Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

HPLC Related Abstracts

40 HPLC-UV Screening of Legal (Caffeine and Yohimbine) and Illegal (Ephedrine and Sibutramine) Substances from Weight Loss Dietary Supplements for Athletes

Authors: Amelia Tero-Vescan, Camil-Eugen Vari, Laura Ciulea, Cristina Filip, Silvia Imre


A HPLC –UV method for the identification of ephedrine (EPH), sibutramine (SB), yohimbine (Y) and caffeine (CF) was developed. Separation was performed on a Kromasil 100-RP8, 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 mm column equipped with a precolumn Kromasil RP 8. Mobile phase was a gradient of 80-35 % sodium dihydrogen phosphate pH=5 with NH4OH and acetonitrile over 15 minutes time of analysis. Based on the responses of 113 athletes about dietary supplements (DS) consumed for "fat burning" and weight loss which have a legal status in Romania, 28 supplements have been selected and investigated for their content in CF, Y, legal substances, and SB, EPH (prohibited substances in DS). The method allows quantitative determination of the four substances in a short analysis time and with minimum cost. The presence of SB and EPH in the analyzed DS was not detected while the content in CF and Y considering the dosage recommended by the manufacturer does not affect the health of the consumers. DS labeling (plant extracts with CF and Y content) allows manufacturers to avoid declaring correct and exact amounts per pharmaceutical form (pure CF or equivalent and Y, respectively).

Keywords: HPLC, dietary supplements, Caffeine, sibutramine, ephedrine, yohimbine

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39 Simultaneous Determination of Cefazolin and Cefotaxime in Urine by HPLC

Authors: Rafika Bibi, Khaled Khaladi, Hind Mokran, Mohamed Salah Boukhechem


A high performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection at 264nm was developed and validate for quantitative determination and separation of cefazolin and cefotaxime in urine, the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer pH4,2(15 :85) (v/v) pumped through ODB 250× 4,6 mm, 5um column at a flow rate of 1ml/min, loop of 20ul. In this condition, the validation of this technique showed that it is linear in a range of 0,01 to 10ug/ml with a good correlation coefficient ( R>0,9997), retention time of cefotaxime, cefazolin was 9.0, 10.1 respectively, the statistical evaluation of the method was examined by means of within day (n=6) and day to day (n=5) and was found to be satisfactory with high accuracy and precision.

Keywords: Bioscience, Biochemistry, Pharmaceutical, HPLC, cefazolin, cefotaxime

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38 Effect of Phthalates on Male Infertility: Myth or Truth?

Authors: Rashmi Tomar, A. Srinivasan, Nayan K. Mohanty, Arun K. Jain


Phthalates have been used as additives in industrial products since the 1930s, and are universally considered to be ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The general population is exposed to phthalates through consumer products, as well as diet and medical treatments. Animal studies showing the existence of an association between some phthalates and testicular toxicity have generated public and scientific concern about the potential adverse effects of environmental changes on male reproductive health. Unprecedented declines in fertility rates and semen quality have been reported during the last half of the 20th century in developed countries and increasing interest exists on the potential relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants, including phthalates, and human male reproductive health Studies. Phthalates may be associated with altered endocrine function and adverse effects on male reproductive development and function, but human studies are limited. The aim of the present study was detection of phthalate compounds, estimation of their metabolites in infertile & fertile male. Blood and urine samples were collected from 150 infertile patients & 75 fertile volunteers recruited through Department of Urology, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi. Blood have been collected in separate glass tubes from the antecubital vein of the patients, serum have been separate and estimate the phthalate level in serum samples by Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry using NIOSH / OSHA detailed protocol. Urine of Infertile & Fertile Subjects was collected & extracted using solid phase extraction method, analysis by HPLC. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge the present study based on human is first to show the presence of phthalate in human serum samples and their metabolites in urine samples. Significant differences were observed between several phthalates in infertile and fertile healthy individuals.

Keywords: Toxicity, Male Infertility, HPLC, Gas Chromatography, phthalates, serum, urine

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37 Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Property of Honey with Dried Apricots

Authors: Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Gordana Ćetković, Sonja Djilas, Vesna Tumbas-Šaponjac, Jelena Vulić, Sladjana Stajčić


Honey, produced by the honeybee, is a natural saturated sugar solution, which is mainly composed of a complex mixture of carbohydrates. Besides this, it also contains certain minor constituents, proteins, enzymes, amino and organic acids, lipids, vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids and carotenoids. Honey serves as a source of natural antioxidants, which are effective in reducing the risk of heart disease, cancer, immune-system decline, cataracts, and different inflammatory processes. Honey is consumed in its natural form alone, but also in combination with nuts and various kinds of dried fruits (plums, figs, cranberries, apricots etc.). The aim of this research was to investigate the contribution of dried apricot addition to polyphenols and flavonoids contents and antioxidant activities of honey. Some individual phenolic compounds in Serbian polyfloral honey (PH), linden honey (LH) and also in their mixtures with dried apricot, in 40% mass concentrations (PH40; LH40), were identified and quantified by HPLC. The most dominant phenolic compound was: gallic acid in LH (11.14 mg/100g), LH40 (42.65 mg/100g), PH (7.24 mg/100g) and catehin in PH40 (11.83 mg/100g). The antioxidant activity of PH, LH, PH40 and LH40 was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals (OH) by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). Honey samples with 40% dried apricot exhibited better antioxidant activity measured by hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The EC50 values, the amount of antioxidant necessary to decrease the initial concentration of OH radicals by 50%, were: EC50PH=3.36 mg/ml, EC50LH=13.36 mg/ml, EC50PH40=2.29 mg/ml, EC50 LH40=7.78 mg/ml. Our results indicate that supplementation of polyfloral honey and linden honey with dried apricots improves antioxidant activity of honey by enriching the phenolic composition.

Keywords: HPLC, honey, dried apricot, hydroxyl radical

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36 Isoflavone and Mineral Content in Conventional Commercial Soybean Cultivars and Transgenic Soybean Planted in Minas Gerais, Brazil

Authors: Renata Adriana Labanca, Gabriela Rezende Costa, Nilton de Oliveira Couto e Silva, José Marcos Gontijo Mandarino, Rodrigo Santos Leite, Nilson César Castanheira Guimarães, Roberto Gonçalves Junqueira


The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in composition between six brands of conventional soybean and six genetically modified cultivars (GM), all of them from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. We focused on the isoflavones profile and mineral content questioning the substantial equivalence between conventional and GM organisms. The statement of compliance label for conventional grains was verified for the presence of genetic modified genes by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We did not detect the presence of the 35S promoter in commercial samples, indicating the absence of transgene insertion. For mineral analysis, we used the method of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Isoflavones quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed no statistical difference between the conventional and transgenic soybean groups concerning isoflavone content and mineral composition. The concentration of potassium, the main mineral component of soy, was the highest in conventional soybeans compared to that in GM soy, while GM samples presented the highest concentrations of iron.

Keywords: Bioactive Compounds, HPLC, Genetically Modified Organism, glycine max, ICP-OES

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35 Gamma Irradiated Sodium Alginate and Phosphorus Fertilizer Enhances Seed Trigonelline Content, Biochemical Parameters and Yield Attributes of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)

Authors: Moinuddin, M. Masroor A. Khan, Tariq Ahmad Dar


There is considerable need in enhancing the content and yield of active constituents of medicinal plants keeping in view their massive demand worldwide. Different strategies have been employed to enhance the active constituents of medicinal plants and the use of phytohormones has been proved effective in this regard. Gamma-irradiated Sodium alginate (ISA) is known to elicit an array of plant defense responses and biological activities in plants. Considering the medicinal importance, a pot experiment was conducted to explore the effect of ISA and phosphorus on growth, yield and quality of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). ISA spray treatments (0, 40, 80 and 120 mg L-1) were applied alone and in combination with 40 kg P ha-1 (P40). Crop performance was assessed in terms of plant growth characteristics, physiological attributes, seed yield and the content of seed trigonelline. Of the ten-treatments, P40 + 80 mg L−1 of ISA proved the best. The results showed that foliar spray of ISA alone or in combination with P40 augmented the plant vegetative growth, enzymatic activities, trigonelline content, trigonelline yield and economic yield of fenugreek. Application of 80 mg L−1 of ISA applied with P40 gave the best results for almost all the parameters studied compared to control or to 80 mg L−1 of ISA applied alone. This treatment increased the total content of chlorophyll, carotenoids, leaf -N, -P and -K and trigonelline compared to the control by 24.85 and 27.40%, 15 and 23.52%, 18.70 and 16.84%, 15.88 and 18.92%, 12 and 14.44%, at 60 and 90 DAS respectively. The combined application of 80 mg L−1 of ISA along with P40 resulted in the maximum increase in seed yield, trigonelline content and trigonelline yield by146, 34 and 232.41%, respectively, over the control. Gel permeation chromatography revealed the formation of low molecular weight fractions in ISA samples, containing even less than 20,000 molecular weight oligomers, which might be responsible for plant growth promotion in this study. Trigonelline content was determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with C-18 column.

Keywords: HPLC, Yield, Phosphorus, gamma-irradiated sodium alginate, gel permeation chromatography, trigonelline content

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34 Separation of Fexofenadine Enantiomers Using Beta Cyclodextrin as Chiral Counter Ion in Mobile Phase

Authors: R. Fegas, S. Zerkout, S. Taberkokt, M. Righezza


The present work demonstrate the potential of Betacyclodextrine (BCD) for the chiral analysis of a drug .Various separation mechanisms were applied and several parameters affecting the separation were studied, including the type and concentration of chiral selector, and pH of buffer. A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed as an assay for fexofenadine enantiomers in pharmaceutical preparation. Fexofenadine enantiomers were separated using a mobile phase of 0.25mM NaH2PO4–acetonitrile (65:35, v/v) – Betacyclodextrine on achiral phenyl-urea column at a flow rate of 1ml/min and measurement at 220nm. The chiral mechanism of separation was mainly based on specific interaction between the solute and the stationary phase. The retention was directly controlled by mobile phase composition but not the selectivity which results of the two mechanisms, electrostatic interactions and partition mechanism.

Keywords: HPLC, fexofenadine enantiomer, achiral phenyl-urea column

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33 Olive Oils from Algeria: Phenolic Compounds Composition and Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Firdaousse Laincer, Rahima Laribi, Abderazak Tamendjari, Rovellini Venturini


Phenolic compounds present in olive oil have received much attention in recent years due to their beneficial functional and nutritional effects. Phenolic composition, antibacterial activity of phenolic extracts of olive oil varieties from Algeria were investigated. The analysis of polyphenols was performed by Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC. As a result, many phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by using HPLC; derivatives of oleuropein and ligstroside, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, flavonoids, and lignans reporting unique and characteristic phenolic profile. These phenolic fractions also differentiate the total antibacterial activity. Among the bacteria tested, S. aureus and, to a lesser extent, B. subtilis showed the highest sensitivity; the MIC varied from 0.6 to 1.6 mg•mL-1 and 1.2 to 1.8 mg•mL-1, respectively. The results obtained denote that Algerian olive oils may constitute a good source of healthy compounds, phenolics compounds, in the diet, suggesting that their consumption could be useful in the prevention of diseases.

Keywords: HPLC, Phenols, antibacterial activity, olive oil

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32 Nematicidal Activity of the Cell Extract from Penicillium Sp EU0013 and Its Metabolite Profile Using High Performance Liquid Chromatograpy

Authors: Zafar Iqbal, Sana Irshad Khan


Organic extract from newly isolated plant growth promoting fungus (PGPF) Penicillium sp EU0013 was subjected to bioassays including anti fungal (disc diffusion) cytotoxicity (brine shrimp lethality), herbicidal (Lemna minor) and nematicidal activities. Metabolite profile of the extract was also assessed using HPLC analysis with the aim to identify bioactive natural products in the extract as new drug candidate(s). The extract showed anti fungal potential against tested fungal pathogens. Growth of the Wilt pathogen Fusarium oxyosproum was inhibited up to 63% when compared to negative reference. Activity against brine shrimps was weak and mortality up to 10% was observed at concentration of 200 µg. mL-1. The extract exhibited no toxicity against Lemna minor frond at 200 µg. mL-1. Nematicidal activity was observed very potent against root knot nematode and LC50 value was calculated as 52.5 ug. mL-1 using probit analysis. Methodically assessment of metabolites profile by HPLC showed the presence of kojic acid (Rt 1.4 min) and aflatoxin B1 (Rt 5.9 min) in the mycellial extract as compared with standards. The major unidentified metabolite was eluted at Rt 8.6 along with other minor peaks. The observed high toxicity against root knot nematode was attributed to the unidentified compounds that make fungal extract worthy of further exploration for isolation and structural characterization studies for development of future commercial nematicidal compound(s).

Keywords: HPLC, Metabolites, Penicillium, nematicidal activity

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31 Estimation of Enantioresolution of Multiple Stereogenic Drugs Using Mobilized and/or Immobilized Polysaccharide-Based HPLC Chiral Stationary Phases

Authors: Mohamed Hefnawy, Abdulrahman Al-Majed, Aymen Al-Suwailem


Enantioseparation of drugs with multiple stereogenic centers is challenging. This study objectives to evaluate the efficiency of different mobilized and/or immobilized polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases to separate enantiomers of some drugs containing multiple stereogenic centers namely indenolol, nadolol, labetalol. The critical mobile phase variables (composition of organic solvents, acid/base ratios) were carefully studied to compare the retention time and elution order of all isomers. Different chromatographic parameters such as capacity factor (k), selectivity (α) and resolution (Rs) were calculated. Experimental conditions and the possible chiral recognition mechanisms have been discussed.

Keywords: HPLC, polysaccharide columns, enantio-resolution, indenolol, nadolol, labetalol

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30 Revealing Thermal Degradation Characteristics of Distinctive Oligo-and Polisaccharides of Prebiotic Relevance

Authors: Attila Kiss, Erzsébet Némedi, Zoltán Naár


As natural prebiotic (non-digestible) carbohydrates stimulate the growth of colon microflora and contribute to maintain the health of the host, analytical studies aiming at revealing the chemical behavior of these beneficial food components came to the forefront of interest. Food processing (especially baking) may lead to a significant conversion of the parent compounds, hence it is of utmost importance to characterize the transformation patterns and the plausible decomposition products formed by thermal degradation. The relevance of this work is confirmed by the wide-spread use of these carbohydrates (fructo-oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, raffinose and resistant starch) in the food industry. More and more functional foodstuffs are being developed based on prebiotics as bioactive components. 12 different types of oligosaccharides have been investigated in order to reveal their thermal degradation characteristics. Different carbohydrate derivatives (D-fructose and D-glucose oligomers and polymers) have been exposed to elevated temperatures (150 °C 170 °C, 190 °C, 210 °C, and 220 °C) for 10 min. An advanced HPLC method was developed and used to identify the decomposition products of carbohydrates formed as a consequence of thermal treatment. Gradient elution was applied with binary solvent elution (acetonitrile, water) through amine based carbohydrate column. Evaporative light scattering (ELS) proved to be suitable for the reliable detection of the UV/VIS inactive carbohydrate degradation products. These experimental conditions and applied advanced techniques made it possible to survey all the formed intermediers. Change in oligomer distribution was established in cases of all studied prebiotics throughout the thermal treatments. The obtained results indicate increased extent of chain degradation of the carbohydrate moiety at elevated temperatures. Prevalence of oligomers with shorter chain length and even the formation of monomer sugars (D-glucose and D-fructose) might be observed at higher temperatures. Unique oligomer distributions, which have not been described previously are revealed in the case of each studied, specific carbohydrate, which might result in various prebiotic activities. Resistant starches exhibited high stability when being thermal treated. The degradation process has been modeled by a plausible reaction mechanism, in which proton catalyzed degradation and chain cleavage take place.

Keywords: Prebiotics, HPLC, Thermal Degradation, fructo-oligosaccharide, ELS detection

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29 Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for 6-Gingerol and 6-Shogaol in Joint Pain Relief Gel Containing Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

Authors: Tanwarat Kajsongkram, Saowalux Rotamporn, Sirinat Limbunruang, Sirinan Thubthimthed.


High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of 6-Gingerol(6G) and 6-Shogaol(6S) in joint pain relief gel containing ginger extract. The chromatographic separation was achieved by using C18 column, 150 x 4.6mm i.d., 5μ Luna, mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water (gradient elution). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the absorbance was monitored at 282 nm. The proposed method was validated in terms of the analytical parameters such as specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and determined based on the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The linearity ranges of 6G and 6S were obtained over 20-60 and 6-18 µg/ml respectively. Good linearity was observed over the above-mentioned range with linear regression equation Y= 11016x- 23778 for 6G and Y = 19276x-19604 for 6S (x is concentration of analytes in μg/ml and Y is peak area). The value of correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9994 for both markers. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for 6G were 0.8567 and 2.8555 µg/ml and for 6S were 0.3672 and 1.2238 µg/ml respectively. The recovery range for 6G and 6S were found to be 91.57 to 102.36 % and 84.73 to 92.85 % for all three spiked levels. The RSD values from repeated extractions for 6G and 6S were 3.43 and 3.09% respectively. The validation of developed method on precision, accuracy, specificity, linearity, and range were also performed with well-accepted results.

Keywords: HPLC, ginger

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28 Disposition Kinetics of Ciprofloxacin after Intramuscular Administration in Lohi Sheep

Authors: Zahid Iqbal, Riaz Hussain, Ijaz Javed, Ibadullah Jan, Amir Ali Khan


This study was conducted to investigate the disposition kinetics of ciprofloxacin and calculate its optimal dosage in Pakistani sheep of Lohi breed. Injectable preparation of ciprofloxacin was given intramuscularly to eight sheep at a dose of 5 mg/Kg. Before administration of drug blood sample was drawn from each animal. Post drug administration, blood samples were also drawn at various predetermined time periods. Drug concentration in the blood samples was assessed through high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). Data were best described by two compartment open model and different pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were calculated. Cmax of 1.97 ± 0.15 µg/ml was reached at Tmax of 0.88 ± 0.09 hours. Half life of absorption (t1/2 abs) was observed to be 0.63 ± 0.16 hours while t1/2 α (distribution half life) and t1/2 ß (elimination half life) were found to be 0.46 ± 0.05 and 2.93 ± 0.45 hours, respectively. Vd (apparent volume of distribution) was calculated as 2.89 ± 0.30 L/kg while AUC (area under the curve) was 7.19 ± 0.38 µ and CL (total body clearance) was 0.75 ± 0.04 L/hr/kg. Using these parameters, an optimal intramuscular dosage of ciprofloxacin in adult Lohi sheep was calculated as 21.43 mg/kg, advised to be repeated after 24 hours. From this, we came to the conclusion that calculated dose was much higher than the dose advised by the foreign manufacturer and to avoid antimicrobial resistance, it is advised that this locally investigated dosage regimen should be strictly followed in local sheep.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, HPLC, Sheep, ciprofloxacin, dosage regimen

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27 Determination of MDA by HPLC in Blood of Levofloxacin Treated Rats

Authors: D. S. Mohale, A. V. Chandewar, A. P. Dewani, A. S.tripathi


Present work demonstrates the applicability of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-Vis detection for the quantification of malondialdehyde as malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid complex (MDA-TBA) in-vivo in rats. The HPLC method for MDA-TBA was achieved by isocratic mode on a reverse-phase C18 column (250mm×4.6mm) at a flow rate of 1.0mLmin−1 followed by detection at 532 nm. The chromatographic conditions were optimized by varying the concentration and pH of water followed by changes in percentage of organic phase optimal mobile phase consisted of mixture of water (0.2% triethylamine pH adjusted to 2.3 by ortho-phosphoric acid) and acetonitrile in ratio (80:20v/v). The retention time of MDA-TBA complex was 3.7 min. The developed method was sensitive as limit of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) for MDA-TBA complex were (standard deviation and slope of calibration curve) 110 ng/ml and 363 ng/ml respectively. Calibration studies were done by spiking MDA into rat plasma at concentrations ranging from 500 to 1000 ng/ml. The precision of developed method measured in terms of relative standard deviations for intra-day and inter-day studies was 1.6–5.0% and 1.9–3.6% respectively. The HPLC method was applied for monitoring MDA levels in rats subjected to chronic treatment of levofloxacin (LEV) (5mg/kg/day) for 21 days. Results were compared by findings in control group rats. Mean peak areas of both study groups was subjected for statistical treatment to unpaired student t-test to find p-values. The p value was <0.001 indicating significant results and suggesting increased MDA levels in rats subjected to chronic treatment of LEV of 21 days.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, HPLC, malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid complex, levofloxacin

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26 Pharmacokinetic Monitoring of Glimepiride and Ilaprazole in Rat Plasma by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection

Authors: Anil V. Chandewar, Anil P. Dewani, Alok S. Tripathi


Present manuscript reports the development and validation of a quantitative high performance liquid chromatography method for the pharmacokinetic evaluation of Glimepiride (GLM) and Ilaprazole (ILA) in rat plasma. The plasma samples were involved with Solid phase extraction process (SPE). The analytes were resolved on a Phenomenex C18 column (4.6 mm× 250 mm; 5 µm particle size) using a isocratic elution mode comprising methanol:water (80:20 % v/v) with pH of water modified to 3 using Formic acid, the total run time was 10 min at 225 nm as common wavelength, the flow rate throughout was 1ml/min. The method was validated over the concentration range from 10 to 600 ng/mL for GLM and ILA, in rat plasma. Metformin (MET) was used as Internal Standard. Validation data demonstrated the method to be selective, sensitive, accurate and precise. The limit of detection was 1.54 and 4.08 and limit of quantification was 5.15 and 13.62 for GLM and ILA respectively, the method demonstrated excellent linearity with correlation coefficients (r2) 0.999. The intra and inter-day precision (RSD%) values were < 2.0% for both ILA and GLM. The method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic studies followed by oral administration in rats.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, HPLC, SPE, glimepiride, ilaprazole

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25 Determination of the Stability of Haloperidol Tablets and Phenytoin Capsules Stored in the Inpatient Dispensary System (Swisslog) by the Respective HPLC and Raman Spectroscopy Assay

Authors: Carol Yue-En Ong, Angelina Hui-Min Tan, Quan Liu, Paul Chi-Lui Ho


A public general hospital in Singapore has recently implemented an automated unit-dose machine in their inpatient dispensary, Swisslog, with the objective of reducing human error and improving patient safety. However, a concern in stability arises as tablets are removed from their original packaging (bottled loose tablets/capsules) and are repackaged into individual, clear plastic wrappers as unit doses in the system. Drugs that are light-sensitive and hygroscopic would be more susceptible to degradation as the wrapper does not offer full protection. Hence, this study was carried out to study the stability of haloperidol tablets and phenytoin capsules that are light-sensitive and hygroscopic respectively. Validated HPLC-UV assays were first established for quantification of these two compounds. The medications involved were put in the Swisslog and sampled every week for one month. The collected data was analysed and showed no degradation over time. This study also explored an alternative approach for drug stability determination-Raman spectroscopy. The advantage of Raman spectroscopy is its high time efficiency and non-destructive nature. The results suggest that drug degradation can indeed be detected using Raman microscopy, but further research is needed to establish this approach for quantification or qualification of compounds. NanoRam®, a portable Raman spectrocope was also used alongside Raman microscopy but was unsuccessful in detecting degradation in this study.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, HPLC, Haloperidol, drug stability, phenytoin, Swisslog

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24 Optimized Simultaneous Determination of Theobromine and Caffeine in Fermented and Unfermented Cacao Beans and in Cocoa Products Using Step Gradient Solvent System in Reverse Phase HPLC

Authors: Ian Marc G. Cabugsa, Kim Ryan A. Won


Fast, reliable and simultaneous HPLC analysis of theobromine and caffeine in cacao and cocoa products was optimized in this study. The samples tested were raw, fermented, and roasted cacao beans as well as commercially available cocoa products. The HPLC analysis was carried out using step gradient solvent system with acetonitrile and water buffered with H3PO4 as the mobile phase. The HPLC system was optimized using 273 nm wavelength at 35 °C for the column temperature with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Using this method, the theobromine percent recovery mean, Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ) is 118.68(±3.38)%, 0.727 and 1.05 respectively. The percent recovery mean, LOD and LOQ for caffeine is 105.53(±3.25)%, 2.42 and 3.50 respectively. The inter-day and intra-day precision for theobromine is 4.31% and 4.48% respectively, while 7.02% and 7.03% was for caffeine respectively. Compared to the standard method in AOAC using methanol in isocratic solvent system, the results of the study produced lesser chromatogram noise with emphasis on theobromine and caffeine. The method is readily usable for cacao and cocoa substances analyses using HPLC with step gradient capability.

Keywords: HPLC, Caffeine, cacao, step gradient solvent system, theobromine

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23 Characterization of Main Phenolic Compounds in Eleusine indica L. (Poaceae) by HPLC-DAD and 1H NMR

Authors: E. M. Condori-Peñaloza, S. S. Costa


Eleusine indica L, known as goose-grass, is considered a troublesome weed that can cause important economic losses in the agriculture worldwide. However, this grass is used as a medicinal plant in some regions of Brazil to treat influenza and pneumonia. In Africa and Asia, it is used to treat malaria and as diuretic, anti-helminthic, among other uses. Despite its therapeutic potential, little is known about the chemical composition and bioactive compounds of E. indica. Hitherto, two major flavonoids, schaftoside and vitexin, were isolated from aerial part of the species and showed inhibitory activity on lung neutrophil influxes in mice, suggesting a beneficial effect on airway inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the chemical profile of aqueous extracts from aerial parts of Eleusine indica specimens using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), with emphasis on phenolic compounds. Specimens of E. indica were collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Aerial parts of fresh plants were extracted by decoction (10% p/v). After spontaneous precipitation of the aqueous extract at 10-12°C for 24 hours, the supernatant obtained was frozen and lyophilized. After that, 1 g of the extract was dissolved into 25 mL of water and fractionated on a reverse phase chromatography column (RP-2), eluted with a gradient of H2O/EtOH. Five fractions were obtained. The extract and fractions had their chemical profile analyzed by using HPLC-DAD (C-18 column: 20 μL, 256 -365 nm; gradient water 0.01% phosphoric acid/ acetonitrile. The extract was also analyzed by NMR (1H, 500 MHz, D2O) in order to access its global chemical composition. HPLC-DAD analyses of crude extract allowed the identification of ten phenolic compounds. Fraction 1, eluted with 100% water, was poor in phenolic compounds and no major peak was detected. In fraction 2, eluted with 100% water, it was possible to observe one major peak at retention time (RT) of 23.75 minutes compatible with flavonoid; fraction 3, also eluted with 100% water, showed four peaks at RT= 21.47, 23.52, 24.33 and 25.84 minutes, all of them compatible with flavonoid. In fraction 4, eluted with 50%/ethanol/50% water, it was possible to observe 3 peaks compatible with flavonoids at RT=24.65, 26.81, 27.49 minutes, and one peak (28.83 min) compatible with a phenolic acid derivative. Finally, in fraction 5, eluted with 100% ethanol, no phenolic substance was detected. The UV spectra of all flavonoids detected were compatible with the flavone subclass (λ= 320-345 nm). The 1H NMR spectra of aerial parts extract showed signals in three regions: δ 0.8-3.0 ppm (aliphatic compounds), δ 3.0-5.5 ppm corresponding to carbohydrates (signals most abundant and overlapped), and δ 6.0-8.5 ppm (aromatic compounds). Signals compatible with flavonoids (rings A and B) could also be detected in the crude extract spectra. These results suggest the presence of several flavonoids in E. indica, which reinforces their therapeutic potential. The pharmacological activities of Eleusine indica extracts and fractions will be further evaluated.

Keywords: NMR, HPLC, Flavonoids, Phenolic Compounds

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22 Determination of 1-Deoxynojirimycin and Phytochemical Profile from Mulberry Leaves Cultivated in Indonesia

Authors: Vivitri Dewi Prasasty, Yasinta Ratna Esti Wulandari, Adrianus Rio, Cindy Geniola


Mulberry is a plant that widely cultivated around the world, mostly for silk industry. In recent years, the study showed that the mulberry leaves have an anti-diabetic effect which mostly comes from the compound known as 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ). DNJ is a very potent α-glucosidase inhibitor. It will decrease the degradation rate of carbohydrates in digestive tract, leading to slower glucose absorption and reducing the post-prandial glucose level significantly. The mulberry leaves also known as the best source of DNJ. Since then, the DNJ in mulberry leaves had received a considerable attention, because of the increased number of diabetic patients and the raise of people awareness to find a more natural cure for diabetic. The DNJ content in mulberry leaves varied depend on the mulberry species, leaf’s age, and the plant’s growth environment. Few of the mulberry varieties that were cultivated in Indonesiaare Morus alba var. kanva-2, M. alba var. multicaulis, M. bombycis var. lembang, and M. cathayana. The lack of data concerning phytochemicals contained in the Indonesian mulberry leaves are restraining their use in the medicinal field. The aim of this study is to fully utilize the use of mulberry leaves cultivated in Indonesia as a medicinal herb in local, national, or global community, by determining the DNJ and other phytochemical contents in them. This study used eight leaf samples which are the young leaves and mature leaves of both Morus alba var. kanva-2, M. alba var. multicaulis, M. bombycis var. lembang, and M. cathayana. The DNJ content was analyzed using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The stationary phase was silica C18 column and the mobile phase was acetonitrile:acetic acid 0.1% 1:1 with elution rate 1 mL/min. Prior to HPLC analysis the samples were derivatized with FMOC to ensure the DNJ detectable by VWD detector at 254 nm. Results showed that the DNJ content in samples are ranging from 2.90-0.07 mg DNJ/ g leaves, with the highest content found in M. cathayana mature leaves (2.90 ± 0.57 mg DNJ/g leaves). All of the mature leaf samples also found to contain higher amount of DNJ from their respective young leaf samples. The phytochemicals in leaf samples was tested using qualitative test. Result showed that all of the eight leaf samples contain alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes. The presence of this phytochemicals contribute to the therapeutic effect of mulberry leaves. The pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) analysis was also performed to the eight samples to quantitatively determine their phytochemicals content. The pyrolysis temperature was set at 400 °C, with capillary column Phase Rtx-5MS 60 × 0.25 mm ID stationary phase and helium gas mobile phase. Few of the terpenes found are known to have anticancer and antimicrobial properties. From all the results, all of four samples of mulberry leaves which are cultivated in Indonesia contain DNJ and various phytochemicals like alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes which are beneficial to our health.

Keywords: HPLC, Morus, Py-GC-MS

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21 Alkaloid Levels in Experimental Lines of Ryegrass in Southtern Chile

Authors: Leonardo Parra, Manuel Chacón-Fuentes, Andrés Quiroz


One of the most important factors in beef and dairy production in the world as well as also in Chile, is related to the correct choice of cultivars or mixtures of forage grasses and legumes to ensure high yields and quality of grassland. However, a great problem is the persistence of the grasses as a result of the action of different hypogeous as epigean pests. The complex insect pests associated with grassland include white grubs (Hylamorpha elegans, Phytoloema herrmanni), blackworm (Dalaca pallens) and Argentine stem weevil (Listronotus bonariensis). In Chile, the principal strategy utilized for controlling this pest is chemical control, through the use of synthetic insecticides, however, underground feeding habits of larval and flight activity of adults makes this uneconomic method. Furthermore, due to problems including environmental degradation, development of resistance and chemical residues, there is a worldwide interest in the use of alternative environmentally friendly pest control methods. In this sense, in recent years there has been an increasing interest in determining the role of endophyte fungi in controlling epigean and hypogeous pest. Endophytes from ryegrass (Lolium perenne), establish a biotrophic relationship with the host, defined as mutualistic symbiosis. The plant-fungi association produces a “cocktail of alkaloids” where peramine is the main toxic substance present in endophyte of ryegrass and responsible for damage reduction of L. bonariensis. In the last decade, few studies have been developed on the effectiveness of new ryegrass cultivars carriers of endophyte in controlling insect pests. Therefore, the aim of this research is to provide knowledge concerning to evaluate the alkaloid content, such as peramine and Lolitrem B, present in new experimental lines of ryegrass and feasible to be used in grasslands of southern Chile. For this, during 2016, ryegrass plants of six experimental lines and two commercial cultivars sown at the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias Carrillanca (Vilcún, Chile) were collected and subjected to a process of chemical extraction to identify and quantify the presence of peramine and lolitrem B by the technique of liquid chromatography of high resolution (HPLC). The results indicated that the experimental lines EL-1 and EL-3 had high content of peramine (0.25 and 0.43 ppm, respectively) than with lolitrem B (0.061 and 0.19 ppm, respectively). Furthermore, the higher contents of lolitrem B were detected in the EL-4 and commercial cultivar Alto (positive control) with 0.08 and 0.17 ppm, respectively. Peramine and lolitrem B were not detected in the cultivar Jumbo (negative control). These results suggest that EL-3 would have potential as future cultivate because it has high content of peramine, alkaloid responsible for controlling insect pest. However, their current role on the complex insects attacking ryegrass grasslands should be evaluated. The information obtained in this research could be used to improve control strategies against hypogeous and epigean pests of grassland in southern Chile and also to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides.

Keywords: Pest, HPLC, Lolitrem B, peramine

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20 Assessment of Milk Quality in Vehari: Evaluation of Public Health Concerns

Authors: Iftikhar Ahmad, ZAKIR ALI, Muhammad Farhan Saeed, Muhammad Nadeem, Waheed Aslam Khan


Milk is an important and fundamental nutrition source of human diet. In Pakistan, the milk used by the consumer is of low quality and is often contaminated due to the lack of quality controls. Mycotoxins produced from molds which contaminate the agriculture commodities of animal feed. Mycotoxins are poisons which affect the animals when they consume contaminated feeds. Aflatoxin AFM1 is naturally occurring form of mycotoxins in milk which is carcinogenic. To assess public awareness regarding milk Aflatoxin contamination, a population-based survey using a questionnaire was carried out from general public and from farmers of both rural and urban areas. It was revealed from the data that people of rural area were more satisfied about quality of available milk but the awareness level about milk contamination was found lower in both areas. Total 297 samples of milk were collected from rural (n=156) and urban (n=141) areas of district Vehari during June-July 2015. Milk samples were collected from three different point sources; farmer, milkman and milkshop. These point sources had three types of dairy milk including cow milk, buffalo milk and mixed milk. After performing ELISA test 18 samples with positive ELISA results were maintain per source for further analysis for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Higher percentages of samples were found exceeding the permissible limit for urban area. In rural area about 15% samples and from urban area about 35% samples were exceeded the permissible limit of AFM1 with 0.05µg/kg set by European Union. From urban areas about 55% of buffalo, 33% of cows and 17% of mixed milk samples were exceeded the permissible AFM1 level as compared with 17%, 11% and 17% for milk samples from rural areas respectively. Samples from urban areas 33%, 44% and 28% were exceeded the permissible AFM1 level for farmer, milkman and of milk shop respectively as compared with 28% and 17% of farmer and milkman’s samples from rural areas respectively. The presence of AFM1 in milk samples demands the implementation of strict regulations and also urges the need for continuous monitoring of milk and milk products in order to minimize the health hazards. Regulations regarding aflatoxins contamination and adulteration should be strictly imposed to prevent health problems related to milk quality. Permissible limits for aflatoxin should be enforced strongly in Pakistan so that economic loss due to aflatoxin contamination can be reduced.

Keywords: HPLC, Milk, Vehari, aflatoxins AFM1

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19 Inhibition of the Corrosion of Copper in 0.5 NaCl Solutions by Aqueous Extract and Hydrolysis Acid of Olive Leaf Extract

Authors: Chahla Rahal, Philippe Refait


Oleuropein-rich extract from olive leaf and acid hydrolysates, rich in hydroxytyrosol and elenolic acid was prepared under different experimental conditions. These phenolic compounds may be used as a corrosion inhibitor. The inhibitive action of these extracts and its major constituents on the corrosion of copper in 0.5 M NaCl solution has been evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and weight loss measurements. The product of extraction was analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), whose analysis shows that olive leaf extract are greatly rich in phenolic compounds, mainly Oleuropeine (OLE), Hydroxytyrosol (HT) and elenolic acid (EA). After the acid hydrolysis and high temperature of extraction, an increase in hydroxytyrosol concentration was detected, coupled with relatively low oleuropeine content and high concentration of elenolic acid. The potentiodynamic measurements have shown that this extract acts as a mixed-type corrosion inhibitor, and good inhibition efficiency is observed with the increase in HT and EA concentration. These results suggest that the inhibitive effect of olive leaf extract might be due to the adsorption of the various phenolic compounds onto the copper surface.

Keywords: Corrosion, HPLC, Copper, Voltammetry, EIS, oleuropein, Olive leaf extract

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18 Optimization of Cacao Fermentation in Davao Philippines Using Sustainable Method

Authors: Ian Marc G. Cabugsa, Kim Ryan Won, Kareem Mamac, Manuel Dee, Merlita Garcia


An optimized cacao fermentation technique was developed for the cacao farmers of Davao City Philippines. Cacao samples with weights ranging from 150-250 kilograms were collected from various cacao farms in Davao City and Zamboanga City Philippines. Different fermentation techniques were used starting with design of the sweat box, prefermentation conditionings, number of days for fermentation and number of turns. As the beans are being fermented, its temperature was regularly monitored using a digital thermometer. The resultant cacao beans were assessed using physical and chemical means. For the physical assessment, the bean cut test, bean count tests, and sensory test were used. Quantification of theobromine, caffeine, and antioxidants in the form of equivalent quercetin was used for chemical assessment. Both the theobromine and caffeine were analyzed using HPLC method while the antioxidant was analyzed spectrometrically. To come up with the best fermentation procedure, the different assessment were given priority coefficients wherein the physical tests – taste test, cut, and bean count tests were given priority over the results of the chemical test. The result of the study was an optimized fermentation protocol that is readily adaptable and transferable to any cacao cooperatives or groups in Mindanao or even Philippines as a whole.

Keywords: Optimization, Fermentation, HPLC, Philippines, cacao

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17 Development and Validation Method for Quantitative Determination of Rifampicin in Human Plasma and Its Application in Bioequivalence Test

Authors: Zullies Ikawati, Endang Lukitaningsih, Fathul Jannah, Arief R. Hakim, Ratna D. Puspita


Rifampicin is a semisynthetic antibiotic derivative of rifamycin B produced by Streptomyces mediterranei. RIF has been used worldwide as first line drug-prescribed throughout tuberculosis therapy. This study aims to develop and to validate an HPLC method couple with a UV detection for determination of rifampicin in spiked human plasma and its application for bioequivalence study. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an RP-C18 column (LachromHitachi, 250 x 4.6 mm., 5μm), utilizing a mobile phase of phosphate buffer/acetonitrile (55:45, v/v, pH 6.8 ± 0.1) at a flow of 1.5 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 337 nm by using spectrophotometer. The developed method was statistically validated for the linearity, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, precise and specifity. The specifity of the method was ascertained by comparing chromatograms of blank plasma and plasma containing rifampicin; the matrix and rifampicin were well separated. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.7 µg/mL and 2.3 µg/mL, respectively. The regression curve of standard was linear (r > 0.999) over a range concentration of 20.0 – 100.0 µg/mL. The mean recovery of the method was 96.68 ± 8.06 %. Both intraday and interday precision data showed reproducibility (R.S.D. 2.98% and 1.13 %, respectively). Therefore, the method can be used for routine analysis of rifampicin in human plasma and in bioequivalence study. The validated method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study of rifampicin tablet in a limited number of subjects (under an Ethical Clearance No. KE/FK/6201/EC/2015). The mean values of Cmax, Tmax, AUC(0-24) and AUC(o-∞) for the test formulation of rifampicin were 5.81 ± 0.88 µg/mL, 1.25 hour, 29.16 ± 4.05 µg/mL. h. and 29.41 ± 4.07 µg/mL. h., respectively. Meanwhile for the reference formulation, the values were 5.04 ± 0.54 µg/mL, 1.31 hour, 27.20 ± 3.98 µg/mL.h. and 27.49 ± 4.01 µg/mL.h. From bioequivalence study, the 90% CIs for the test formulation/reference formulation ratio for the logarithmic transformations of Cmax and AUC(0-24) were 97.96-129.48% and 99.13-120.02%, respectively. According to the bioequivamence test guidelines of the European Commission-European Medicines Agency, it can be concluded that the test formulation of rifampicin is bioequivalence with the reference formulation.

Keywords: plasma, Validation, HPLC, Bioequivalence

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16 Development and Validation of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Determination and Pharmacokinetic Study of Linagliptin in Rat Plasma

Authors: Hoda Mahgoub, Abeer Hanafy


Linagliptin (LNG) belongs to dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor class. DPP-4 inhibitors represent a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in adults. The aim of this work was to develop and validate an accurate and reproducible HPLC method for the determination of LNG with high sensitivity in rat plasma. The method involved separation of both LNG and pindolol (internal standard) at ambient temperature on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 column and a mobile phase composed of 75% methanol: 25% formic acid 0.1% pH 4.1 at a flow rate of 1.0 mL.min-1. UV detection was performed at 254nm. The method was validated in compliance with ICH guidelines and found to be linear in the range of 5–1000ng.mL-1. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 5ng.mL-1 based on 100µL of plasma. The variations for intra- and inter-assay precision were less than 10%, and the accuracy values were ranged between 93.3% and 102.5%. The extraction recovery (R%) was more than 83%. The method involved a single extraction step of a very small plasma volume (100µL). The assay was successfully applied to an in-vivo pharmacokinetic study of LNG in rats that were administered a single oral dose of LNG. The maximum concentration (Cmax) was found to be 927.5 ± 23.9ng.mL-1. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-72) was 18285.02 ± In conclusion, the good accuracy and low LOQ of the bioanalytical HPLC method were suitable for monitoring the full pharmacokinetic profile of LNG in rats. The main advantages of the method were the sensitivity, small sample volume, single-step extraction procedure and the short time of analysis.

Keywords: HPLC, rat plasma, linagliptin, pharmacokinetic study

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15 Nutritional Potential and Functionality of Whey Powder Influenced by Different Processing Temperature and Storage

Authors: Zarmina Gillani, Nuzhat Huma, Aysha Sameen, Mulazim Hussain Bukhari


Whey is an excellent food ingredient owing to its high nutritive value and its functional properties. However, composition of whey varies depending on composition of milk, processing conditions, processing method, and its whey protein content. The aim of this study was to prepare a whey powder from raw whey and to determine the influence of different processing temperatures (160 and 180 °C) on the physicochemical, functional properties during storage of 180 days and on whey protein denaturation. Results have shown that temperature significantly (P < 0.05) affects the pH, acidity, non-protein nitrogen (NPN), protein total soluble solids, fat and lactose contents. Significantly (p < 0.05) higher foaming capacity (FC), foam stability (FS), whey protein nitrogen index (WPNI), and a lower turbidity and solubility index (SI) were observed in whey powder processed at 160 °C compared to whey powder processed at 180 °C. During storage of 180 days, slow but progressive changes were noticed on the physicochemical and functional properties of whey powder. Reverse phase-HPLC analysis revealed a significant (P < 0.05) effect of temperature on whey protein contents. Denaturation of β-Lactoglobulin is followed by α-lacalbumin, casein glycomacropeptide (CMP/GMP), and bovine serum albumin (BSA).

Keywords: HPLC, temperature, denaturation, whey powder, reverse phase

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14 Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Composition in Mene maculata in The Sea of Maluku

Authors: Semuel Unwakoly, Reinner Puppela, Maresthy Rumalean, Healthy Kainama


Fish is a kind of food that contains many nutritions, one of those is the long chain of unsaturated fatty acids as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and essential amino acid in enough amount for the necessity of our body. Like pelagic fish that found in the sea of Maluku. This research was done to identify fatty acids and amino acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) using transesterification reaction steps and Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that fatty acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) contained tridecanoic acid (2.84%); palmitoleic acid (2.65%); palmitic acid (35.24%); oleic acid (6.2%); stearic acid (14.20%); and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (1.29%) and 12 amino acids composition that consist of 7 essential amino acids, were leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, methionine, lysine, and histidine, and also 5 non-essential amino acid, were tyrosine, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, and arginine.Thus, these fishes can be used by the people to complete the necessity of essential fatty acid and amino acid.

Keywords: HPLC, Amino Acid, GC-MS, fatty acid, Moonfish (M. maculata)

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13 Extraction and Quantification of Peramine Present in Dalaca pallens, a Pest of Grassland in Southtern Chile

Authors: Daniel Martinez, Leonardo Parra, Manuel Chacón-Fuentes, Andrés Quiroz, Fernando Ortega, Jorge Pizarro


Control of Dalaca pallens or blackworms, one of the most important hypogeous pest in grassland in southern Chile, is based on the use of broad-spectrum insecticides such as organophosphates and pyrethroids. However, the rapid development of insecticide resistance in field populations of this insect and public concern over the environmental impact of these insecticides has resulted in the search for other control methods. Specifically, the use of endophyte fungi for controlling pest has emerged as an interesting and promising strategy. Endophytes from ryegrass (Lolium perenne), establish a biotrophic relationship with the host, defined as mutualistic symbiosis. The plant-fungi association produces alkaloids where peramine is the main toxic substance against Listronotus bonariensis, the most important epigean pest of ryegrass. Nevertheless, the effect of peramina on others pest insects, such as D. pallens, to our knowledge has not been studied, and also its possible metabolization in the body of the larvae. Therefore, we addressed the following research question: Do larvae of D. pallens store peramine after consumption of ryegrass endophyte infected (E+)? For this, specimens of blackworms were fed with ryegrass plant of seven experimental lines and one commercial cultivar endophyte free (E-) sown at the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias Carillanca (Vilcún, Chile). Once the feeding period was over, ten larvae of each treatment were examined. Individuals were dissected, and their gut was removed to exclude any influence of remaining material. The rest of the larva's body was dried at 60°C by 24-48 h and ground into a fine powder using a mortar. 25 mg of dry powder was transferred to a microcentrifuge tube and extracted in 1 mL of a mixture of methanol:water:formic acid. Then, the samples were centrifuged at 16,000 rpm for 3 min, and the supernatant was colected and injected in the liquid chromatography of high resolution (HPLC). The results confirmed the presence of peramine in the larva's body of D. pallens. The insects that fed the experimental lines LQE-2 and LQE-6 were those where peramine was present in high proportion (0.205 and 0.199 ppm, respectively); while LQE-7 and LQE-3 obtained the lowest concentrations of the alkaloid (0.047 and 0.053 ppm, respectively). Peramine was not detected in the insects when the control cultivar Jumbo (E-) was tested. These results evidenced the storage and metabolism of peramine during consumption of the larvae. However, the effect of this alkaloid present in 'future ryegrass cultivars' (LQE-2 and LQE-6) on the performance and survival of blackworms must be studied and confirmed experimentally.

Keywords: Pest, HPLC, alkaloid, blackworms

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12 Characterization of Penicillin V Acid and Its Related Compounds by HPLC

Authors: Bahdja Guerfi, N. Hadhoum, I. Azouz, M. Bendoumia, S. Bouafia, F. Z. Hadjadj Aoul


Background: 'Penicillin V' is a narrow, bactericidal antibiotic of the beta-lactam family of the naturally occurring penicillin group. It is limited to infections due to the germs defined as sensitive. The objective of this work was to identify and to characterize Penicillin V acid and its related compounds by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: Firstly phenoxymethylpenicillin was identified by an infrared absorption. The organoleptic characteristics, pH, and determination of water content were also studied. The dosage of Penicillin V acid active substance and the determination of its related compounds were carried on waters HPLC, equipped with a UV detector at 254 nm and Discovery HS C18 column (250 mm X 4.6 mm X 5 µm) which is maintained at room temperature. The flow rate was about 1 ml per min. A mixture of water, acetonitrile and acetic acid (65:35:01) was used as mobile phase for phenoxyacetic acid ‘impurity B' and a mixture of water, acetonitrile and acetic acid (650:150:5.75) for the assay and 4-hydroxypenicillin V 'impurity D'. Results: The identification of Penicillin V acid active substance and the evaluation of its chemical quality showed conformity with USP 35th edition. The Penicillin V acid content in the raw material is equal to 1692.22 UI/mg. The percentage content of phenoxyacetic acid and 4-hydroxypenicillin V was respectively: 0.035% and 0.323%. Conclusion: Through these results, we can conclude that the Penicillin V acid active substance tested is of good physicochemical quality.

Keywords: Characterization, HPLC, related substances, Penicillin V acid

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11 Methodology for the Determination of Triterpenic Compounds in Apple Extracts

Authors: Mindaugas Liaudanskas, Darius Kviklys, Kristina Zymonė, Raimondas Raudonis, Jonas Viškelis, Norbertas Uselis, Pranas Viškelis, Valdimaras Janulis


Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits in the world. Based on data from the year 2014, approximately 84.63 million tons of apples are grown per annum. Apples are widely used in food industry to produce various products and drinks (juice, wine, and cider); they are also used unprocessed. Apples in human diet are an important source of different groups of biological active compounds that can positively contribute to the prevention of various diseases. They are a source of various biologically active substances – especially vitamins, organic acids, micro- and macro-elements, pectins, and phenolic, triterpenic, and other compounds. Triterpenic compounds, which are characterized by versatile biological activity, are the biologically active compounds found in apples that are among the most promising and most significant for human health. A specific analytical procedure including sample preparation and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis was developed, optimized, and validated for the detection of triterpenic compounds in the samples of different apples, their peels, and flesh from widespread apple cultivars 'Aldas', 'Auksis', 'Connel Red', 'Ligol', 'Lodel', and 'Rajka' grown in Lithuanian climatic conditions. The conditions for triterpenic compound extraction were optimized: the solvent of the extraction was 100% (v/v) acetone, and the extraction was performed in an ultrasound bath for 10 min. Isocratic elution (the eluents ratio being 88% (solvent A) and 12% (solvent B)) for a rapid separation of triterpenic compounds was performed. The validation of the methodology was performed on the basis of the ICH recommendations. The following characteristics of validation were evaluated: the selectivity of the method (specificity), precision, the detection and quantitation limits of the analytes, and linearity. The obtained parameters values confirm suitability of methodology to perform analysis of triterpenic compounds. Using the optimised and validated HPLC technique, four triterpenic compounds were separated and identified, and their specificity was confirmed. These compounds were corosolic acid, betulinic acid, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid. Ursolic acid was the dominant compound in all the tested apple samples. The detected amount of betulinic acid was the lowest of all the identified triterpenic compounds. The greatest amounts of triterpenic compounds were detected in whole apple and apple peel samples of the 'Lodel' cultivar, and thus apples and apple extracts of this cultivar are potentially valuable for use in medical practice, for the prevention of various diseases, for adjunct therapy, for the isolation of individual compounds with a specific biological effect, and for the development and production of dietary supplements and functional food enriched in biologically active compounds. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by a grant from the Research Council of Lithuania, project No. MIP-17-8.

Keywords: Validation, HPLC, apples, triterpenic compounds

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