Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

humidity Related Abstracts

11 Impact of Climate Variation on Natural Vegetations and Human Lives in Thar Desert, Pakistan

Authors: Sujo Meghwar, Zulfqar Ali laghari, Kanji Harijan, Muhib Ali Lagari, G. M. Mastoi, Ali Mohammad Rind

Abstract:

Thar Desert is the most populous Desert of the world. Climate variation in Thar Desert has induced an increase in the magnitude of drought. The variation in climate variation has caused a decrease in natural vegetations. Some plant species are eliminated forever. We have applied the SPI (standardized precipitation index) climate model to investigate the drought induced by climate change. We have gathered the anthropogenic response through a developed questionnaire. The data was analyzed in SPSS version 18. The met-data of two meteorological station elaborated by the time series has suggested an increase in temperature from 1-2.5 centigrade, the decrease in rain fall rainfall from 5-25% and reduction in humidity from 5-12 mm in the 20th century. The anthropogenic responses indicate high impact of climate change on human life and vegetations. Triangle data, we have collected, gives a new insight into the understanding of an association between climate change, drought and human activities.

Keywords: temperature, Human impact, Rainfall, Thar desert, vegetations, humidity

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10 Long-Term Indoor Air Monitoring for Students with Emphasis on Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Exposure

Authors: Seyedtaghi Mirmohammadi, Jamshid Yazdani, Syavash Etemadi Nejad

Abstract:

One of the main indoor air parameters in classrooms is dust pollution and it depends on the particle size and exposure duration. However, there is a lake of data about the exposure level to PM2.5 concentrations in rural area classrooms. The objective of the current study was exposure assessment for PM2.5 for students in the classrooms. One year monitoring was carried out for fifteen schools by time-series sampling to evaluate the indoor air PM2.5 in the rural district of Sari city, Iran. A hygrometer and thermometer were used to measure some psychrometric parameters (temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed) and Real-Time Dust Monitor, (MicroDust Pro, Casella, UK) was used to monitor particulate matters (PM2.5) concentration. The results show the mean indoor PM2.5 concentration in the studied classrooms was 135µg/m3. The regression model indicated that a positive correlation between indoor PM2.5 concentration and relative humidity, also with distance from city center and classroom size. Meanwhile, the regression model revealed that the indoor PM2.5 concentration, the relative humidity, and dry bulb temperature was significant at 0.05, 0.035, and 0.05 levels, respectively. A statistical predictive model was obtained from multiple regressions modeling for indoor PM2.5 concentration and indoor psychrometric parameters conditions.

Keywords: Regression, Classrooms, Concentration, humidity, particulate matters

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9 Polygeneration Solar Air Drying

Authors: Binoy Chandra Sarma, S. K. Deb

Abstract:

Over 85% of industrial dryers are of the convective type with hot air or direct flue gases as the drying medium. Over 99% of the applications involve removal of water. In this study, the performance of a solar air heater with the recovery of the absorbed heat by the metallic concentrator sheet itself besides the normal heat accumulated by the receiver at the focus of the concentrator for generating drying air by convection at a low to medium temperature range is discussed. The system performance through thermal analysis & the performance of a model achieving the required temperature range is also investigate in this study. Over 85% of industrial dryers are of the convective type with hot air or direct flue gases as the drying medium. Over 99% of the applications involve removal of water. In this study, the performance of a solar air heater with the recovery of the absorbed heat by the metallic concentrator sheet itself besides the normal heat accumulated by the receiver at the focus of the concentrator for generating drying air by convection at a low to medium temperature range is discussed. The system performance through thermal analysis & the performance of a model achieving the required temperature range is also investigate in this study.

Keywords: Equilibrium, polygeneration, moisture, humidity, dryer

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8 Preliminary Study of Desiccant Cooling System under Algerian Climates

Authors: N. Hatraf, N. Moummi

Abstract:

The interest in air conditioning using renewable energies is increasing. The thermal energy produced from the solar energy can be converted to useful cooling and heating through the thermochemical or thermophysical processes by using thermally activated energy conversion systems. The ambient air contains so much water that very high dehumidification rates are required. For a continuous dehumidification of the process air, the water adsorbed on the desiccant material has to be removed, which is done by allowing hot air to flow through the desiccant material (regeneration). A solid desiccant cooling system transfers moisture from the inlet air to the silica gel by using two processes: Absorption process and the regeneration process. The main aim of this paper is to study how the dehumidification rate, the generation temperature and many other factors influence the efficiency of a solid desiccant system by using TRNSYS software. The results show that the desiccant system could be used to decrease the humidity rate of the entering air.

Keywords: Efficiency, dehumidification, humidity, TRNSYS

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7 Assessment of Personal Level Exposures to Particulate Matter among Children in Rural Preliminary Schools as an Indoor Air Pollution Monitoring

Authors: Seyedtaghi Mirmohammadi, J. Yazdani, S. M. Asadi, M. Rokni, A. Toosi

Abstract:

There are many indoor air quality studies with an emphasis on indoor particulate matters (PM2.5) monitoring. Whereas, there is a lake of data about indoor PM2.5 concentrations in rural area schools (especially in classrooms), since preliminary children are assumed to be more defenseless to health hazards and spend a large part of their time in classrooms. The objective of this study was indoor PM2.5 concentration quality assessment. Fifteen preliminary schools by time-series sampling were selected to evaluate the indoor air quality in the rural district of Sari city, Iran. Data on indoor air climate parameters (temperature, relative humidity and wind speed) were measured by a hygrometer and thermometer. Particulate matters (PM2.5) were collected and assessed by Real Time Dust Monitor, (MicroDust Pro, Casella, UK). The mean indoor PM2.5 concentration in the studied classrooms was 135µg/m3 in average. The multiple linear regression revealed that a correlation between PM2.5 concentration and relative humidity, distance from city center and classroom size. Classroom size yields reasonable negative relationship, the PM2.5 concentration was ranged from 65 to 540μg/m3 and statistically significant at 0.05 level and the relative humidity was ranged from 70 to 85% and dry bulb temperature ranged from 28 to 29°C were statistically significant at 0.035 and 0.05 level, respectively. A statistical predictive model was obtained from multiple regressions modeling for PM2.5 and indoor psychrometric parameters.

Keywords: Regression, Classrooms, Concentration, humidity, particulate matters

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6 Effect of Climate Variability on Honeybee's Production in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Justin Orimisan Ijigbade

Abstract:

The study was conducted to assess the effect of climate variability on honeybee’s production in Ondo State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was employed to collect the data from 60 beekeepers across six Local Government Areas in Ondo State. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics and multiple regression model analyses. The results showed that 93.33% of the respondents were male with 80% above 40 years of age. Majority of the respondents (96.67%) had formal education and 90% produced honey for commercial purpose. The result revealed that 90% of the respondents admitted that low temperature as a result of long hours/period of rainfall affected the foraging efficiency of the worker bees, 73.33% claimed that long period of low humidity resulted in low level of nectar flow, while 70% submitted that high temperature resulted in improper composition of workers, dunes and queen in the hive colony. The result of multiple regression showed that beekeepers’ experience, educational level, access to climate information, temperature and rainfall were the main factors affecting honey bees production in the study area. Therefore, beekeepers should be given more education on climate variability and its adaptive strategies towards ensuring better honeybees production in the study area.

Keywords: Climate Variability, humidity, honeybees production, rainfall and temperature

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5 Simulation of Forest Fire Using Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Mohd Noah A. Rahman, Afzaal H. Seyal, Mohammad F. Fauzi, Nurul H. Shahba M. Shahrun, Nurul W. Hamzah

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a simulation system using Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) that will be distributed around the forest for early forest fire detection and to locate the areas affected. In Brunei Darussalam, approximately 78% of the nation is covered by forest. Since the forest is Brunei’s most precious natural assets, it is very important to protect and conserve our forest. The hot climate in Brunei Darussalam can lead to forest fires which can be a fatal threat to the preservation of our forest. The process consists of getting data from the sensors, analyzing the data and producing an alert. The key factors that we are going to analyze are the surrounding temperature, wind speed and wind direction, humidity of the air and soil.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Wind Direction, humidity, forest fire monitor

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4 Measurement of Temperature, Humidity and Strain Variation Using Bragg Sensor

Authors: Amira Zrelli, Tahar Ezzeddine

Abstract:

Measurement and monitoring of temperature, humidity and strain variation are very requested in great fields and areas such as structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Currently, the use of fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGS) is very recommended in SHM systems due to the specifications of these sensors. In this paper, we present the theory of Bragg sensor, therefore we try to measure the efficient variation of strain, temperature and humidity (SV, ST, SH) using Bragg sensor. Thus, we can deduce the fundamental relation between these parameters and the wavelength of Bragg sensor.

Keywords: temperature, strain, humidity, structural health monitoring (SHM), Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors (FBGS)

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3 Analysis of Thermal Comfort in Educational Buildings Using Computer Simulation: A Case Study in Federal University of Parana, Brazil

Authors: Ana Julia C. Kfouri

Abstract:

A prerequisite of any building design is to provide security to the users, taking the climate and its physical and physical-geometrical variables into account. It is also important to highlight the relevance of the right material elements, which arise between the person and the agent, and must provide improved thermal comfort conditions and low environmental impact. Furthermore, technology is constantly advancing, as well as computational simulations for projects, and they should be used to develop sustainable building and to provide higher quality of life for its users. In relation to comfort, the more satisfied the building users are, the better their intellectual performance will be. Based on that, the study of thermal comfort in educational buildings is of relative relevance, since the thermal characteristics in these environments are of vital importance to all users. Moreover, educational buildings are large constructions and when they are poorly planned and executed they have negative impacts to the surrounding environment, as well as to the user satisfaction, throughout its whole life cycle. In this line of thought, to evaluate university classroom conditions, it was accomplished a detailed case study on the thermal comfort situation at Federal University of Parana (UFPR). The main goal of the study is to perform a thermal analysis in three classrooms at UFPR, in order to address the subjective and physical variables that influence thermal comfort inside the classroom. For the assessment of the subjective components, a questionnaire was applied in order to evaluate the reference for the local thermal conditions. Regarding the physical variables, it was carried out on-site measurements, which consist of performing measurements of air temperature and air humidity, both inside and outside the building, as well as meteorological variables, such as wind speed and direction, solar radiation and rainfall, collected from a weather station. Then, a computer simulation based on results from the EnergyPlus software to reproduce air temperature and air humidity values of the three classrooms studied was conducted. The EnergyPlus outputs were analyzed and compared with the on-site measurement results to be possible to come out with a conclusion related to the local thermal conditions. The methodological approach included in the study allowed a distinct perspective in an educational building to better understand the classroom thermal performance, as well as the reason of such behavior. Finally, the study induces a reflection about the importance of thermal comfort for educational buildings and propose thermal alternatives for future projects, as well as a discussion about the significant impact of using computer simulation on engineering solutions, in order to improve the thermal performance of UFPR’s buildings.

Keywords: Computer Simulation, Thermal comfort, temperature, humidity, educational buildings, EnergyPlus

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2 Influence of Variable Calcium Content on Mechanical Properties of Geopolymer Synthesized at Different Temperature and Moisture Conditions

Authors: Suraj D. Khadka, Priyantha W. Jayawickrama

Abstract:

In search of a sustainable construction material, geopolymer has been investigated for past decades to evaluate its advantage over conventional products. Synthesis of geopolymer requires a source of aluminosilicate mixed with sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate at different proportions to maintain a Si/Al molar ratio of 1-3 and Na/Al molar ratio of unity. A comprehensive geopolymer study was performed with Metakaolin and Class C Fly ash as primary aluminosilicate sources. Synthesized geopolymer was analyzed for time-dependent viscosity, setting period and strength at varying initial moisture content, curing temperature and humidity. Different concentration of Ca(OH)₂ and CaSO₄.2H₂O were added to vary the amount of calcium contained in synthesized geopolymer. Influence of calcium content in unconfined compressive strength behavior of geopolymer were analyzed. Finally, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was performed to investigate the hardened product. It was observed that fly ash based geopolymer had shortened setting time and faster increase in viscosity as compared to geopolymer synthesized from metakaolin. This was primarily attributed to higher calcium content resulting in formation of calcium silicate hydrates (CSH). SEM-EDS was performed to verify the presence of CSH phases. Spectral analysis of geopolymer prepared by addition of Ca(OH)₂ and CaSO₄.2H₂O indicated higher CSH phases at higher concentration. It was observed that lower concentration of added calcium favored strength gain in geopolymer. However, at higher calcium concentration, decrease in strength was observed. Strength variation was also observed with humidity at initial curing condition. At 100% humidity, geopolymer with added calcium presented higher strength compared to samples cured at ambient humidity condition (40%). Reduction in strength in these samples at lower humidity was primarily attributed to reduction in moisture content in specimen due to the formation of CSH phases and loss of moisture through evaporation. For low calcium content geopolymers, with increase in temperature, gain in strength was observed with maximum strength observed at 200 ˚C. However, samples with higher calcium content demonstrated severe cracking resulting in low strength at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: Geopolymer, unconfined compressive strength, humidity, calcium silicate hydrates, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy

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1 Bonding Strength of Adhesive Scarf Joints Improved by Nano-Silica Subjected to Humidity

Authors: B. Paygozar, S.A. Dizaji, A.C. Kandemir

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of the modified adhesive including different concentrations of Nano-silica are surveyed on the bonding strength of the adhesive scarf joints. The nanoparticles are added in two different concentrations, to an epoxy-based two-component structural adhesive, Araldite 2011, to survey the influences of the nanoparticle weight percentage on the failure load of the joints compared to that of the joints manufactured by the neat adhesive. The effects of being exposure to a moist ambience on the joint strength are also investigated for the joints produced of both neat and modified adhesives. For this purpose, an ageing process was carried out on the joints of both neat and improved kinds with variable immersion periods (20, 40 and 60 days). All the specimens were tested under a quasi-static tensile loading of 2 mm/min speed so as to find the quantities of the failure loads. Outcomes indicate that the failure loads of the joints with modified adhesives are measurably higher than that of the joint with neat adhesive, even while being put for a while under a moist condition. Another result points out that humidity lessens the bonding strength of all the joints of both types as the exposure time increases, which can be attributed to the change in the failure mode.

Keywords: humidity, bonding strength, nano-silica, scarf joint

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