Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Human Related Abstracts

12 Biomass Energy: "The Boon for the Would"

Authors: Shubham Giri Goswami, Yogesh Tiwari

Abstract:

In today’s developing world, India and other countries are developing different instruments and accessories for the better standard and life to be happy and prosper. But rather than this we human-beings have been using different energy sources accordingly, many persons such as scientist, researchers etc have developed many Energy sources like renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Like fossil fuel, coal, gas, petroleum products as non-renewable sources, and solar, wind energy as renewable energy source. Thus all non-renewable energy sources, these all Created pollution as in form of air, water etc. due to ultimate use of these sources by human the future became uncertain. Thus to minimize all this environmental affects and destroy the healthy environment we discovered a solution as renewable energy source. Renewable energy source in form of biomass energy, solar, wind etc. We found different techniques in biomass energy, that good energy source for people. The domestic waste, and is a good source of energy as daily extract from cow in form of dung and many other domestic products naturally can be used eco-friendly fertilizers. Moreover, as from my point of view the cow is able to extract 08-12 kg of dung which can be used to make wormy compost fertilizers. Furthermore, the calf urine as insecticides and use of such a compounds will lead to destroy insects and thus decrease communicable diseases. Therefore, can be used by every person and biomass energy can be in those areas such as rural areas where non-renewable energy sources cannot reach easily. Biomass can be used to develop fertilizers, cow-dung plants and other power generation techniques, and this energy is clean and pollution free and is available everywhere thus saves our beautiful planet or blue or life giving planet called as “EARTH”. We can use the biomass energy, which may be boon for the world in future.

Keywords: Human, Wind, Energy, Solar energy, biomass, renewable, Environment, Pollution, Sources

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11 Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) through Harvesting Encosternum delegorguei Insect (Harurwa) in Nerumedzo, Bikita District, Zimbabwe

Authors: Mkhokheli Sithole, Brenda N. Muchapondwa

Abstract:

Food security is becoming a critical issue for people residing mainly in the rural areas where frequent droughts interrupt food production, reduce income, compromise the ability to save and erode livelihoods. This tends to increase the vulnerability of poor households to food and income insecurity, hence, malnutrition. There is an emerging need for DRR strategies to complement the existing rain fed crop production based livelihoods. One of such strategies employed by the community of Nerumedzo in Bikita district is the harvesting of Encosternum delegorguei insect. This article analyses the livelihood impacts of Encosternum delegorguei insect as a DRR strategy. The research used a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches. The insect samples were tested in the laboratory for their nutritional composition while surveys were done on a sample of 40 community members. Participatory observations and 5 focus group discussions were also done. The results revealed that harvesting the Encosternum delegorguei insects provides a livelihood for the locals by complementing crop production thereby mitigating potential negative effects of frequent droughts. The insects are now a significant source of income to poor households in the community.

Keywords: Human, Social Sciences, Disaster Risk Reduction, livelihoods

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10 Reforming Traditional and Cultural Practices in Nigeria for Enhancement and Sustainable Development in the 21st Century: A Case Study of the Jukun People

Authors: Iliya Ibrahim Gimba

Abstract:

Human beings or groups over the world have a traditional and cultural practices which guide and direct their ways of life. They value and promote these practices not minding the attitude of others towards them. In spite of the place of culture which is an embodiment of these practices in every human society some people still reduce the understanding of culture to idolatry and other archaic and anachronistic arts good perhaps only for the museum. Others consider culture to be just drumming and dancing. Whether a culture is “good” or “bad”, civilized or barbaric, it can be reformed for the betterment of the society. Hence, this paper focuses on reforming traditional and cultural practices in Nigeria for enhancing development in the 21st century using the Jukun people as a case study. Relevant literatures from journals, reports, published books among others will be consulted.

Keywords: Human, Sustainable Development, Jukun, traditional and cultural practices

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9 Human Security: The Boko Haram Menace in Northern Nigeria in the 21st Century

Authors: Jimoh Yusuf Amuda

Abstract:

Human security is a great panacea for sustainable development of world societies. Today the whole globe cum human species is living in nightmares of insecurity. This is due to acts of terrorism by various terrorists’ organization worldwide. The situation is on the increase daily. The number of lives and properties lost to religious insurgency cannot be quantifiably analyzed. It is on this note that this paper examine the book haram menace in northern Nigerian vis-à-vis it’s threat to the existence of human lives. The methodology applied for this research is the multi-disciplinary approach, the use journal articles, news papers, magazines, oral interview. Field trips to areas of terrorist attack and the use of text books. The following recommendations were made base on the findings. First of all the Nigerian government should declare total war on the book haram terrorist, then secondly the source of armament coming to this terrorist should be blocked, thirdly the European world should also place an arms embargo on terrorist source arms demands, also security agencies-police, the military, immigration, customs, state security service should work hand-in-hand, in a security tight measures to reduce the penetration of insurgent into the society.

Keywords: Human, Security, Terrorism, insecurity

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8 Campylobacteriosis as a Zoonotic Disease

Authors: A. Jafarzadeh, G. R. Hashemi Tabar

Abstract:

Campylobacteriosis is caused by Campylobacter organisms. This is most commonly caused by C. jejuni, It is among the most common bacterial infections of humans, often a foodborne illness. It produces an inflammatory, sometimes bloody, diarrhea or dysentery syndrome, mostly including cramps, fever and pain. It is found in cattle, swine, and birds, where it is non-pathogenic. But the illness can also be caused by C. coli (also found in cattle, swine, and birds) C. upsaliensis (found in cats and dogs) and C. lari (present in seabirds in particular). Infection with a Campylobacter species is one of the most common causes of human bacterial gastroenteritis. For instance, an estimated 2 million cases of Campylobacter enteritis occur annually in the U.S., accounting for 5-7% of cases of gastroenteritis. Furthermore, in the United Kingdom during 2000 Campylobacter jejuni was involved in 77.3% in all cases of foodborne illness. 15 out of every 100,000 people are diagnosed with campylobacteriosis every year, and with many cases going unreported, up to 0.5% of the general population may unknowingly harbor Campylobacter in their gut annually. A large animal reservoir is present as well, with up to 100% of poultry, including chickens, turkeys, and waterfowl, having asymptomatic infections in their intestinal tracts. An infected chicken may contain up to 109 bacteria per 25 grams, and due to the installations, the bacteria is rapidly spread to other chicken. This vastly exceeds the infectious dose of 1000-10,000 bacteria for humans. In this article this disease is fully discussed in human and animals.

Keywords: Human, Animal, Zoonosis, campylobacteriosis

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7 Evidence for Replication of an Unusual G8P[14] Human Rotavirus Strain in the Feces of an Alpine Goat: Zoonotic Transmission from Caprine Species

Authors: Amine Alaoui Sanae, Tagjdid Reda, Loutfi Chafiqa, Melloul Merouane, Laloui Aziz, Touil Nadia, El Fahim, E. Mostafa

Abstract:

Background: Rotavirus group A (RVA) strains with G8P[14] specificities are usually detected in calves and goats. However, these strains have been reported globally in humans and have often been characterized as originating from zoonotic transmissions, particularly in area where ruminants and humans live side-by-side. Whether human P[14] genotypes are two-way and can be transmitted to animal species remains to be established. Here we describe VP4 deduced amino-acid relationships of three Moroccan P[14] genotypes originating from different species and the receptiveness of an alpine goat to a human G8P[14] through an experimental infection. Material/methods: the human MA31 RVA strain was originally identified in a four years old girl presenting an acute gastroenteritis hospitalized at the pediatric care unit in Rabat Hospital in 2011. The virus was isolated and propagated in MA104 cells in the presence of trypsin. Ch_10S and 8045_S animal RVA strains were identified in fecal samples of a 2-week-old native goat and 3-week-old calf with diarrhea in 2011 in Bouaarfa and My Bousselham respectively. Genomic RNAs of all strains were subjected to a two-step RT-PCR and sequenced using the consensus primers VP4. The phylogenetic tree for MA31, Ch_10S and 8045_S VP4 and a set of published P[14] genotypes was constructed using MEGA6 software. The receptivity of MA31 strain by an eight month-old alpine goat was assayed. The animal was orally and intraperitonally inoculated with a dose of 8.5 TCID50 of virus stock at passage level 3. The shedding of the virus was tested by a real time RT-PCR assay. Results: The phylogenetic tree showed that the three Moroccan strains MA31, Ch_10S and 8045_S VP4 were highly related to each other (100% similar at the nucleotide level). They were clustered together with the B10925, Sp813, PA77 and P169 strains isolated in Belgium, Spain and Italy respectively. The Belgian strain B10925 was the most closely related to the Moroccan strains. In contrast, the 8045_S and Ch_10S strains were clustered distantly from the Tunisian calf strain B137 and the goat strain cap455 isolated in South Africa respectively. The human MA31 RVA strain was able to induce bloody diarrhea at 2 days post infection (dpi) in the alpine goat kid. RVA virus shedding started by 2 dpi (Ct value of 28) and continued until 5 dpi (Ct value of 25) with a concomitant elevation in the body temperature. Conclusions: Our study while limited to one animal, is the first study proving experimentally that a human P[14] genotype causes diarrhea and virus shedding in the goat. This result reinforce the potential role of inter- species transmission in generating novel and rare rotavirus strains such G8P[14] which infect humans.

Keywords: Human, Goat, rotavirus, interspecies transmission

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6 Current Status and Prospects of Further Control of Brucellosis in Humans and Domestic Ruminants in Bangladesh

Authors: A. K. M. Anisur Rahman

Abstract:

Brucellosis is an ancient and one of the world's most widespread zoonotic diseases affecting both, public health and animal production. Its current status in humans and domestic ruminants along with probable means to control further in Bangladesh are described. The true exposure prevalence of brucellosis in cattle, goats, and sheep seems to be low: 0.3% in cattle, 1% in goats and 1.2% in sheep. The true prevalence of brucellosis in humans was also reported to be around 2%. In such a low prevalence scenario both in humans and animals, the positive predictive values of the diagnostic tests were very low. The role Brucella species in the abortion of domestic ruminants is less likely. Still now, no Brucella spp. was isolated from animal and human samples. However, Brucella abortus DNA was detected from seropositive humans, cattle, and buffalo; milk of cow, goats, and gayals and semen of an infected bull. Consuming raw milk and unpasteurized milk products by Bangladeshi people are not common. Close contact with animals, artificial insemination using semen from infected bulls, grazing mixed species of animals together in the field and transboundary animal movement are important factors, which should be considered for the further control of this zoonosis in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Human, Control, Brucellosis, Zoonosis

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5 Tuberculosis in Humans and Animals in the Eastern Part of the Sudan

Authors: Yassir Adam Shuaib, Stefan Niemann, Eltahir Awad Khalil, Ulrich Schaible, Lothar Heinz Wieler, Mohammed Ahmed Bakhiet, Abbashar Osman Mohammed, Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla, Elvira Richter

Abstract:

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic bacterial disease of humans and animals and it is characterized by the progressive development of specific granulomatous tubercle lesions in affected tissues. In a six-month study, from June to November 2014, a total of 2,304 carcasses of cattle, camel, sheep, and goats slaughtered at East and West Gaash slaughterhouses, Kassala, were investigated during postmortem, in parallel, 101 sputum samples from TB suspected patients at Kassala and El-Gadarif Teaching Hospitals were collected in order to investigate tuberculosis in animals and humans. Only 0.1% carcasses were found with suspected TB lesions in the liver and lung and peritoneal cavity of two sheep and no tuberculous lesions were found in the carcasses of cattle, goats or camels. All samples, tissue lesions and sputum, were decontaminated by the NALC-NaOH method and cultured for mycobacterial growth at the NRZ for Mycobacteria, Research Center Borstel, Germany. Genotyping and molecular characterization of the grown strains were done by line probe assay (GenoType CM and MTBC) and 16S rDNA, rpoB gene, and ITS sequencing, spoligotyping, MIRU-VNTR typing and next generation sequencing (NGS). Culture of the specimens revealed growth of organisms from 81.6% of all samples. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (76.2%), M. intracellulare (14.2%), mixed infection with M. tuberculosis and M. intracellulare (6.0%) and mixed infection with M. tuberculosis and M. fortuitum and with M. intracellulare and unknown species (1.2%) were detected in the sputum samples and unknown species (1.2%) were detected in the samples of one of the animals tissues. From the 69 M. tuberculosis strains, 25 (36.2%) were showing either mono-drug-resistant or multi-drug-resistant or poly-drug-resistant but none was extensively drug-resistant. In conclusion, the prevalence of TB in animals was very low while in humans M. tuberculosis-Delhi/CAS lineage was responsible for most cases and there was an evidence of MDR transmission and acquisition.

Keywords: Human, Animal, Tuberculosis, sudan, slaughterhouse

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4 Pathomorphological Markers of the Explosive Wave Action on Human Brain

Authors: Sergey Kozlov, Juliya Kozlova

Abstract:

Introduction: The increased attention of researchers to an explosive trauma around the world is associated with a constant renewal of military weapons and a significant increase in terrorist activities using explosive devices. Explosive wave is a well known damaging factor of explosion. The most sensitive to the action of explosive wave in the human body are the head brain, lungs, intestines, urine bladder. The severity of damage to these organs depends on the distance from the explosion epicenter to the object, the power of the explosion, presence of barriers, parameters of the body position, and the presence of protective clothing. One of the places where a shock wave acts, in human tissues and organs, is the vascular endothelial barrier, which suffers the greatest damage in the head brain and lungs. The objective of the study was to determine the pathomorphological changes of the head brain followed the action of explosive wave. Materials and methods of research: To achieve the purpose of the study, there have been studied 6 male corpses delivered to the morgue of Municipal Institution "Dnipropetrovsk regional forensic bureau" during 2014-2016 years. The cause of death of those killed was a military explosive injury. After a visual external assessment of the head brain, for histological study there was conducted the 1 x 1 x 1 cm/piece sampling from different parts of the head brain, i.e. the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital sites, and also from the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, thalamus, walls of the lateral ventricles, the bottom of the 4th ventricle. Pieces of the head brain were immersed in 10% formalin solution for 24 hours. After fixing, the paraffin blocks were made from the material using the standard method. Then, using a microtome, there were made sections of 4-6 micron thickness from paraffin blocks which then were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Microscopic analysis was performed using a light microscope with x4, x10, x40 lenses. Results of the study: According to the results of our study, injuries of the head brain were divided into macroscopic and microscopic. Macroscopic injuries were marked according to the results of visual assessment of haemorrhages under the membranes and into the substance, their nature, and localisation, areas of softening. In the microscopic study, our attention was drawn to both vascular changes and those of neurons and glial cells. Microscopic qualitative analysis of histological sections of different parts of the head brain revealed a number of structural changes both at the cellular and tissue levels. Typical changes in most of the studied areas of the head brain included damages of the vascular system. The most characteristic microscopic sign was the separation of vascular walls from neuroglia with the formation of perivascular space. Along with this sign, wall fragmentation of these vessels, haemolysis of erythrocytes, formation of haemorrhages in the newly formed perivascular spaces were found. In addition to damages of the cerebrovascular system, destruction of the neurons, presence of oedema of the brain tissue were observed in the histological sections of the brain. On some sections, the head brain had a heterogeneous step-like or wave-like nature. Conclusions: The pathomorphological microscopic changes in the brain, identified in the study on the died of explosive traumas, can be used for diagnostic purposes in conjunction with other characteristic signs of explosive trauma in forensic and pathological studies. The complex of microscopic signs in the head brain, i.e. separation of blood vessel walls from neuroglia with the perivascular space formation, fragmentation of walls of these blood vessels, erythrocyte haemolysis, formation of haemorrhages in the newly formed perivascular spaces is the direct indication of explosive wave action.

Keywords: Human, Brain, Neurotrauma, blast wave

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3 Investigation of Norovirus Genogroups (GI, GII and GIV) in Stool of Pet Dogs with Diarrhea

Authors: S. Sokel, M. Kale

Abstract:

Norovirus (NoV) infection is effective and contagious in humans and many animals such as calves, pigs, dogs, cats, monkeys. There is not enough evidence about the zoonotic transmission of NoV between humans and animals. However, the fact that contamination of foods and environment by animal/human waste happens in indirect way leads to consideration of the agent as a zoonotic character. In our study, we aim to search the presence of NoV infection, which is a major public health problem, in possessed dogs showing diarrhea symptoms, to detect its genotype and to study nutrition and life conditions. We searched the existence of human NoV GI, GII and GIV in the stool of 128 pet dogs in Burdur Province with diarrhoea in various sex, age and breed by using Real-Time PCR method. Human NoV GII was found in only 5 of the 128 dog stool samples (3.91%). In the study, it was determined that the owners of the dogs with NoV GII are middle aged or elderly people most of whom are male and that there were no children in their houses. As these dogs are treated like the owner’s child, it is assumed that they could be transmitted with NoV GII as a result of close interaction with their owner.

Keywords: Human, Dog, real-time PCR, norovirus, stool

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2 Loss of Green Space in Urban Metropolitan and Its Alarming Impacts on Teenagers' Life: A Case Study on Dhaka

Authors: Nuzhat Sharmin

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Human being is the most integral part of the nature and responsible for maintaining ecological balance both in rural and urban areas. But unfortunately, we are not doing our job with a holistic approach. The rapid growth of urbanization is making human life more isolated from greenery. Nowadays modern urban living involves sensory deprivation and overloaded stress. In many cities and towns of the world are expanding unabated in the name of urbanization and industrialization and in fact becoming jungles of concrete. Dhaka is one of the examples of such cities where open and green spaces are decreasing because of accommodating the overflow of population. This review paper has been prepared based on interviewing 30 teenagers, both male and female in Dhaka city. There were 12 open-ended questions in the questionnaire. For the literature review information had been gathered from scholarly papers published in various peer-reviewed journals. Some information was collected from the newspapers and some from fellow colleagues working around the world. Ideally about 25% of an urban area should be kept open or with parks, fields and/or plants and vegetation. But currently Dhaka has only about 10-12% open space and these also are being filled up rapidly. Old Dhaka has only about 5% open space while the new Dhaka has about 12%. Dhaka is now one of the most populated cities in the world. Accommodating this huge influx of people Dhaka is continuously losing its open space. As a result, children and teenagers are losing their interest in playing games and making friends, rather they are mostly occupied by television, gadgets and social media. It has been known from the interview that only 28% of teenagers regularly play. But the majority of them have to play on the street and rooftop for the lack of open space. On an average they are occupied with electronic devices for 8.3 hours/day. 64% of them has chronic diseases and often visit doctors. Most shockingly 35% of them claimed for not having any friends. Green space offers relief from stress. Areas of natural environment in towns and cities are theoretically seen providing setting for recovery and recuperation from anxiety and strains of the urban environment. Good quality green spaces encourage people to walk, run, cycle and play. Green spaces improve air quality and reduce noise, while trees and shrubbery help to filter out dust and pollutants. Relaxation, contemplation and passive recreation are essential to stress management. All city governments that are losing its open spaces should immediately pay attention to this aesthetic issue for the benefit of urban people. All kinds of development must be sustainable both for human being and nature.

Keywords: Human, Health, Urban, greenery

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1 The Effect of Common Daily Schedule on the Human Circadian Rhythms during the Polar Day on Svalbard: Field Study

Authors: Kamila Weissova, Jitka Skrabalova, Katerina Skalova, Jana Koprivova, Zdenka Bendova

Abstract:

Any Arctic visitor has to deal with extreme conditions, including constant light during the summer season or constant darkness during winter time. Light/dark cycle is the most powerful synchronizing signal for biological clock and the absence of daily dark period during the polar day can significantly alter the functional state of the internal clock. However, the inner clock can be synchronized by other zeitgebers such as physical activity, food intake or social interactions. Here, we investigated the effect of polar day on circadian clock of 10 researchers attending the polar base station in the Svalbard region during July. The data obtained on Svalbard were compared with the data obtained before the researchers left for the expedition (in the Czech Republic). To determine the state of circadian clock we used wrist actigraphy followed by sleep diaries, saliva, and buccal mucosa samples, both collected every 4 hours during 24h-interval to detect melatonin by radioimmunoassay and clock gene (PER1, BMAL1, NR1D1, DBP) mRNA levels by RT-qPCR. The clock gene expression was analyzed using cosinor analysis. From our results, it is apparent that the constant sunlight delayed melatonin onset and postponed the physical activity in the same order. Nevertheless, the clock gene expression displayed higher amplitude on Svalbard compared to the amplitude detected in the Czech Republic. These results have suggested that the common daily schedule at the Svalbard expedition can strengthen circadian rhythm in the environment that is lacking light/dark cycle. In conclusion, the constant sunlight delays melatonin onset, but it still maintains its rhythmic secretion. The effect of constant sunlight on circadian clock can be minimalized by common daily scheduled activity.

Keywords: Human, Melatonin, actighraph, clock genes, polar day

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