Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Human Factors Related Abstracts

14 Resource Efficiency within Current Production

Authors: Sarah Majid Ansari, Serjosha Wulf, Matthias Goerke

Abstract:

In times of global warming and the increasing shortage of resources, sustainable production is becoming more and more inevitable. Companies cannot only heighten their competitiveness but also contribute positively to environmental protection through efficient energy and resource consumption. Regarding this, technical solutions are often preferred during production, although organizational and process-related approaches also offer great potential. This project focuses on reducing resource usage, with a special emphasis on the human factor. It is the aspiration to develop a methodology that systematically implements and embeds suitable and individual measures and methods regarding resource efficiency throughout the entire production. The measures and methods established help employees handle resources and energy more sensitively. With this in mind, this paper also deals with the difficulties that can occur during the sensitization of employees and the implementation of these measures and methods. In addition, recommendations are given on how to avoid such difficulties.

Keywords: Human Factors, Implementation, Resource Efficiency, production plants

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13 Human Factors Simulation Approach to Analyze Older Drivers’ Performance in Intersections Left-Turn Scenarios

Authors: Yassir Abdelrazig, Ren Moses, Eren Ozguven

Abstract:

While there exists a greater understanding of the differences between the driving behaviors of older and younger drivers, there is still a need to further understand how the two groups perform when attempting to perform complex intersection maneuvers. This paper looks to determine if, and to what extent, these differences exist when drivers encounter permissive left-hand turns, pedestrian traffic, two and four-lane intersections, heavy fog, and night conditions. The study will utilize a driving simulator to develop custom drivable scenarios containing one or more of the previously mentioned conditions. 32 younger and 32 older (+65 years) participants perform driving simulation scenarios and have their velocity, time to the nearest oncoming vehicle, accepted and rejected gaps, etc., recorded. The data collected from the simulator is analyzed via Raff’s method and logistic regression in order to determine and compare the critical gaps values of the two cohorts. Out of the parameters considered for this study, only the age of the driver, their experience (if they are a younger driver), the size of a gap, and the presence of pedestrians on the crosswalk proved significant. The results did not support the hypothesis that older drivers would be significantly more conservative in their critical gaps judgment and acceptance.

Keywords: Simulation, Human Factors, older drivers, left-turn

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12 Human Factors Integration of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Response: Systems and Technologies

Authors: Graham Hancox, Saydia Razak, Sue Hignett, Jo Barnes, Jyri Silmari, Florian Kading

Abstract:

In the event of a Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) incident rapidly gaining, situational awareness is of paramount importance and advanced technologies have an important role to play in improving detection, identification, monitoring (DIM) and patient tracking. Understanding how these advanced technologies can fit into current response systems is essential to ensure they are optimally designed, usable and meet end-users’ needs. For this reason, Human Factors (Ergonomics) methods have been used within an EU Horizon 2020 project (TOXI-Triage) to firstly describe (map) the hierarchical structure in a CBRN response with adapted Accident Map (AcciMap) methodology. Secondly, Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) has been used to describe and review the sequence of steps (sub-tasks) in a CBRN scenario response as a task system. HTA methodology was then used to map one advanced technology, ‘Tag and Trace’, which tags an element (people, sample and equipment) with a Near Field Communication (NFC) chip in the Hot Zone to allow tracing of (monitoring), for example casualty progress through the response. This HTA mapping of the Tag and Trace system showed how the provider envisaged the technology being used, allowing for review and fit with the current CBRN response systems. These methodologies have been found to be very effective in promoting and supporting a dialogue between end-users and technology providers. The Human Factors methods have given clear diagrammatic (visual) representations of how providers see their technology being used and how end users would actually use it in the field; allowing for a more user centered approach to the design process. For CBRN events usability is critical as sub-optimum design of technology could add to a responders’ workload in what is already a chaotic, ambiguous and safety critical environment.

Keywords: Human Factors, Ergonomics, CBRN, AcciMap, hierarchical task analysis

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11 Understanding the Impact of Ambience, Acoustics, and Chroma on User Experience through Different Mediums and Study Scenarios

Authors: Mushty Srividya

Abstract:

Humans that inhabit a designed space consciously or unconsciously accept the spaces which have an impact on how they perceive, feel and act accordingly. Spaces that are more interactive and communicative with the human senses become more interesting. Interaction in architecture is the art of building relationships between the user and the spaces. Often spaces are form-based, function-based or aesthetically pleasing spaces but they are not interactive with the user which actually has a greater impact on how the user perceives the designed space and appreciate it. It is very necessary for a designer to understand and appreciate the human character and design accordingly, wherein the user gets the flexibility to explore and experience it for themselves rather than the designed space dictating the user how to perceive or feel in that space. In this interaction between designed spaces and the user, a designer needs to understand the spatial potential and user’s needs because the design language varies with varied situations in accordance with these factors. Designers often have the tendency to construct spaces with their perspectives, observations, and sense the space in their range of different angles rather than the users. It is, therefore, necessary to understand the potential of the space by understanding different factors and improve the quality of space with the help of creating better interactive spaces. For an interaction to occur between the user and space, there is a need for some medium. In this paper, light, color, and sound will be used as the mediums to understand and create interactions between the user and space, considering these to be the primary sources which would not require any physical touch in the space and would help in triggering the human senses. This paper involves in studying and understanding the impact of light, color and sound on different typologies of spaces on the user through different findings, articles, case studies and surveys and try to get links between these three mediums to create an interaction. This paper also deals with understanding in which medium takes an upper hand in a varied typology of spaces and identify different techniques which would create interactions between the user and space with the help of light, color, and sound.

Keywords: Human Factors, Sound, Light, Color, communicative spaces, interactive spaces

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10 Experimental Simulation Set-Up for Validating Out-Of-The-Loop Mitigation when Monitoring High Levels of Automation in Air Traffic Control

Authors: Oliver Ohneiser, Francesca De Crescenzio, Gianluca Di Flumeri, Jan Kraemer, Bruno Berberian, Sara Bagassi, Nicolina Sciaraffa, Pietro Aricò, Gianluca Borghini, Fabio Babiloni

Abstract:

An increasing degree of automation in air traffic will also change the role of the air traffic controller (ATCO). ATCOs will fulfill significantly more monitoring tasks compared to today. However, this rather passive role may lead to Out-Of-The-Loop (OOTL) effects comprising vigilance decrement and less situation awareness. The project MINIMA (Mitigating Negative Impacts of Monitoring high levels of Automation) has conceived a system to control and mitigate such OOTL phenomena. In order to demonstrate the MINIMA concept, an experimental simulation set-up has been designed. This set-up consists of two parts: 1) a Task Environment (TE) comprising a Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) simulator as well as 2) a Vigilance and Attention Controller (VAC) based on neurophysiological data recording such as electroencephalography (EEG) and eye-tracking devices. The current vigilance level and the attention focus of the controller are measured during the ATCO’s active work in front of the human machine interface (HMI). The derived vigilance level and attention trigger adaptive automation functionalities in the TE to avoid OOTL effects. This paper describes the full-scale experimental set-up and the component development work towards it. Hence, it encompasses a pre-test whose results influenced the development of the VAC as well as the functionalities of the final TE and the two VAC’s sub-components.

Keywords: Automation, Human Factors, air traffic controller, MINIMA, OOTL (Out-Of-The-Loop), EEG (Electroencephalography), HMI (Human Machine Interface)

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9 Soil Moisture Control System: A Product Development Approach

Authors: Swapneel U. Naphade, Dushyant A. Patil, Satyabodh M. Kulkarni

Abstract:

In this work, we propose the concept and geometrical design of a soil moisture control system (SMCS) module by following the product development approach to develop an inexpensive, easy to use and quick to install product targeted towards agriculture practitioners. The module delivers water to the agricultural land efficiently by sensing the soil moisture and activating the delivery valve. We start with identifying the general needs of the potential customer. Then, based on customer needs we establish product specifications and identify important measuring quantities to evaluate our product. Keeping in mind the specifications, we develop various conceptual solutions of the product and select the best solution through concept screening and selection matrices. Then, we develop the product architecture by integrating the systems into the final product. In the end, the geometric design is done using human factors engineering concepts like heuristic analysis, task analysis, and human error reduction analysis. The result of human factors analysis reveals the remedies which should be applied while designing the geometry and software components of the product. We find that to design the best grip in terms of comfort and applied force, for a power-type grip, a grip-diameter of 35 mm is the most ideal.

Keywords: Product Design, Human Factors, Agriculture, soil moisture control

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8 Measuring the Biomechanical Effects of Worker Skill Level and Joystick Crane Speed on Forestry Harvesting Performance Using a Simulator

Authors: Victoria L. Chester, Usha Kuruganti

Abstract:

The forest industry is a major economic sector of Canada and also one of the most dangerous industries for workers. The use of mechanized mobile forestry harvesting machines has successfully reduced the incidence of injuries in forest workers related to manual labor. However, these machines have also created additional concerns, including a high machine operation learning curve, increased the length of the workday, repetitive strain injury, cognitive load, physical and mental fatigue, and increased postural loads due to sitting in a confined space. It is critical to obtain objective performance data for employers to develop appropriate work practices for this industry, however ergonomic field studies of this industry are lacking mainly due to the difficulties in obtaining comprehensive data while operators are cutting trees in the woods. The purpose of this study was to establish a measurement and experimental protocol to examine the effects of worker skill level and movement training speed (joystick crane speed) on harvesting performance using a forestry simulator. A custom wrist angle measurement device was developed as part of the study to monitor Euler angles during operation of the simulator. The device of the system consisted of two accelerometers, a Bluetooth module, three 3V coin cells, a microcontroller, a voltage regulator and an application software. Harvesting performance and crane data was provided by the simulator software and included tree to frame collisions, crane to tree collisions, boom tip distance, number of trees cut, etc. A pilot study of 3 operators with various skill levels was tested to identify factors that distinguish highly skilled operators from novice or intermediate operators. Dependent variables such as reaction time, math skill, past work experience, training movement speed (e.g. joystick control speeds), harvesting experience level, muscle activity, and wrist biomechanics were measured and analyzed. A 10-channel wireless surface EMG system was used to monitor the amplitude and mean frequency of 10 upper extremity muscles during pre and postperformance on the forestry harvest stimulator. The results of the pilot study showed inconsistent changes in median frequency pre-and postoperation, but there was the increase in the activity of the flexor carpi radialis, anterior deltoid and upper trapezius of both arms. The wrist sensor results indicated that wrist supination and pronation occurred more than flexion and extension with radial-ulnar rotation demonstrating the least movement. Overall, wrist angular motion increased as the crane speed increased from slow to fast. Further data collection is needed and will help industry partners determine those factors that separate skill levels of operators, identify optimal training speeds, and determine the length of training required to bring new operators to an efficient skill level effectively. In addition to effective and employment training programs, results of this work will be used for selective employee recruitment strategies to improve employee retention after training. Further, improved training procedures and knowledge of the physical and mental demands on workers will lead to highly trained and efficient personnel, reduced risk of injury, and optimal work protocols.

Keywords: Human Factors, Forestry, EMG, wrist biomechanics

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7 The Analysis of Increment of Road Traffic Accidents in Libya: Case Study City of Tripoli

Authors: Fares Elturki, Shaban Ismael Albrka Ali Zangena, H. A. M. Yahia

Abstract:

Safety is an important consideration in the design and operation of streets and highways. Traffic and highway engineers working with law enforcement officials are constantly seeking for better methods to ensure safety for motorists and pedestrians. Also, a highway safety improvement process involves planning, implementation, and evaluation. The planning process requires that engineers collect and maintain traffic safety data, identify the hazards location, conduct studies and establish project priorities. Unfortunately, in Libya, the increase in demand for private transportation in recent years, due to poor or lack of public transportation led to some traffic problems especially in the capital (Tripoli). Also, the growth of private transportation has significant influences on the society regarding road traffic accidents (RTAs). This study investigates the most critical factors affect RTAs in Tripoli the capital city of Libya. Four main classifications were chosen to build the questionnaire, namely; human factors, road factors, vehicle factors and environmental factors. Moreover, a quantitative method was used to collect the data from the field, the targeted sample size 400 respondents include; drivers, pedestrian and passengers and relative importance index (RII) were used to rank the factors of one group and between all groups. The results show that the human factors have the most significant impacts compared with other factors. Also, 84% of respondents considered the over speeding as the most significant factor cusses of RTAs while 81% considered the disobedience to driving regulations as the second most influential factor in human factors. Also, the results showed that poor brakes or brake failure factor a great impact on the RTAs among the vehicle factors with nearly 74%, while 79% categorized poor or no street lighting factor as one of the most effective factors on RTAs in road factors and third effecting factor concerning all factors. The environmental factors have the slights influences compared with other factors.

Keywords: Human Factors, Libya, road traffic accidents, relative importance index, vehicle factors

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6 Automated, Objective Assessment of Pilot Performance in Simulated Environment

Authors: Maciej Zasuwa, Grzegorz Ptasinski, Antoni Kopyt

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Nowadays flight simulators offer tremendous possibilities for safe and cost-effective pilot training, by utilization of powerful, computational tools. Due to technology outpacing methodology, vast majority of training related work is done by human instructors. It makes assessment not efficient, and vulnerable to instructors’ subjectivity. The research presents an Objective Assessment Tool (gOAT) developed at the Warsaw University of Technology, and tested on SW-4 helicopter flight simulator. The tool uses database of the predefined manoeuvres, defined and integrated to the virtual environment. These were implemented, basing on Aeronautical Design Standard Performance Specification Handling Qualities Requirements for Military Rotorcraft (ADS-33), with predefined Mission-Task-Elements (MTEs). The core element of the gOAT enhanced algorithm that provides instructor a new set of information. In details, a set of objective flight parameters fused with report about psychophysical state of the pilot. While the pilot performs the task, the gOAT system automatically calculates performance using the embedded algorithms, data registered by the simulator software (position, orientation, velocity, etc.), as well as measurements of physiological changes of pilot’s psychophysiological state (temperature, sweating, heart rate). Complete set of measurements is presented on-line to instructor’s station and shown in dedicated graphical interface. The presented tool is based on open source solutions, and flexible for editing. Additional manoeuvres can be easily added using guide developed by authors, and MTEs can be changed by instructor even during an exercise. Algorithm and measurements used allow not only to implement basic stress level measurements, but also to reduce instructor’s workload significantly. Tool developed can be used for training purpose, as well as periodical checks of the aircrew. Flexibility and ease of modifications allow the further development to be wide ranged, and the tool to be customized. Depending on simulation purpose, gOAT can be adjusted to support simulator of aircraft, helicopter, or unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).

Keywords: Human Factors, pilot training, flight simulator, automated assessment

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5 The Influence of Human Factors Education on the Irish Registered Pre-Hospital Practitioner within the National Ambulance Service

Authors: Desmond Wade, Alfredo Ormazabal

Abstract:

Background: Ever since it commenced its registration process of pre-hospital practitioners in the year 2000 through the Irish Government Statute Instrument (SI 109 of 2000) process, the approach to education of its professionals has changed drastically. The progression from the traditional behaviouristic to the current constructivist approach has been based on experiences from other sectors and industries, nationally and internationally. Today, the delivery of a safe and efficient ambulance service heavily depends on its practitioners’ range of technical skills, academic knowledge, and overall competences. As these increase, so does the level of complexity of paramedics’ everyday practice. This has made it inevitable to consider the 'Human Factor' as a source of potential risk and made formative institutions like the National Ambulance Service College to include it in their curriculum. Methods: This paper used a mixed-method approach, where both, an online questionnaire and a set of semi-structured interviews were the source of primary data. An analysis of this data was carried out using qualitative and quantitative data analysis. Conclusions: The evidence presented leads to the conclusion that in the National Ambulance Service there is a considerable lack of education of Human Factors and the levels in understanding of how to manage Human Factors in practice vary across its spectrum. Paramedic Practitioners in Ireland seem to understand that the responsibility of patient care lies on the team, rather than on the most hierarchically senior practitioner present in the scene.

Keywords: Education, Decision Making, Human Factors, Ergonomics, stress, pre-hospital care, paramedic

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4 Application of Industrial Ergonomics in Vehicle Service System Design

Authors: Zhao Yu, Zhi-Nan Zhang

Abstract:

More and more interactive devices are used in the transportation service system. Our mobile phones, on-board computers, and Head-Up Displays (HUDs) can all be used as the tools of the in-car service system. People can access smart systems with different terminals such as mobile phones, computers, pads and even their cars and watches. Different forms of terminals bring the different quality of interaction by the various human-computer Interaction modes. The new interactive devices require good ergonomics design at each stage of the whole design process. According to the theory of human factors and ergonomics, this paper compared three types of interactive devices by four driving tasks. Forty-eight drivers were chosen to experience these three interactive devices (mobile phones, on-board computers, and HUDs) by a simulate driving process. The subjects evaluated ergonomics performance and subjective workload after the process. And subjects were encouraged to support suggestions for improving the interactive device. The result shows that different interactive devices have different advantages in driving tasks, especially in non-driving tasks such as information and entertainment fields. Compared with mobile phones and onboard groups, the HUD groups had shorter response times in most tasks. The tasks of slow-up and the emergency braking are less accurate than the performance of a control group, which may because the haptic feedback of these two tasks is harder to distinguish than the visual information. Simulated driving is also helpful in improving the design of in-vehicle interactive devices. The paper summarizes the ergonomics characteristics of three in-vehicle interactive devices. And the research provides a reference for the future design of in-vehicle interactive devices through an ergonomic approach to ensure a good interaction relationship between the driver and the in-vehicle service system.

Keywords: Human Factors, Transportation System, Industrial Ergonomics, Usability, vehicle user interface

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3 Human Factors Considerations in New Generation Fighter Planes to Enhance Combat Effectiveness

Authors: Chitra Rajagopal, Indra Deo Kumar, Ruchi Joshi, Binoy Bhargavan

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Role of fighter planes in modern network centric military warfare scenarios has changed significantly in the recent past. New generation fighter planes have multirole capability of engaging both air and ground targets with high precision. Multirole aircraft undertakes missions such as Air to Air combat, Air defense, Air to Surface role (including Air interdiction, Close air support, Maritime attack, Suppression and Destruction of enemy air defense), Reconnaissance, Electronic warfare missions, etc. Designers have primarily focused on development of technologies to enhance the combat performance of the fighter planes and very little attention is given to human factor aspects of technologies. Unique physical and psychological challenges are imposed on the pilots to meet operational requirements during these missions. Newly evolved technologies have enhanced aircraft performance in terms of its speed, firepower, stealth, electronic warfare, situational awareness, and vulnerability reduction capabilities. This paper highlights the impact of emerging technologies on human factors for various military operations and missions. Technologies such as ‘cooperative knowledge-based systems’ to aid pilot’s decision making in military conflict scenarios as well as simulation technologies to enhance human performance is also studied as a part of research work. Current and emerging pilot protection technologies and systems which form part of the integrated life support systems in new generation fighter planes is discussed. System safety analysis application to quantify the human reliability in military operations is also studied.

Keywords: Human Factors, Emerging Technologies, combat effectiveness, systems safety analysis

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2 Modeling Route Selection Using Real-Time Information and GPS Data

Authors: William Albeiro Alvarez, Gloria Patricia Jaramillo, Ivan Reinaldo Sarmiento

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Understanding the behavior of individuals and the different human factors that influence the choice when faced with a complex system such as transportation is one of the most complicated aspects of measuring in the components that constitute the modeling of route choice due to that various behaviors and driving mode directly or indirectly affect the choice. During the last two decades, with the development of information and communications technologies, new data collection techniques have emerged such as GPS, geolocation with mobile phones, apps for choosing the route between origin and destination, individual service transport applications among others, where an interest has been generated to improve discrete choice models when considering the incorporation of these developments as well as psychological factors that affect decision making. This paper implements a discrete choice model that proposes and estimates a hybrid model that integrates route choice models and latent variables based on the observation on the route of a sample of public taxi drivers from the city of Medellín, Colombia in relation to its behavior, personality, socioeconomic characteristics, and driving mode. The set of choice options includes the routes generated by the individual service transport applications versus the driver's choice. The hybrid model consists of measurement equations that relate latent variables with measurement indicators and utilities with choice indicators along with structural equations that link the observable characteristics of drivers with latent variables and explanatory variables with utilities.

Keywords: Human Factors, Hybrid Model, real time data, behavior choice model

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1 Pervasive UX Journey: Creating Blended Spaces with Augmented Reality

Authors: Adriano Bernardo Renzi, Paulo Bezerra, Matheus Correia, Kathryn Lana, Victor Duarte, Hugo Riehl

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Pervasive UX journeys encompass diverse digital devices and physical spaces in one experience composed by short stories. Users will use many apparatuses to fulfill tasks and build their experiences, connecting by themselves if necessary, all spaces between touchpoints of interaction. Even when blended spaces are planned, the experience cannot be generalized, as users react individually from context of use, their sense of objects and significance of the moment. This paper presents a research project to map users’ flow and actions in historic routes of Rio de Janeiro tours using Task-flow observation. The project intents to understand users’ flow and mental model to better insert points of interaction and merge physical and digital spaces in one blended pervasive experience through augmented reality.

Keywords: Human Factors, Human-Computer Interaction, Augmented Reality, User Experience

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