Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Hybrid Model Related Abstracts

8 Generic Hybrid Models for Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic Guided Wave Problems

Authors: Manoj Reghu, Prabhu Rajagopal, C. V. Krishnamurthy, Krishnan Balasubramaniam


A thorough understanding of guided ultrasonic wave behavior in structures is essential for the application of existing Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) technologies, as well as for the development of new methods. However, the analysis of guided wave phenomena is challenging because of their complex dispersive and multimodal nature. Although numerical solution procedures have proven to be very useful in this regard, the increasing complexity of features and defects to be considered, as well as the desire to improve the accuracy of inspection often imposes a large computational cost. Hybrid models that combine numerical solutions for wave scattering with faster alternative methods for wave propagation have long been considered as a solution to this problem. However usually such models require modification of the base code of the solution procedure. Here we aim to develop Generic Hybrid models that can be directly applied to any two different solution procedures. With this goal in mind, a Numerical Hybrid model and an Analytical-Numerical Hybrid model has been developed. The concept and implementation of these Hybrid models are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Hybrid Model, finite element method (FEM), guided ultrasonic waves

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7 Forecasting Residential Water Consumption in Hamilton, New Zealand

Authors: Farnaz Farhangi


Many people in New Zealand believe that the access to water is inexhaustible, and it comes from a history of virtually unrestricted access to it. For the region like Hamilton which is one of New Zealand’s fastest growing cities, it is crucial for policy makers to know about the future water consumption and implementation of rules and regulation such as universal water metering. Hamilton residents use water freely and they do not have any idea about how much water they use. Hence, one of proposed objectives of this research is focusing on forecasting water consumption using different methods. Residential water consumption time series exhibits seasonal and trend variations. Seasonality is the pattern caused by repeating events such as weather conditions in summer and winter, public holidays, etc. The problem with this seasonal fluctuation is that, it dominates other time series components and makes difficulties in determining other variations (such as educational campaign’s effect, regulation, etc.) in time series. Apart from seasonality, a stochastic trend is also combined with seasonality and makes different effects on results of forecasting. According to the forecasting literature, preprocessing (de-trending and de-seasonalization) is essential to have more performed forecasting results, while some other researchers mention that seasonally non-adjusted data should be used. Hence, I answer the question that is pre-processing essential? A wide range of forecasting methods exists with different pros and cons. In this research, I apply double seasonal ARIMA and Artificial Neural Network (ANN), considering diverse elements such as seasonality and calendar effects (public and school holidays) and combine their results to find the best predicted values. My hypothesis is the examination the results of combined method (hybrid model) and individual methods and comparing the accuracy and robustness. In order to use ARIMA, the data should be stationary. Also, ANN has successful forecasting applications in terms of forecasting seasonal and trend time series. Using a hybrid model is a way to improve the accuracy of the methods. Due to the fact that water demand is dominated by different seasonality, in order to find their sensitivity to weather conditions or calendar effects or other seasonal patterns, I combine different methods. The advantage of this combination is reduction of errors by averaging of each individual model. It is also useful when we are not sure about the accuracy of each forecasting model and it can ease the problem of model selection. Using daily residential water consumption data from January 2000 to July 2015 in Hamilton, I indicate how prediction by different methods varies. ANN has more accurate forecasting results than other method and preprocessing is essential when we use seasonal time series. Using hybrid model reduces forecasting average errors and increases the performance.

Keywords: Forecasting, Hybrid Model, artificial neural network (ANN), double seasonal ARIMA

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6 Case-Based Reasoning: A Hybrid Classification Model Improved with an Expert's Knowledge for High-Dimensional Problems

Authors: Bruno Trstenjak, Dzenana Donko


Data mining and classification of objects is the process of data analysis, using various machine learning techniques, which is used today in various fields of research. This paper presents a concept of hybrid classification model improved with the expert knowledge. The hybrid model in its algorithm has integrated several machine learning techniques (Information Gain, K-means, and Case-Based Reasoning) and the expert’s knowledge into one. The knowledge of experts is used to determine the importance of features. The paper presents the model algorithm and the results of the case study in which the emphasis was put on achieving the maximum classification accuracy without reducing the number of features.

Keywords: classification, Case based reasoning, Hybrid Model, expert's knowledge

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5 Calibration of Hybrid Model and Arbitrage-Free Implied Volatility Surface

Authors: Kun Huang


This paper investigates whether the combination of local and stochastic volatility models can be calibrated exactly to any arbitrage-free implied volatility surface of European option. The risk neutral Brownian Bridge density is applied for calibration of the leverage function of our Hybrid model. Furthermore, the tails of marginal risk neutral density are generated by Generalized Extreme Value distribution in order to capture the properties of asset returns. The local volatility is generated from the arbitrage-free implied volatility surface using stochastic volatility inspired parameterization.

Keywords: Stochastic Volatility, Calibration, Hybrid Model, risk-neutral density, arbitrage free implied volatility, extreme value distribution, local volatility

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4 Revisiting Domestication and Foreignisation Methods: Translating the Quran by the Hybrid Approach

Authors: Aladdin Al-Tarawneh


The Quran, as it is the sacred book of Islam and considered the literal word of God (Allah) in Arabic, is highly translated into many languages; however, the foreignising or the literal approach excessively stains the quality and discredits the final product in the eyes of its receptors. Such an approach fails to capture the intended meaning of the Quran and to communicate it in any language. Therefore, this study is conducted to propose a different approach that seeks involving other ones according to a hybrid model. Indeed, this study challenges the binary adherence that is highly used in Translation Studies (TS) in general and in the translation of the Quran in particular. Drawing on the genuine fact that the Quran can be communicated in any language in terms of meaning, and the translation is not sacred; this paper approaches the translation of the Quran by blending different methods like domestication or foreignisation in a systematic way, avoiding the binary choice made by many translators. To reach this aim, the paper has a conceptual part that seeks to elucidate and clarify the main methods employed in TS, and criticise and modify them to propose the new hybrid approach (the hybrid model) for translating the Quran – that is, the deductive method. To support and validate the outcome of the previous part, a comparative model is employed in order to highlight the differences between the suggested translation and other widely used ones – that is, the inductive method. By applying this methodology, the paper proves that there is a deficiency of communicating the original meaning of the Quran in light of the foreignising approach. In conclusion, the paper suggests producing a Quran translation has to take into account the adoption of many techniques to express the meaning of the Quran as understood in the original, and to offer this understanding in English in the most native-like manner to serve the intended target readers.

Keywords: Hybrid Approach, Domestication, Hybrid Model, Quran translation, foreignization

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3 A Hybrid Model of Structural Equation Modelling-Artificial Neural Networks: Prediction of Influential Factors on Eating Behaviors

Authors: Maryam Kheirollahpour, Mahmoud Danaee, Amir Faisal Merican, Asma Ahmad Shariff


Background: The presence of nonlinearity among the risk factors of eating behavior causes a bias in the prediction models. The accuracy of estimation of eating behaviors risk factors in the primary prevention of obesity has been established. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the potential of a hybrid model of structural equation modeling (SEM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to predict eating behaviors. Methods: The Partial Least Square-SEM (PLS-SEM) and a hybrid model (SEM-Artificial Neural Networks (SEM-ANN)) were applied to evaluate the factors affecting eating behavior patterns among university students. 340 university students participated in this study. The PLS-SEM analysis was used to check the effect of emotional eating scale (EES), body shape concern (BSC), and body appreciation scale (BAS) on different categories of eating behavior patterns (EBP). Then, the hybrid model was conducted using multilayer perceptron (MLP) with feedforward network topology. Moreover, Levenberg-Marquardt, which is a supervised learning model, was applied as a learning method for MLP training. The Tangent/sigmoid function was used for the input layer while the linear function applied for the output layer. The coefficient of determination (R²) and mean square error (MSE) was calculated. Results: It was proved that the hybrid model was superior to PLS-SEM methods. Using hybrid model, the optimal network happened at MPLP 3-17-8, while the R² of the model was increased by 27%, while, the MSE was decreased by 9.6%. Moreover, it was found that which one of these factors have significantly affected on healthy and unhealthy eating behavior patterns. The p-value was reported to be less than 0.01 for most of the paths. Conclusion/Importance: Thus, a hybrid approach could be suggested as a significant methodological contribution from a statistical standpoint, and it can be implemented as software to be able to predict models with the highest accuracy.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Structural Equation Modeling, Hybrid Model, eating behavior patterns

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2 Modeling Route Selection Using Real-Time Information and GPS Data

Authors: William Albeiro Alvarez, Gloria Patricia Jaramillo, Ivan Reinaldo Sarmiento


Understanding the behavior of individuals and the different human factors that influence the choice when faced with a complex system such as transportation is one of the most complicated aspects of measuring in the components that constitute the modeling of route choice due to that various behaviors and driving mode directly or indirectly affect the choice. During the last two decades, with the development of information and communications technologies, new data collection techniques have emerged such as GPS, geolocation with mobile phones, apps for choosing the route between origin and destination, individual service transport applications among others, where an interest has been generated to improve discrete choice models when considering the incorporation of these developments as well as psychological factors that affect decision making. This paper implements a discrete choice model that proposes and estimates a hybrid model that integrates route choice models and latent variables based on the observation on the route of a sample of public taxi drivers from the city of Medellín, Colombia in relation to its behavior, personality, socioeconomic characteristics, and driving mode. The set of choice options includes the routes generated by the individual service transport applications versus the driver's choice. The hybrid model consists of measurement equations that relate latent variables with measurement indicators and utilities with choice indicators along with structural equations that link the observable characteristics of drivers with latent variables and explanatory variables with utilities.

Keywords: Human Factors, Hybrid Model, real time data, behavior choice model

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1 Ensemble Machine Learning Approach for Estimating Missing Data from CO₂ Time Series

Authors: Atbin Mahabbati, Jason Beringer, Matthias Leopold


To address the global challenges of climate and environmental changes, there is a need for quantifying and reducing uncertainties in environmental data, including observations of carbon, water, and energy. Global eddy covariance flux tower networks (FLUXNET), and their regional counterparts (i.e., OzFlux, AmeriFlux, China Flux, etc.) were established in the late 1990s and early 2000s to address the demand. Despite the capability of eddy covariance in validating process modelling analyses, field surveys and remote sensing assessments, there are some serious concerns regarding the challenges associated with the technique, e.g. data gaps and uncertainties. To address these concerns, this research has developed an ensemble model to fill the data gaps of CO₂ flux to avoid the limitations of using a single algorithm, and therefore, provide less error and decline the uncertainties associated with the gap-filling process. In this study, the data of five towers in the OzFlux Network (Alice Springs Mulga, Calperum, Gingin, Howard Springs and Tumbarumba) during 2013 were used to develop an ensemble machine learning model, using five feedforward neural networks (FFNN) with different structures combined with an eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGB) algorithm. The former methods, FFNN, provided the primary estimations in the first layer, while the later, XGB, used the outputs of the first layer as its input to provide the final estimations of CO₂ flux. The introduced model showed slight superiority over each single FFNN and the XGB, while each of these two methods was used individually, overall RMSE: 2.64, 2.91, and 3.54 g C m⁻² yr⁻¹ respectively (3.54 provided by the best FFNN). The most significant improvement happened to the estimation of the extreme diurnal values (during midday and sunrise), as well as nocturnal estimations, which is generally considered as one of the most challenging parts of CO₂ flux gap-filling. The towers, as well as seasonality, showed different levels of sensitivity to improvements provided by the ensemble model. For instance, Tumbarumba showed more sensitivity compared to Calperum, where the differences between the Ensemble model on the one hand and the FFNNs and XGB, on the other hand, were the least of all 5 sites. Besides, the performance difference between the ensemble model and its components individually were more significant during the warm season (Jan, Feb, Mar, Oct, Nov, and Dec) compared to the cold season (Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, and Sep) due to the higher amount of photosynthesis of plants, which led to a larger range of CO₂ exchange. In conclusion, the introduced ensemble model slightly improved the accuracy of CO₂ flux gap-filling and robustness of the model. Therefore, using ensemble machine learning models is potentially capable of improving data estimation and regression outcome when it seems to be no more room for improvement while using a single algorithm.

Keywords: Hybrid Model, eXtreme gradient boosting, Carbon flux, Eddy covariance, Gap-filling comparison, OzFlux Network

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