favourable outcomes, although it still lack of consensus in the literature. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and radiographic results of hybrid versus cemented TKA with an average 5 years follow-up and analyse the survival rates. Methods: A retrospective study of 125 TKAs performed in 92 patients at our institution, between 2006 to 2008, with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. The same prosthesis was used in all knees. Hybrid TKA fixation was performed in 96 knees, with a mean follow-up of 4,8±1,7 years (range, 2–8,3 years) and 29 TKAs received fully cemented fixation with a mean follow-up of 4,9±1,9 years (range, 2-8,3 years). Selection for hybrid fixation was nonrandomized and based on femoral component fit. The Oxford Knee Score (OKS 0-48) was evaluated for clinical assessment and Knee Society Roentgenographic Evaluation Scoring System was used for radiographic outcome. The survival rate was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with failures defined as revision of either the tibial or femoral component for aseptic failures and all-causes (aseptic and infection). Analysis of survivorship data was performed using the log-rank test. SPSS (v22) was the computer program used for statistical analysis. Results: The hybrid group consisted of 72 females (75%) and 24 males (25%), with mean age 64±7 years (range, 50-78 years). The preoperative diagnosis was osteoarthritis (OA) in 94 knees (98%), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 1 knee (1%) and Posttraumatic arthritis (PTA) in 1 Knee (1%). The fully cemented group consisted of 23 females (79%) and 6 males (21%), with mean age 65±7 years (range, 47-78 years). The preoperative diagnosis was OA in 27 knees (93%), PTA in 2 knees (7%). The Oxford Knee Scores were similar between the 2 groups (hybrid 40,3±2,8 versus cemented 40,2±3). The percentage of radiolucencies seen on the femoral side was slightly higher in the cemented group 20,7% than the hybrid group 11,5% p0.223. In the cemented group there were significantly more Zone 4 radiolucencies compared to the hybrid group (13,8% versus 2,1% p0,026). Revisions for all causes were performed in 4 of the 96 hybrid TKAs (4,2%) and 1 of the 29 cemented TKAs (3,5%). The reason for revision was aseptic loosening in 3 hybrid TKAs and 1 of the cemented TKAs. Revision was performed for infection in 1 hybrid TKA. The hybrid group demonstrated a 7 years survival rate of 93% for all-cause failures and 94% for aseptic loosening. No significant difference in survivorship was seen between the groups for all-cause failures or aseptic failures. Conclusions: Hybrid TKA yields similar intermediate-term results and survival rates as fully cemented total knee arthroplasty and remains a viable option in knee joint replacement surgery.

Keywords: Hybrid, Orthopaedic Surgery, survival rate, total knee arthroplasty

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29 Systems Approach on Thermal Analysis of an Automatic Transmission

Authors: Sinsze Koo, Benjin Luo, Matthew Henry

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In order to increase the performance of an automatic transmission, the automatic transmission fluid is required to be warm up to an optimal operating temperature. In a conventional vehicle, cold starts result in friction loss occurring in the gear box and engine. The stop and go nature of city driving dramatically affect the warm-up of engine oil and automatic transmission fluid and delay the time frame needed to reach an optimal operating temperature. This temperature phenomenon impacts both engine and transmission performance but also increases fuel consumption and CO2 emission. The aim of this study is to develop know-how of the thermal behavior in order to identify thermal impacts and functional principles in automatic transmissions. Thermal behavior was studied using models and simulations, developed using GT-Suit, on a one-dimensional thermal and flow transport. A power train of a conventional vehicle was modeled in order to emphasis the thermal phenomena occurring in the various components and how they impact the automatic transmission performance. The simulation demonstrates the thermal model of a transmission fluid cooling system and its component parts in warm-up after a cold start. The result of these analyses will support the future designs of transmission systems and components in an attempt to obtain better fuel efficiency and transmission performance. Therefore, these thermal analyses could possibly identify ways that improve existing thermal management techniques with prioritization on fuel efficiency.

Keywords: Hybrid, Thermal Management, Automatic Transmission, and systematic approach

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28 Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilizer Response on Growth and Yield of Hybrid Luffa –Naga F1 Variety

Authors: D. R. T. N. K. Dissanayake, H. M. S. K. Herath, H. K. S. G. Gunadasa, P. Weerasinghe

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Luffa is a tropical and subtropical vegetable, belongs to family Cucurbiteceae. It is predominantly monoecious in sex expression and provides an ample scope for utilization of hybrid vigor. Hybrid varieties develop through open pollination, produce higher yields due to its hybrid vigor. Naga F1 hybrid variety consists number of desirable traits other than higher yield such as strong and vigorous plants, fruits with long deep ridges, attractive green color fruits ,better fruit weight, length and early maturity compared to the local Luffa cultivars. Unavailability of fertilizer recommendations for hybrid cucurbit vegetables leads to an excess fertilizer application causing a vital environmental issue that creates undesirable impacts on nature and the human health. Main Objective of this research is to determine effect of different nitrogen and potassium fertilizer rates on growth and yield of Naga F1 Variety. Other objectives are, to evaluate specific growth parameters and yield, to identify the optimum nitrogen and potassium fertilizer levels based on growth and yield of hybrid Luffa variety. As well as to formulate the general fertilizer recommendation for hybrid Luffa -Naga F1 variety.

Keywords: Hybrid, Nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous

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27 Performance of the Hybrid Loop Heat Pipe

Authors: Nandy Putra, Imansyah Ibnu Hakim, Iwan Setyawan, Muhammad Zayd A.I

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A two-phase cooling technology of passive system sometimes can no longer meet the cooling needs of an increasingly challenging due to the inherent limitations of the capillary pumping for example in terms of the heat flux that can lead to dry out. In this study, intended to overcome the dry out with the addition of a diaphragm, they pump to accelerate the fluid transportation from the condenser to the evaporator. Diaphragm pump installed on the bypass line. When it did not happen dry out then the hybrid loop heat pipe will be work passively using a capillary pressure of wick. Meanwhile, when necessary, hybrid loop heat pipe will be work actively, using diaphragm pump with temperature control installed on the evaporator. From the results, it can be said that the pump has been successfully overcome dry out and can distribute working fluid from the condenser to the evaporator and reduce the temperature of the evaporator from 143°C to 100°C as a temperature controlled where the pump start actively at set point 100°C.

Keywords: Hybrid, heat pipe, dry out, assisted, pump

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26 Hybrid MIMO-OFDM Detection Scheme for High Performance

Authors: Hyoung-Kyu Song, Dong-Hyun Ha, Chang-Bin Ha, Young-Min Ko

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In recent years, a multi-antenna system is actively used to improve the performance of the communication. A MIMO-OFDM system can provide multiplexing gain or diversity gain. These gains are obtained in proportion to the increase of the number of antennas. In order to provide the optimal gain of the MIMO-OFDM system, various transmission and reception schemes are presented. This paper aims to propose a hybrid scheme that base station provides both diversity gain and multiplexing gain at the same time.

Keywords: Hybrid, mimo, DFE, diversity gain, multiplexing gain

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25 Physiological Responses of the Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Male) X Clarias gariepinus (Female) Hybrid (Heteroclarias) Fingerlings to Different Temperature Levels under Laboratory Conditions

Authors: S. M. Tsadu, R. J. Kolo, A. V. Ayanwale, S. L. Lamai, Y. I. Auta, A. Z. Mohammed

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A twelve weeks experiment was carried out on Heteroclarias freshwater hybrid fish fingerlings under laboratory conditions to study the effects of different temperature levels, 26.91 (control), 28.00, 30.00, 32.00°C respectively and their physiological responses to oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and opercular respiratory beats were evaluated. The oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and opercular respiratory beats were determined weekly based on standard procedures. The findings revealed that the oxygen consumption of Heteroclarias hybrid fingerlings significantly (p<0.05) increased with increase in temperature. The ammonia excretion were not significantly different (p>0.05) in all the temperature levels. The opercular respiratory beats per minutes showed similar trend in weeks 1,2,4 and 8 but indicated significantly higher (p<0.05) opercular respiratory beats (range= 117.10±2.26 at 30oC to 142.75±3.04 opercular beat at 32oC in week 8) at highest tested temperature levels. However, there was a decreasing trend in the opercular respiratory beats per minute of the controlled fingerlings. Generally, the opercular respiratory beats per minute decreased with increase in fish size. The findings of this study confirmed that increase in water temperature affects the physiology of Heteroclarias hybrid and hence for effective rearing and for profit making, it is essential for the hybrid to be cultured in the temperature range between 26.91°C (control) and 28.00°C.

Keywords: Hybrid, temperature, heteroclarias, physiological responses

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24 Fire Resistance of High Alumina Cement and Slag Based Ultra High Performance Fibre-Reinforced Cementitious Composites

Authors: A. Q. Sobia, M. S. Hamidah, I. Azmi, S. F. A. Rafeeqi

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Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) structures are susceptible to intense deterioration when exposed to elevated temperatures, particularly in the incident of fire. FRP has the tendency to lose bond with the substrate due to the low glass transition temperature of epoxy; the key component of FRP matrix.  In the past few decades, various types of high performance cementitious composites (HPCC) were explored for the protection of RC structural members against elevated temperature. However, there is an inadequate information on the influence of elevated temperature on the ultra high performance fibre-reinforced cementitious composites (UHPFRCC) containing ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) as a replacement of high alumina cement (HAC) in conjunction with hybrid fibres (basalt and polypropylene fibres), which could be a prospective fire resisting material for the structural components. The influence of elevated temperatures on the compressive as well as flexural strength of UHPFRCC, made of HAC-GGBS and hybrid fibres, were examined in this study. Besides control sample (without fibres), three other samples, containing 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of basalt fibres by total weight of mix and 1 kg/m3 of polypropylene fibres, were prepared and tested. Another mix was also prepared with only 1 kg/m3 of polypropylene fibres. Each of the samples were retained at ambient temperature as well as exposed to 400, 700 and 1000 °C followed by testing after 28 and 56 days of conventional curing. Investigation of results disclosed that the use of hybrid fibres significantly helped to improve the ambient temperature compressive and flexural strength of UHPFRCC, which was found to be 80 and 14.3 MPa respectively. However, the optimum residual compressive strength was marked by UHPFRCC-CP (with polypropylene fibres only), equally after both curing days (28 and 56 days), i.e. 41%. In addition, the utmost residual flexural strength, after 28 and 56 days of curing, was marked by UHPFRCC– CP and UHPFRCC– CB2 (1 kg/m3 of PP fibres + 1% of basalt fibres) i.e. 39% and 48.5% respectively.

Keywords: Hybrid, Fibres, fibre reinforced polymer materials (FRP), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), high-alumina cement

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23 Design and Study of a Wind-Solar Hybrid System for Lighting Application

Authors: Nikhil V. Nayak, P. P. Revankar, M. B. Gorawar

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Wind energy has been shown to be one of the most viable sources of renewable energy. With current technology, the low cost of wind energy is competitive with more conventional sources of energy such as coal. Most airfoil blades available for commercial grade wind turbines incorporate a straight span-wise profile and airfoil shaped cross sections. This paper is aimed at studying and designing a wind-solar hybrid system for light load application. The tools like qblade and solidworks are used to model and analyze the wind turbine system, the material used for the blade and hub is balsa wood and the tower a lattice type. The expected power output is 100 W for an average wind speed of 4.5 m/s.

Keywords: Hybrid, SolidWorks, balsa wood, renewable energy, airfoil blades, wind speeds, make-in-india, camber, QBlade

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22 Hybrid Advanced Oxidative Pretreatment of Complex Industrial Effluent for Biodegradability Enhancement

Authors: A. Sharma, K. Paradkar, S. N. Mudliar, A. B. Pandit, R. A. Pandey

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The study explores the hybrid combination of Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC) and Subcritical Wet Air Oxidation-based pretreatment of complex industrial effluent to enhance the biodegradability selectively (without major COD destruction) to facilitate subsequent enhanced downstream processing via anaerobic or aerobic biological treatment. Advanced oxidation based techniques can be less efficient as standalone options and a hybrid approach by combining Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC), and Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) can lead to a synergistic effect since both the options are based on common free radical mechanism. The HC can be used for initial turbulence and generation of hotspots which can begin the free radical attack and this agitating mixture then can be subjected to less intense WAO since initial heat (to raise the activation energy) can be taken care by HC alone. Lab-scale venturi-based hydrodynamic cavitation and wet air oxidation reactor with biomethanated distillery wastewater (BMDWW) as a model effluent was examined for establishing the proof-of-concept. The results indicated that for a desirable biodegradability index (BOD: COD - BI) enhancement (up to 0.4), the Cavitation (standalone) pretreatment condition was: 5 bar and 88 min reaction time with a COD reduction of 36 % and BI enhancement of up to 0.27 (initial BI - 0.17). The optimum WAO condition (standalone) was: 150oC, 6 bar and 30 minutes with 31% COD reduction and 0.33 BI. The hybrid pretreatment (combined Cavitation + WAO) worked out to be 23.18 min HC (at 5 bar) followed by 30 min WAO at 150oC, 6 bar, at which around 50% COD was retained yielding a BI of 0.55. FTIR & NMR analysis of pretreated effluent indicated dissociation and/or reorientation of complex organic compounds in untreated effluent to simpler organic compounds post-pretreatment.

Keywords: Hybrid, hydrodynamic cavitation, wet air oxidation, biodegradability index

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21 Cytology and Flow Cytometry of Three Japanese Drosera Species

Authors: Santhita Tungkajiwangkoon, Yoshikazu Hoshi

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Three Japaneses Drosera species are the good model to study genome organization with highly specialized morphological group for insect trapping, and has revealed anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects, so there must be a reason for botanists are so appealing in these plants. Cytology and Flow cytometry were used to investigate the genetic stability and ploidy estimation in three related species. The cytological and Flow cytometry analysis were done in Drosera rotundifolia L., Drosera spatulata Labill and Drosera tokaiensis. The cytological studies by fluorescence staining (DAPI) showed that D. tokaiensis was an alloploid (2n=6x=60, hexaploid) which is a natural hybrid polyploids of D. rotundifolia and D. spatulata. D. rotundifolia was a diploid with the middle size of metaphase chromosomes (2n=2x=20) as a paternal origin and D. spatulata was a tetraploid with small size of metaphase chromosome (2n=4x=40) as a maternal origin. We confirmed by Flow cytometry analysis to determine the ploidy level and DNA content of the plants. The 2C-DNA values of D. rotundiflolia were 2.8 pg, D. spatulata was 1.6 pg and D. tokaiensis was 3.9 pg. However, 2C- DNA values of D. tokaiensis should be related from their parents but in the present study the 2C-DNA values of D. tokaiensis was no relation from the theoretical of hybrids representing additive parental. Possibility of D. tokaiensis is a natural hybrid, which is also hybridization in natural evolution can cause the genome reduction in plant.

Keywords: Hybrid, Cytology, flow cytometry, drosera

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20 Functionalized Mesoporous Silica: Absorbents for Water Purification

Authors: Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf, Uzaira Rafique, Saima Nasreen, Shery Ehrman

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The release of heavy metals into the environment is a potential threat to water and soil quality as well as to plant, animal and human health. In current research work, organically functionalized mesoporous silicates (MSU-H) were prepared by the co-condensation between sodium silicate and oregano alkoxysilanes in the presence of the nonionic surfactant triblock copolymer P104. The surfactant was used as a template for improving the porosity of the hybrid gels. Synthesized materials were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, SEM/EDX, TG, surface area analysis. The surface morphology and textural properties of such materials varied with various kinds of groups in the channels. In this study, removal of some heavy metals ions from aqueous solution by adsorption process was investigated. Batch adsorption studies show that the adsorption capacity of metal ions on the functionalized silicates is more than that on pure MSU-H. Data shows adsorption on synthesized materials is a time efficient process, suggesting adsorption on external surface as well as the mesoporous process. Adsorption models of Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin depicted equal goodness for all adsorbents, whereas pseudo 2nd order kinetics is in best agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: Hybrid, Heavy Metals, Adsorption, mesoporous silica, langmuir, freundlich, temkin

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19 The Performance Evaluation of the Modular Design of Hybrid Wall with Surface Heating and Cooling System

Authors: Selcen Nur Eri̇kci̇ Çeli̇k, Burcu İbaş Parlakyildiz, Gülay Zorer Gedi̇k

Abstract:

Reducing the use of mechanical heating and cooling systems in buildings, which accounts for approximately 30-40% of total energy consumption in the world has a major impact in terms of energy conservation. Formations of buildings that have sustainable and low energy utilization, structural elements with mechanical systems should be evaluated with a holistic approach. In point of reduction of building energy consumption ratio, wall elements that are vertical building elements and have an area broadly (m2) have proposed as a regulation with a different system. In the study, designing surface heating and cooling energy with a hybrid type of modular wall system and the integration of building elements will be evaluated. The design of wall element; - Identification of certain standards in terms of architectural design and size, -Elaboration according to the area where the wall elements (interior walls, exterior walls) -Solution of the joints, -Obtaining the surface in terms of building compatible with both conceptual structural put emphasis on upper stages, these elements will be formed. The durability of the product to the various forces, stability and resistance are so much substantial that are used the establishment of ready-wall element section and the planning of structural design. All created ready-wall alternatives will be paid attention at some parameters; such as adapting to performance-cost by optimum level and size that can be easily processed and reached. The restrictions such as the size of the zoning regulations, building function, structural system, wheelbase that are imposed by building laws, should be evaluated. The building aims to intend to function according to a certain standardization system and construction of wall elements will be used. The scope of performance criteria determined on the wall elements, utilization (operation, maintenance) and renovation phase, alternative material options will be evaluated with interim materials located in the contents. Design, implementation and technical combination of modular wall elements in the use phase and installation details together with the integration of energy saving, heat-saving and useful effects on the environmental aspects will be discussed in detail. As a result, the ready-wall product with surface heating and cooling modules will be created and defined as hybrid wall and will be compared with the conventional system in terms of thermal comfort. After preliminary architectural evaluations, certain decisions for all architectural design processes (pre and post design) such as the implementation and performance in use, maintenance, renewal will be evaluated in the results.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Architectural Design, Hybrid, Thermal comfort, modular ready-wall element

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18 A Hybrid Multi-Criteria Hotel Recommender System Using Explicit and Implicit Feedbacks

Authors: Ashkan Ebadi, Adam Krzyzak

Abstract:

Recommender systems, also known as recommender engines, have become an important research area and are now being applied in various fields. In addition, the techniques behind the recommender systems have been improved over the time. In general, such systems help users to find their required products or services (e.g. books, music) through analyzing and aggregating other users’ activities and behavior, mainly in form of reviews, and making the best recommendations. The recommendations can facilitate user’s decision making process. Despite the wide literature on the topic, using multiple data sources of different types as the input has not been widely studied. Recommender systems can benefit from the high availability of digital data to collect the input data of different types which implicitly or explicitly help the system to improve its accuracy. Moreover, most of the existing research in this area is based on single rating measures in which a single rating is used to link users to items. This paper proposes a highly accurate hotel recommender system, implemented in various layers. Using multi-aspect rating system and benefitting from large-scale data of different types, the recommender system suggests hotels that are personalized and tailored for the given user. The system employs natural language processing and topic modelling techniques to assess the sentiment of the users’ reviews and extract implicit features. The entire recommender engine contains multiple sub-systems, namely users clustering, matrix factorization module, and hybrid recommender system. Each sub-system contributes to the final composite set of recommendations through covering a specific aspect of the problem. The accuracy of the proposed recommender system has been tested intensively where the results confirm the high performance of the system.

Keywords: Hybrid, Tourism, hotel recommender system, implicit features

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17 [Keynote Talk]: Wave-Tidal Integral Turbine Hybrid Generation Approach for Characterizing Performance of Surface Wave

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Norshazmira Mat Azmi, Sayidal El Fatimah Masnan

Abstract:

Boundless renewable energy, such as tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, thermal energy and chemical energy are covered and possessed by oceans. The hybrid system helps in improving the economic and environmental sustainability of renewable energy systems to fulfill the energy demand. The objective and concept of hybridizing renewable energy is to meet the desired system requirements, with the lowest value of the energy cost. This paper reviews applications of using hybrid power generation system for remote area. It also highlights the future directions to investigate the impacts of surface waves on turbine design and performance. The importance of understanding the site-specific wave conditions could also been explored.

Keywords: Hybrid, Marine Current Energy, wave turbine, tidal turbine

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16 Evaluation of Bucket Utility Truck In-Use Driving Performance and Electrified Power Take-Off Operation

Authors: Robert Prohaska, Arnaud Konan, Kenneth Kelly, Adam Ragatz, Adam Duran

Abstract:

In an effort to evaluate the in-use performance of electrified Power Take-off (PTO) usage on bucket utility trucks operating under real-world conditions, data from 20 medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating in California, USA were collected, compiled, and analyzed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Fleet Test and Evaluation team. In this paper, duty-cycle statistical analyses of class 5, medium-duty quick response trucks and class 8, heavy-duty material handler trucks are performed to examine and characterize vehicle dynamics trends and relationships based on collected in-use field data. With more than 100,000 kilometers of driving data collected over 880+ operating days, researchers have developed a robust methodology for identifying PTO operation from in-field vehicle data. Researchers apply this unique methodology to evaluate the performance and utilization of the conventional and electric PTO systems. Researchers also created custom representative drive-cycles for each vehicle configuration and performed modeling and simulation activities to evaluate the potential fuel and emissions savings for hybridization of the tractive driveline on these vehicles. The results of these analyses statistically and objectively define the vehicle dynamic and kinematic requirements for each vehicle configuration as well as show the potential for further system optimization through driveline hybridization. Results are presented in both graphical and tabular formats illustrating a number of key relationships between parameters observed within the data set that relates specifically to medium- and heavy-duty utility vehicles operating under real-world conditions.

Keywords: Hybrid, utility, drive cycle, heavy-duty (HD), medium-duty (MD), PTO

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15 Modeling and Simulation of a Hybrid Power System for House in Newfoundland via HOMER and BEopt Software

Authors: Ahmed Mohamed Aisa, Aiman Salam Eisay

Abstract:

Renewable energy-based hybrid energy systems are ideal solutions for reducing environmental pollution. The hybrid energy system (HES) is a collection of various renewable power resources such as hydro, wind, solar, bio, geothermal, hydrokinetic (tidal/wave) and small/micro hydro that use a fossil fuel-powered diesel generator to provide electric power. This paper analyzes wind solar hybrid systems that can be connected to DC and AC via an electrolyzer connected to a hydrogen tank. The optimizations and simulations of the proposed system were performed with Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) software. In order to determine the optimal combination of the system, different combinations of PV arrays, generators, electrolyzer and hydrogen storage tanks were selected on the basis of the Net Present Cost from the simulation results. The system installed at the house site consists of a load of 3.2 kW peak and 24kWh/d. The results show optimization performance for production at PV array 4,794kWh/yr, wind turbine 11,243kWh/yr and generator 92 kWh/yr.

Keywords: Energy, Design, renewable, Hybrid, Electric Power, Fossil Fuel, electrolyzer

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14 Inter-Specific Differences in Leaf Phenology, Growth of Seedlings of Cork OAK (Quercus suber L.), Zeen Oak (Quercus canariensis Willd.) and Their Hybrid Afares Oak (Quercus afares Pomel) in the Nursery

Authors: S. Mhamdi, O. Brendel, P. Montpied, K. Ben Yahia, N. Saouyah, B. Hasnaoui, E. Dreyer

Abstract:

Leaf Life Span (LLS) is used to classify trees into two main groups: evergreen and deciduous species. It varies according to the forms of life between taxonomic groups. Co-occurrence of deciduous and evergreen oaks is common in some Mediterranean type climate areas. Nevertheless, in the Tunisian forests, there is no enough information about the functional inter-specific diversity among oak species, especially in the mixed stand marked by the simultaneous presence of Q. suber L., Q. canariensis Willd. and their hybrid (Q. afares), the latter being an endemic oak species threatened with extinction. This study has been conducted to estimate the LLS, the relative growth rate, and the count of different growth flushes of samplings in semi-controlled conditions. Our study took 17 months, with an observation's interval of 4 weeks. The aim is to characterize and compare the hybrid species to the parental ones. Differences were observed among species, both for phenology and growth. Indeed, Q. suber saplings reached higher total height and number of growth flushes then Q. canariensis, while Q. afares showed much less growth flushes than the parental species. The LLS of parental species has exceeded the duration of the experiment, but their hybrid lost all leaves on all cohorts. The short LLSs of hybrid species are in accordance with this phenology in the field, but for Q. canariensis there was a contrast with observations in the field where phenology is strictly annual. This study allowed us to differentiate the hybrid from both parental species.

Keywords: Hybrid, Growth, leaf life span, Q. afares Pomel, Q. suber L, Q.canariensis Willd

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13 Design and Construction of a Solar Mobile Anaerobic Digestor for Rural Communities

Authors: César M. Moreira, Marco A. Pazmiño-Hernández, Marco A. Pazmiño-Barreno, Kyle Griffin, Pratap Pullammanappallil

Abstract:

An anaerobic digestion system that was completely operated on solar power (both photovoltaic and solar thermal energy), and mounted on a trailer to make it mobile, was designed and constructed. A 55-gallon batch digester was placed within a chamber that was heated by hot water pumped through a radiator. Hot water was produced by a solar thermal collector and photovoltaic panels charged a battery which operated pumps for recirculating water. It was found that the temperature in the heating chamber was maintained above ambient temperature but it follows the same trend as ambient temperature. The temperature difference between the chamber and ambient values was not constant but varied with time of day. Advantageously, the temperature difference was highest during night and early morning and lowest near noon. In winter, when ambient temperature dipped to 2 °C during early morning hours, the chamber temperature did not drop below 10 °C. Model simulations showed that even if the digester is subjected to diurnal variations of temperature (as observed in winter of a subtropical region), about 63 % of the waste that would have been processed under constant digester temperature of 38 °C, can still be processed. The cost of the digester system without the trailer was $1,800.

Keywords: Hybrid, Solar, Anaerobic Digestion, rural communities, solar-mobile

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12 Optimum Design of Hybrid (Metal-Composite) Mechanical Power Transmission System under Uncertainty by Convex Modelling

Authors: Sfiso Radebe

Abstract:

The design models dealing with flawless composite structures are in abundance, where the mechanical properties of composite structures are assumed to be known a priori. However, if the worst case scenario is assumed, where material defects combined with processing anomalies in composite structures are expected, a different solution is attained. Furthermore, if the system being designed combines in series hybrid elements, individually affected by material constant variations, it implies that a different approach needs to be taken. In the body of literature, there is a compendium of research that investigates different modes of failure affecting hybrid metal-composite structures. It covers areas pertaining to the failure of the hybrid joints, structural deformation, transverse displacement, the suppression of vibration and noise. In the present study a system employing a combination of two or more hybrid power transmitting elements will be explored for the least favourable dynamic loads as well as weight minimization, subject to uncertain material properties. Elastic constants are assumed to be uncertain-but-bounded quantities varying slightly around their nominal values where the solution is determined using convex models of uncertainty. Convex analysis of the problem leads to the computation of the least favourable solution and ultimately to a robust design. This approach contrasts with a deterministic analysis where the average values of elastic constants are employed in the calculations, neglecting the variations in the material properties.

Keywords: Hybrid, robust design, convex modelling, metal-composite

Procedia PDF Downloads 105