Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Humic Acid  Related Abstracts

8 Synthesis and Performance of Polyamide Forward Osmosis Membrane for Natural Organic Matter (NOM) Removal

Authors: M. N. Abu Seman, L. M. Kei, M. A. Yusoff

Abstract:

Forward Osmosis (FO) polyamide thin-film composite membranes have been prepared by inter facial polymerization using commercial UF polyethersulfone as membrane support. Different inter facial polymerization times (10s, 30s and 60s) in the organic solution containing trimesoyl chloride (TMC) at constant m-phenylenediamine (MPD) concentration (2% w/v) were studied. The synthesized polyamide membranes then tested for treatment of natural organic matter (NOM) and compared to commercial Cellulose TriAcetate (CTA) membrane. It was found that membrane prepared with higher reaction time (30 s and 60 s) exhibited better membrane performance (flux and humic acid removal) over commercial CTA membrane.

Keywords: Forward osmosis, Humic Acid , cellulose triacetate, polyamide

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7 Study of the Effect of Humic Acids on Soil Salinity Reduction

Authors: S. El Hasini, M. El Azzouzi, M. De Nobili, K. Azim, A. Zouahri

Abstract:

Soil salinization is one of the most severe environmental hazards which threaten sustainable agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions, including Morocco. In this regard the application of organic matter to saline soil has confirmed its effectiveness. The present study was aimed to examine the effect of humic acid which represent, among others, the important component of organic matter that contributes to reduce soil salinity. In fact, different composts taken from Agadir (Morocco), with different C/N ratio, were tested. After extraction and purification of humic acid, the interaction with Na2CO3 was carried out. The reduction of salinity is calculated as a value expressed in mg Na2CO3 equivalent/g HA. The results showed that humic acid had generally a significant effect on salinity. In that respect, the hypothesis proposed that carboxylic groups of humic acid create bonds with excess sodium in the soil to form a coherent complex which descends by leaching operation. The comparison between composts was based on C/N ratio, it showed that the compost with the lower ratio C/N had the most important effect on salinity reduction, whereas the compost with higher C/N ratio was less effective. The study is attended also to evaluate the quality of each compost by determining the humification index, we noticed that the compost which have the lowest C/N (20) ratio was relatively less stable, where a greater predominance of the humified substances, when the compost with C/N ratio is 35 exhibited higher stability.

Keywords: Organic Matter, Humic Acid , Salinity, compost

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6 Determination and Qsar Modelling of Partitioning Coefficients for Some Xenobiotics in Soils and Sediments

Authors: Alaa El-Din Rezk

Abstract:

For organic xenobiotics, sorption to Aldrich humic acid is a key process controlling their mobility, bioavailability, toxicity and fate in the soil. Hydrophobic organic compounds possessing either acid or basic groups can be partially ionized (deprotonated or protonated) within the range of natural soil pH. For neutral and ionogenicxenobiotics including (neutral, acids and bases) sorption coefficients normalized to organic carbon content, Koc, have measured at different pH values. To this end, the batch equilibrium technique has been used, employing SPME combined with GC-MSD as an analytical tool. For most ionogenic compounds, sorption has been affected by both pH and pKa and can be explained through Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. The results demonstrate that when assessing the environmental fate of ionogenic compounds, their pKa and speciation under natural conditions should be taken into account. A new model has developed to predict the relationship between log Koc and pH with full statistical evaluation against other existing predictive models. Neutral solutes have displayed a good fit with the classical model using log Kow as log Koc predictor, whereas acidic and basic compounds have displayed a good fit with the LSER approach and the new proposed model. Measurement limitations of the Batch technique and SPME-GC-MSD have been found with ionic compounds.

Keywords: Humic Acid , log Koc, pKa, SPME-GCMSD

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5 Characterization of Organic Matter in Spodosol Amazonian by Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Authors: Amanda M. Tadini, Houssam Hajjoul, Gustavo Nicolodelli, Stéphane Mounier, Célia R. Montes, Débora M. B. P. Milori

Abstract:

Soil organic matter (SOM) plays an important role in maintaining soil productivity and accounting for the promotion of biological diversity. The main components of the SOM are the humic substances which can be fractionated according to its solubility in humic acid (HA), fulvic acids (FA) and humin (HU). The determination of the chemical properties of organic matter as well as its interaction with metallic species is an important tool for understanding the structure of the humic fractions. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been studied as a source of information about what is happening at the molecular level in these compounds. Specially, soils of Amazon region are an important ecosystem of the planet. The aim of this study is to understand the molecular and structural composition of HA samples from Spodosol of Amazonia using the fluorescence Emission-Excitation Matrix (EEM) and Time Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRFS). The results showed that the samples of HA showed two fluorescent components; one has a more complex structure and the other one has a simpler structure, which was also seen in TRFS through the evaluation of each sample lifetime. Thus, studies of this nature become important because it aims to evaluate the molecular and structural characteristics of the humic fractions in the region that is considered as one of the most important regions in the world, the Amazon.

Keywords: Characterization, Humic Acid , Fluorescence, lifetime, Amazonian soil

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4 Spectrophotometric Determination of Photohydroxylated Products of Humic Acid in the Presence of Salicylate Probe

Authors: Julide Hizal Yucesoy, Batuhan Yardimci, Aysem Arda, Resat Apak

Abstract:

Humic substances produce reactive oxygene species such as hydroxyl, phenoxy and superoxide radicals by oxidizing in a wide pH and reduction potential range. Hydroxyl radicals, produced by reducing agents such as antioxidants and/or peroxides, attack on salicylate probe, and form 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate species. These species are quantitatively determined by using HPLC Method. Humic substances undergo photodegradation by UV radiation. As a result of their antioxidant properties, they produce hydroxyl radicals. In the presence of salicylate probe, these hydroxyl radicals react with salicylate molecules to form hydroxylated products (dihidroxybenzoate isomers). In this study, humic acid was photodegraded in a photoreactor at 254 nm (400W), formed hydroxyl radicals were caught by salicylate probe. The total concentration of hydroxylated salicylate species was measured by using spectrophotometric CUPRAC Method. And also, using results of time dependent experiments, kinetic of photohydroxylation was determined at different pHs. This method has been applied for the first time to measure the concentration of hydroxylated products. It allows to achieve the results easier than HPLC Method.

Keywords: Humic Acid , CUPRAC method, photohydroxylation, salicylate probe

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3 Effects of the Supplementation of Potassium Humate at Different Levels to the Dairy Cows' Concentrated Mix during Dry Period on Early Lactation Yield Parameters and Dam/Calf Immunity

Authors: Cangir Uyarlar, E. Eren Gultepe, I. Sadi Cetingul, Ismail Bayram

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of humic acid (Potassium Humate) at different levels on rations on the effects of both maternal and offspring health, metabolic parameters and immunity levels in transition dairy cows. For this purpose, 50 Holstein dairy cows divided 5 trial groups. Experimental groups were designed as follows: A) Control (0% Humas); B) 0.5 Humas (0,5% in concentrated diet); C) 1 Humas (1% in concentrated diet), D) 1,5 Humas (1,5% in concentrated diet), E) 2 Humas (2% in concentrated diet), respectively. The study lasted from the first day of the dry period to postpartum 30th day. Diets were prepared as isocaloric and isonitrogenic. In the experiment, the day on which the animals gave birth was accepted as ‘0 (zero)’ and blood was taken from tail vein (v. coccygea) at -60, -53, -46, -39, -32, -25, -18, -11, -4, 0, ; Colostrum samples were taken on days 0, 1 and 2; Blood samples were taken on days 0, 1, 2, 15 and 30 from the juguler vein (v. jugularis) of the new born calves. Total blood leukocyte, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, granulocytes, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MWC, RDW, PLT, MPV, PDW, PCT, NEFA, BHBA, Glucose, Total Cholesterol , Triglyceride, LDL, HDL, VLDL, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and Total IgG levels and colostrum IgG levels were determined in this experiment. The results suggest that although the supplementation of humic acid at 2% level adversely affected to production parameters, the addition of humic acid (potassium humate) to the concentrate mix during the dry period (particularly 0.5 and 1% levels) may provide an increasing on mother and the offspring immunity, some improving on serum metabolism parameters and enhancing the milk production.

Keywords: Immunity, Humic Acid , Calf, dairy cow

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2 Humic Acid and Azadirachtin Derivatives for the Management of Crop Pests

Authors: R. S. Giraddi, C. M. Poleshi

Abstract:

Organic cultivation of crops is gaining importance consumer awareness towards pesticide residue free foodstuffs is increasing globally. This is also because of high costs of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, making the conventional farming non-remunerative. In India, organic manures (such as vermicompost) are an important input in organic agriculture.  Though vermicompost obtained through earthworm and microbe-mediated processes is known to comprise most of the crop nutrients, but they are in small amounts thus necessitating enrichment of nutrients so that crop nourishment is complete. Another characteristic of organic manures is that the pest infestations are kept under check due to induced resistance put up by the crop plants. In the present investigation, deoiled neem cake containing azadirachtin, copper ore tailings (COT), a source of micro-nutrients and microbial consortia were added for enrichment of vermicompost. Neem cake is a by-product obtained during the process of oil extraction from neem plant seeds. Three enriched vermicompost blends were prepared using vermicompost (at 70, 65 and 60%), deoiled neem cake (25, 30 and 35%), microbial consortia and COTwastes (5%). Enriched vermicompost was thoroughly mixed, moistened (25+5%), packed and incubated for 15 days at room temperature. In the crop response studies, the field trials on chili (Capsicum annum var. longum) and soybean, (Glycine max cv JS 335) were conducted during Kharif 2015 at the Main Agricultural Research Station, UAS, Dharwad-Karnataka, India. The vermicompost blend enriched with neem cake (known to possess higher amounts of nutrients) and vermicompost were applied to the crops and at two dosages and at two intervals of crop cycle (at sowing and 30 days after sowing) as per the treatment plan along with 50% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF). 10 plants selected randomly in each plot were studied for pest density and plant damage. At maturity, crops were harvested, and the yields were recorded as per the treatments, and the data were analyzed using appropriate statistical tools and procedures. In the crops, chili and soybean, crop nourishment with neem enriched vermicompost reduced insect density and plant damage significantly compared to other treatments. These treatments registered as much yield (16.7 to 19.9 q/ha) as that realized in conventional chemical control (18.2 q/ha) in soybean, while 72 to 77 q/ha of green chili was harvested in the same treatments, being comparable to the chemical control (74 q/ha). The yield superiority of the treatments was of the order neem enriched vermicompost>conventional chemical control>neem cake>vermicompost>untreated control.  The significant features of the result are that it reduces use of inorganic manures by 50% and synthetic chemical insecticides by 100%.

Keywords: Humic Acid , vermicompost, azadirachtin, insect-pest

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1 Finding the Reaction Constant between Humic Acid and Aluminum Ion by Fluorescence Quenching Effect

Authors: Wen Po Cheng, Chen Zhao Feng, Ruey Fang Yu, Lin Jia Jun, Lin Ji Ye, Chen Yuan Wei

Abstract:

Humic acid was used as the removal target for evaluating the coagulation efficiency in this study. When the coagulant ions mix with a humic acid solution, a Fluorescence quenching effect may be observed conditionally. This effect can be described by Stern-Volmer linear equation which can be used for quantifying the quenching value (Kq) of the Fluorescence quenching effect. In addition, a Complex-Formation Titration (CFT) theory was conducted and the result was used to explain the electron-neutralization capability of the coagulant (AlCl₃) at different pH. The results indicated that when pH of the ACl₃ solution was between 6 and 8, fluorescence quenching effect obviously occurred. The maximum Kq value was found to be 102,524 at pH 6. It means that the higher the Kq value is, the better complex reaction between a humic acid and aluminum salts will be. Through the Kq value study, the optimum pH can be quantified when the humic acid solution is coagulated with aluminum ions.

Keywords: Humic Acid , titration, fluorescence quenching effect, complex reaction

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