Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Humans Related Abstracts

4 Effect of Oral Administration of “Gadagi” Tea on Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Humans

Authors: A. M. Gadanya, B. A. Ahmad, U. Maigatari


Effect of oral administration of Gadagi tea on superoxide dismutase activity was assessed on twenty (20) male subjects (aged 21-40years). Ten (10) male non Gadagi tea consumers (aged 20-26 years), were used as control. Blood samples were collected from the subjects and analysed for serum superoxide dismutase activity using R&D Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method (ELISA). The subjects were grouped into four based on age i.e group I (21-25 years), group II (26-30 years), and also based on duration of the tea consumption, i.e group A (5-9 years) , group B (10-14 years), group C (15-19 years) and group D (20-24 years). The subjects in group I (0.12 U mg-l +0.05), group II (0.11 U mg-l +0.01), group III (0.14 U mg-l +0.08) and group IV (0.17 U mg-l +0.11) showed increased activity of serum superoxide dismutase when compared with the control subjects (0.88 U mg-l +0.02) (P<0.05). There was no statistical significant difference in superoxide dismutase activity within the case groups (P<0.05), based on age and duration of consumption of the tea. Thus, Gadagi tea consumption could increase serum superoxide dismutase activity in humans.

Keywords: Humans, serum, “Gadagi” tea, superoxide dismutase

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3 The Antrophological Determination of Pedagogy

Authors: Sara Kakuk


Pedagogy has always been open to other disciplines that reflect about the educational process (philosophy, sociology, psychology, anthropology, technology, etc.). Its interdisciplinary openness puts education, as the subject of pedagogy within a broader context of the community, enabling the knowledge of other disciplines to contribute to a better understanding of the fundamental pedagogical notion of education. The purpose of pedagogy as a science serves humans, strives towards humans, must be for humans, and this is its ultimate goal. Humans are essentially dependent on education, which is also considered as a category of humans’ being, because through education an entire world develops in humans. Anthropological assumptions of humans as "deficient beings" see the solution in education, but they also indicate a wealth of shortcomings, because they provide an opportunity for enrichment and formation of culture, living and the self. In that context, this paper illustrates the determination of pedagogy through an anthropological conception of humans and the phenomenon of education. It presents a review of anthropological ideas about education, by providing an analysis of relevant literature dealing with the anthropological notion of humans, which provides fruitful conditions for a pedagogical reconsideration of education.

Keywords: Education, pedagogy, Anthropology, Humans, Culture

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2 Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors of Bovine Brucellosis under Diverse Production Systems in Central Punjab, Paksitan

Authors: A. Khan, I. Khan, M. Younus, S. E. Haque, U. Waheed, H. Neubauer, A. A. Anjum, S. A. Muhammad, A. Idrees T. Abbas, S. Raza, M. A. Ali, M. Farooq, M. Mahmood, A. Hussain, H. Danish, U. Tayyab, M. Zafar, M. Aslam.


Brucellosis is one of the major problems of milk producing animals in our country which deteriorate the health of livestock. It is a disease of zoonotic significance which is capable of producing disease in humans leading to infertility, orchitis, abortions, and synovitis. In this particular study, milk and serum samples of cattle and buffalo (n=402) were collected from different districts of Punjab including Narowal, Gujranwala and Gujrat. Milk samples were analyzed by Milk Ring Test (MRT), while serum samples were tested through Rose Bengal Plate agglutination Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (i-ELISA). The sample tested with MRT were 9.5% positive, including cattle 9.6% and buffalo 9.3%. While using the RBPT test for the detection of serum samples and for screening purpose it was observed that 16.4% animals were seropositive, cattle were 18.8% and buffalo were 13.9% seropositive. The higher prevalence of brucellosis indicates the danger of the disease to human population. The serum samples positive by RBPT were further confirmed by the use of most specific and sensitive serological test known as i-ELISA. 11.4% animals were confirmed as seropositive by i-ELISA including cattle 13.5% seropositive and buffalo 9.3%. The results indicated high seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle as compared to buffalos. Different risk factors were also studied to know the association between disease and their spread. Advanced age, larger herds, history of abortion and pregnancy of the animals is considered to be the important factors for the prevalence and spread of the hazardous zoonotic disease. It is a core issue of developing countries like Pakistan and has major public health impact.

Keywords: Humans, Brucellosis, infertility, seroprevalence, bovines, orchitis, abortions

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1 Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Health Benefits and Sources

Authors: Hilal Ahmad Punoo


Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with two conjugated double bonds. Of more than a dozen isomers of CLA found naturally in dairy and meat products from ruminants, c-9, t-11 and t-10, c-12 are the two isomers with known physiological importance, including anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, antilipogenic, and antiatherosclerotic effects. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) may influence the onset and severity of several chronic diseases, including various cancers, atherosclerosis, obesity, bone density loss, and diabetes. These findings are of special interest to the agriculture community, because dietary sources of CLA are almost exclusively beef and dairy products. Thus, a better understanding of the specific isomers and mechanisms responsible for these positive effects of CLA on human health would be both prudent and economically beneficial. To date, research related to the advantages of CLA consumption on human health has been conducted using experimental laboratory animals and cell culture systems. These data consistently show that relatively low levels of CLA can influence risk of cancer. Further, very recent investigations suggest that the predominate CLA isoform (cis-9, trans-11 CLA or rumenic acid) found in beef and milk fat possesses anticarcinogenic effects but does not alter body composition; the trans-10, cis-12 CLA has been shown to inhibit lipogenesis. Clearly, further work, especially using human subjects, will be required to characterize the potential benefits of CLA consumption on human health. Moreover, we suggest that foods naturally containing high amounts of CLA (e.g., beef and dairy products) be considered as meeting the definition of functional foods.

Keywords: Humans, Animals, Conjugated Linoleic Acid, potential health benefits, fats

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