Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Housing Related Abstracts

33 Effectual Role of Local Level Partnership Schemes in Affordable Housing Delivery

Authors: Hala S. Mekawy

Abstract:

Affordable housing delivery for low and lower middle income families is a prominent problem in many developing countries; governments alone are unable to address this challenge due to diverse financial and regulatory constraints, and the private sector's contribution is rare and assists only middle-income households even when institutional and legal reforms are conducted to persuade it to go down market. Also, the market-enabling policy measures advocated by the World Bank since the early nineties have been strongly criticized and proven to be inappropriate to developing country contexts, where it is highly unlikely that the formal private sector can reach low income population. In addition to governments and private developers, affordable housing delivery systems involve an intricate network of relationships between diverse ranges of actors. Collaboration between them was proven to be vital, and hence, an approach towards partnership schemes for affordable housing delivery has emerged. The basic premise of this paper is that addressing housing affordability challenges in Egypt demands direct public support, as markets and market actors alone would never succeed in delivering decent affordable housing to low and lower middle income groups. It argues that this support would ideally be through local level partnership schemes, with a leading decentralized local government role, and partners being identified according to specific local conditions. It attempts to identify major attributes that would ensure the fulfilment of the goals of such schemes in the Egyptian context. This is based upon evidence from diversified worldwide experiences, in addition to the main outcomes of a questionnaire that was conducted to specialists and chief actors in the field.

Keywords: Housing, Urban Environments, Affordable Housing, partnership schemes

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32 Quantitative Analysis of the Quality of Housing and Land Use in the Built-up area of Croatian Coastal City of Zadar

Authors: Silvija Šiljeg, Ante Šiljeg, Branko Cavrić

Abstract:

Housing is considered as a basic human need and important component of the quality of life (QoL) in urban areas worldwide. In contemporary housing studies, the concept of the quality of housing (QoH) is considered as a multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary field. It emphasizes connection between various aspects of the QoL which could be measured by quantitative and qualitative indicators at different spatial levels (e.g. local, city, metropolitan, regional). The main goal of this paper is to examine the QoH and compare results of quantitative analysis with the clutter land use categories derived for selected local communities in Croatian Coastal City of Zadar. The qualitative housing analysis based on the four housing indicators (out of total 24 QoL indicators) has provided identification of the three Zadar’s local communities with the highest estimated QoH ranking. Furthermore, by using GIS overlay techniques, the QoH was merged with the urban environment analysis and introduction of spatial metrics based on the three categories: the element, class and environment as a whole. In terms of semantic-content analysis, the research has also generated a set of indexes suitable for evaluation of “housing state of affairs” and future decision making aiming at improvement of the QoH in selected local communities.

Keywords: Housing, Urban Environment, Quality, Class, GIS, Element, indicators, indexes

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31 Quality of Life of Poor Residential Neighborhoods in Oshogbo, Nigeria

Authors: Funmilayo L. Amao

Abstract:

As a result of the high cost of housing, the increasing population is forced to live in substandard housing and unhealthy conditions giving rise to poor residential neighborhoods. The paper examines the causes and characteristics of poor residential neighborhood. The paper finds the problems that have influence poor neighborhoods to; poverty, growth of informal sector and housing shortage. The paper asserts that poor residential neighborhoods have adverse effects on the people. The secondary data was obtained from books, journals and seminar papers while primary data relating to building and environmental quality from structured questionnaire administered on sample of 500 household heads, from sampling frame of 5000 housing units. The study reveals that majority of the respondents are poor and employed in informal sector. The paper suggests urban renewal and slum upgrading programs as methods in dealing with the situation and an improvement in the socio-economic circumstances of the inhabitants.

Keywords: Housing, Poverty, Quality of Life, environmental degeneration, urban upgrading

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30 Housing Delivery in Nigeria: Repackaging for Sustainable Development

Authors: Funmilayo L. Amao, Amos O. Amao

Abstract:

It has been observed that majority of the people are living in poor housing quality or totally homeless in urban center despite all governmental policies to provide housing to the public. On the supply side, various government policies in the past have been formulated towards overcoming the huge shortage through several Housing Reform Programmes. Despite these past efforts, housing continues to be a mirage to ordinary Nigerian. Currently, there are various mass housing delivery programmes such as the affordable housing scheme that utilize the Public Private Partnership effort and several Private Finance Initiative models could only provide for about 3% of the required stock. This suggests the need for a holistic solution in approaching the problem. The aim of this research is to find out the problems hindering the delivery of housing in Nigeria and its effects on housing affordability. The specific objectives are to identify the causes of housing delivery problems, to examine different housing policies over years and to suggest a way out for sustainable housing delivery. This paper also reviews the past and current housing delivery programmes in Nigeria and analyses the demand and supply side issues. It identifies the various housing delivery mechanisms in current practice. The objective of this paper, therefore, is to give you an insight into the delivery option for the sustainability of housing in Nigeria, given the existing delivery structures and the framework specified in the New National Housing Policy. The secondary data were obtained from books, journals and seminar papers. The conclusion is that we cannot copy models from other nations, but should rather evolve workable models based on our socio-cultural background to address the huge housing shortage in Nigeria. Recommendations are made in this regard.

Keywords: Housing, Sustainability, Housing Policy, Housing Affordability, housing delivery

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29 Poverty and Environmental Degeneration in Central City of Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Funmilayo Lanrewaju Amao, Amos Olusegun Amao, Odetoye Adeola Sunday, Joseph Joshua Olu

Abstract:

There is a high magnitude of housing inadequacy in urban centers in Nigeria. This is manifested in quantitative and qualitative terms. Severe overcrowding and insanitary physical environment characterize the housing in the urban centers. The culminating effect of this is the growth of slum areas. This paper takes a critical look at inter-allia history and anatomy, general characteristic, present condition, root causes, official responses and reactions, possible solution and advocacy housing in central city slum of Ibadan. It also examines slum development and consequent deviant behaviors in the inner-city neighborhoods of Ibadan, the capital city of Oyo State, Nigeria. Residing there are many underemployed and unemployed individuals, these are miscreants who are generally socially frustrated. The activities of this group of people are a cause of concern. Deleterious and anti-social behaviors such as prostitution and house burglary are commonplace in the neighborhoods. The paper examines building conditions in the neighborhoods and the nexus with the deviant behavior of the inhabitants. The paper affirms that there is monumental deficiency in housing quality, while the design and the arrangement of the buildings into spatial units significantly influence the behavior of the residents. The paper suggests a two-prong approach in dealing with the situation. This involves urban renewal and slum upgrading programmes on the one hand, and an improvement in the socio-economic circumstances of the inhabitants, especially an increase in employment opportunity on the other.

Keywords: Housing, Behavior, Poverty, slum, environmental degeneration

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28 Alternative Housing Systems: Influence on Blood Profile of Egg-Type Chickens in Humid Tropics

Authors: Olufemi M. Alabi, Foluke A. Aderemi, Adebayo A. Adewumi, Banwo O. Alabi

Abstract:

General well-being of animals is of paramount interest in some developed countries and of global importance hence the shift onto alternative housing systems for egg-type chickens as replacement for conventional battery cage system. However, there is paucity of information on the effect of this shift on physiological status of the hens to judge their health via the blood profile. Therefore, investigation was carried out on two strains of hen kept in three different housing systems in humid tropics to evaluate changes in their blood parameters. 108, 17-weeks old super black (SBL) hens and 108, 17-weeks old super brown (SBR) hens were randomly allotted to three different intensive systems Partitioned Conventional Cage (PCC), Extended Conventional Cage (ECC) and Deep Litter System (DLS) in a randomized complete block design with 36 hens per housing system, each with three replicates. The experiment lasted 37 weeks during which blood samples were collected at 18th week of age and bi-weekly thereafter for analyses. Parameters measured are packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood counts (RBC), white blood counts (WBC) and serum metabolites such as total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), globulin (Glb), glucose, cholesterol, urea, bilirubin, serum cortisol while blood indices such as mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were calculated. The hematological values of the hens were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the housing system and strain, so also the serum metabolites except for the serum cortisol which was significantly (p<0.05) affected by the housing system only. Hens housed on PCC had higher values (20.05 ng/ml for SBL and 20.55 ng/ml for SBR) followed by hens on ECC (18.15ng/ml for SBL and 18.38ng/ml for SBL) while hens on DLS had the lowest value (16.50ng/ml for SBL and 16.00ng/ml for SBR) thereby confirming indication of stress with conventionally caged birds. Alternative housing systems can also be adopted for egg-type chickens in the humid tropics from welfare point of view with the results of this work confirming stress among caged hens.

Keywords: Housing, Blood, layers, humid-tropics

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27 Achieving Quality of Life and Sustainability in Mexican Cities, the Case of the Housing Complex “Villa del Campo”, Tijuana, Mexico

Authors: María de los Ángeles Zárate López, Juan Antonio Pitones Rubio

Abstract:

Quality of life and sustainability in cities are among the most important challenges faced by designers, city planners and urban managers. The Mexican city of Tijuana has a particular dynamic in its demographics which has been accelerated by its border city condition, putting to the test the ability from authorities to provide the population with the necessary services to aspire for a deserving quality of life. In the recent story of Tijuana, we found that the housing policy and the solutions presented by private housing developers have not met the best living conditions for end users by far, thereby adding issues to current social problems which impact the whole metropolitan area, including damage to the natural environment. Therefore this research presents the case study about the situation of a suburban housing development near Tijuana named “Villa del Campo” and exposes the problems of this specific project (originally labelled as a “sustainable” proposal) demonstrating that, once built, the place does not reflect the quality of life that it promised as a project. Currently, this housing development has a number of problematic issues such as the faulty operating conditions of public utilities and serious cases of crime inside the neighborhood. There is no intention to only expose the negative side of this case study, but to explore some alternatives which could help solving the most serious problems at the place, considering possible architectural and landscape interventions within the housing complex to help achieve the optimal conditions of livability and sustainability required by their inhabitants.

Keywords: Housing, Sustainability, Quality of Life, Demographics, suburban, Tijuana

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26 Small Town Big Urban Issues the Case of Kiryat Ono, Israel

Authors: Ruth Shapira

Abstract:

Introduction: The rapid urbanization of the last century confronts planners, regulatory bodies, developers and most of all – the public with seemingly unsolved conflicts regarding values, capital, and wellbeing of the built and un-built urban space. This is reflected in the quality of the urban form and life which has known no significant progress in the last 2-3 decades despite the on-growing urban population. It is the objective of this paper to analyze some of these fundamental issues through the case study of a relatively small town in the center of Israel (Kiryat-Ono, 100,000 inhabitants), unfold the deep structure of qualities versus disruptors, present some cure that we have developed to bridge over and humbly suggest a practice that may be generic for similar cases. Basic Methodologies: The OBJECT, the town of Kiryat Ono, shall be experimented upon in a series of four action processes: De-composition, Re-composition, the Centering process and, finally, Controlled Structural Disintegration. Each stage will be based on facts, analysis of previous multidisciplinary interventions on various layers – and the inevitable reaction of the OBJECT, leading to the conclusion based on innovative theoretical and practical methods that we have developed and that we believe are proper for the open ended network, setting the rules for the contemporary urban society to cluster by. The Study: Kiryat Ono, was founded 70 years ago as an agricultural settlement and rapidly turned into an urban entity. In spite the massive intensification, the original DNA of the old small town was still deeply embedded, mostly in the quality of the public space and in the sense of clustered communities. In the past 20 years, the recent demand for housing has been addressed to on the national level with recent master plans and urban regeneration policies mostly encouraging individual economic initiatives. Unfortunately, due to the obsolete existing planning platform the present urban renewal is characterized by pressure of developers, a dramatic change in building scale and widespread disintegration of the existing urban and social tissue. Our office was commissioned to conceptualize two master plans for the two contradictory processes of Kiryat Ono’s future: intensification and conservation. Following a comprehensive investigation into the deep structures and qualities of the existing town, we developed a new vocabulary of conservation terms thus redefying the sense of PLACE. The main challenge was to create master plans that should offer a regulatory basis to the accelerated and sporadic development providing for the public good and preserving the characteristics of the PLACE consisting of a tool box of design guidelines that will have the ability to reorganize space along the time axis in a coherent way. In Conclusion: The system of rules that we have developed can generate endless possible patterns making sure that at each implementation fragment an event is created, and a better place is revealed. It takes time and perseverance but it seems to be the way to provide a healthy framework for the accelerated urbanization of our chaotic present.

Keywords: Housing, Architecture, Conservation, Urban Regeneration, intensification, urban qualities

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25 Cost Reduction Techniques for Provision of Shelter to Homeless

Authors: Mukul Anand

Abstract:

Quality oriented affordable shelter for all has always been the key issue in the housing sector of our country. Homelessness is the acute form of housing need. It is a paradox that in spite of innumerable government initiated programmes for affordable housing, certain section of society is still devoid of shelter. About nineteen million (18.78 million) households grapple with housing shortage in Urban India in 2012. In Indian scenario there is major mismatch between the people for whom the houses are being built and those who need them. The prime force faced by public authorities in facilitation of quality housing for all is high cost of construction. The present paper will comprehend executable techniques for dilution of cost factor in housing the homeless. The key actors responsible for delivery of cheap housing stock such as capacity building, resource optimization, innovative low cost building material and indigenous skeleton housing system will also be incorporated in developing these techniques. Time performance, which is an important angle of above actors, will also be explored so as to increase the effectiveness of low cost housing. Along with this best practices will be taken up as case studies where both conventional techniques of housing and innovative low cost housing techniques would be cited. Transportation consists of approximately 30% of total construction budget. Thus use of alternative local solutions depending upon the region would be covered so as to highlight major components of low cost housing. Government is laid back regarding base line information on use of innovative low cost method and technique of resource optimization. Therefore, the paper would be an attempt to bring to light simpler solutions for achieving low cost housing.

Keywords: Housing, Optimization, Construction, Cost, shelter

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24 Suboptimal Retiree Allocations with Housing

Authors: Harun Aydilek, Asiye Aydilek

Abstract:

We investigate the costs of various suboptimal allocations in housing, consumption, bond and stock holdings of a retiree in a setting with recursive utility, considering the extensive empirical evidence that investors make suboptimal decisions in different ways. We find that suboptimal stock holdings impose only modest costs on the retiree. This may have a merit in explaining the limited stock investment in the data. The cost of suboptimal bond holdings is higher than that of stocks, but still small. This may partially explain why many more people hold bonds compared to stocks. We find that positive deviations from the optimal level are less costly relative to the negative ones in suboptimal housing allocations. This may help us to clarify why the elderly are over consuming housing, as seen in the housing data. The cost of suboptimal consumption is quite high and the highest of all. Our paper suggests that, in terms of welfare, the decisions of how much of liquid wealth to use for consumption and for saving are more important than the decision about the composition of liquid savings. Suboptimal stock holdings are twice more costly in power utility and suboptimal bond holdings are twenty times more costly in recursive utility. Recursive utility is superior to power utility in terms of rationalizing many people's preference for bonds instead of stocks in investment.

Keywords: Housing, retirement, recursive utility, suboptimal decisions, welfare cost

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23 A Comparative Analysis of Residential Quality of Public and Private Estates in Lagos

Authors: S. Akinde, Jubril Olatunbosun

Abstract:

In recent years, most of the urban centers in Nigeria are fast experiencing housing problems such as unaffordable housing and environmental challenges, all of which determine the nature of housing quality. The population continues to increase and the demand for quality housing increases probably at the same rate. Several kinds of houses serve various purposes; the objectives of the low cost housing schemes as the name suggests is to make houses quality to both the middle and lower classes of people in Lagos. A casual look into the study area of Iba Low Cost Housing Estate and the Unity Low Cost Housing Estate, Ojo and Alimosho respectively in Lagos State have shown a huge demands for houses. The study area boasts of a large population all engaged in various commercial activities with income at various levels. It would be fair to say that these people are mainly of the middle class and lower class. This means the low cost housing scheme truly serves these purposes. A Low Cost Housing Scheme of Iba which is publicly owned and Low Cost Housing Scheme of Unity Estate (UE) is privately owned.  

Keywords: Housing, Public, residential quality, low cost housing scheme, private estates

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22 Sustainable Technology and the Production of Housing

Authors: S. Arias

Abstract:

New housing developments and the technological changes that this implies, adapt the styles of living of its residents, as well as new family structures and forms of work due to the particular needs of a specific group of people which involves different techniques of dealing with, organize, equip and use a particular territory. Currently, own their own space is increasingly important and the cities are faced with the challenge of providing the opportunity for such demands, as well as energy, water and waste removal necessary in the process of construction and occupation of new human settlements. Until the day of today, not has failed to give full response to these demands and needs, resulting in cities that grow without control, badly used land, avenues and congested streets. Buildings and dwellings have an important impact on the environment and on the health of the people, therefore environmental quality associated with the comfort of humans to the sustainable development of natural resources. Applied to architecture, this concept involves the incorporation of new technologies in all the constructive process of a dwelling, changing customs of developers and users, what must be a greater effort in planning energy savings and thus reducing the emissions Greenhouse Gases (GHG) depending on the geographical location where it is planned to develop. Since the techniques of occupation of the territory are not the same everywhere, must take into account that these depend on the geographical, social, political, economic and climatic-environmental circumstances of place, which in modified according to the degree of development reached. In the analysis that must be undertaken to check the degree of sustainability of the place, it is necessary to make estimates of the energy used in artificial air conditioning and lighting. In the same way is required to diagnose the availability and distribution of the water resources used for hygiene and for the cooling of artificially air-conditioned spaces, as well as the waste resulting from these technological processes. Based on the results obtained through the different stages of the analysis, it is possible to perform an energy audit in the process of proposing recommendations of sustainability in architectural spaces in search of energy saving, rational use of water and natural resources optimization. The above can be carried out through the development of a sustainable building code in develop technical recommendations to the regional characteristics of each study site. These codes would seek to build bases to promote a building regulations applicable to new human settlements looking for is generated at the same time quality, protection and safety in them. This building regulation must be consistent with other regulations both national and municipal and State, such as the laws of human settlements, urban development and zoning regulations.

Keywords: Housing, Sustainability, Technology, Building Regulations

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21 Sustainable Reconstruction: Towards Guidelines of Post-Disaster Vulnerability Reduction for Permanent Informal Housing in Malaysia Due to Flooding

Authors: Ruhizal Roosli, Julaihi Wahid, Abu Hassan Abu Bakar, Faizal Baharum

Abstract:

This paper reports on the progress of a study on the reconstruction project after the ‘Yellow Flood’ disaster in Kelantan, Malaysia. Malaysia still does not have guidelines to build housing after a disaster especially in disaster-prone areas. At the international level, many guidelines have been prepared that is found suitable for post-disaster housing. Which guidelines can be adapted that best describes the situation in Malaysia? It was reported that the houses should be built on stilts, which can withstand certain level of impact during flooding. Unfortunately, until today no specific guideline was available to assist homeowners to rebuild their homes after disaster. In addition, there is also no clear operational procedure to monitor the progress of this construction work. This research is an effort to promoting resilient housing; safety and security; and secure tenure in a prone area. At the end of this study, key lessons will be emerged from the review process and data analysis. These inputs will then have influenced to the content that will be developed and presented as guidelines. An overall objective is to support humanitarian responses to disaster and conflicts for resilience house construction to flood prone area. Interviews with the field based staff were from recent post-disaster housing workforce (disaster management mechanism in Malaysia especially in Kelantan). The respondents were selected based on their experiences in disaster response particularly related to housing provision. These key lessons are perhaps the best practical (operational and technical) guidelines comparing to other International cases to be adapted to the national situations.

Keywords: Housing, Disaster, Reconstruction, Malaysia, guideline

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20 Energy Efficiency in Hot Arid Climates Code Compliance and Enforcement for Residential Buildings

Authors: Mohamed Edesy, Carlo Cecere

Abstract:

This paper is a part of an ongoing research that proposes energy strategies for residential buildings in hot arid climates. In Egypt, the residential sector is dominated by increase in consumption rates annually. A building energy efficiency code was introduced by the government in 2005; it indicates minimum design and application requirements for residential buildings. Submission is mandatory and should lead to about 20% energy savings with an increase in comfort levels. However, compliance is almost nonexistent, electricity is subsidized and incentives to adopt energy efficient patterns are very low. This work presents an overview of the code and analyzes the impact of its introduction on different sectors. It analyses compliance barriers and indicates challenges that stand in the way of a realistic enforcement. It proposes an action plan for immediate code enforcement, updating current code to include retrofit, and development of rating systems for buildings. This work presents a broad national plan for energy efficiency empowerment in the residential sector.

Keywords: Housing, Energy Efficiency, energy policies, code enforcement

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19 Causes and Effects of the 2012 Flood Disaster on Affected Communities in Nigeria

Authors: Abdulquadri Ade Bilau, Richard Ajayi Jimoh, Adejoh Amodu Adaji

Abstract:

The increasing exposures to natural hazards have continued to severely impair on the built environment causing huge fatalities, mass damage and destruction of housing and civil infrastructure while leaving psychosocial impacts on affected communities. The 2012 flood disaster in Nigeria which affected over 7 million inhabitants in 30 of the 36 states resulted in 363 recorded fatalities with about 600,000 houses and a number of civil infrastructure damaged or destroyed. In Kogi State, over 500 thousand people were displaced in 9 out of the 21 local government affected while Ibaji and Lokoja local governments were worst hit. This study identifies the causes and 2012 flood disasters and its effect on housing and livelihood. Personal observation and questionnaire survey were instruments used in carrying out the study and data collected were analysed using descriptive statistical tool. Findings show that the 2012 flood disaster was aided by the gap in hydrological data, sudden dam failure, and inadequate drainage capacity to reduce flood risk. The study recommends that communities residing along the river banks in Lokoja and Ibaji LGAs must be adequately educated on their exposure to flood hazard and mitigation and risk reduction measures such as construction of adequate drainage channel are constructed in affected communities.

Keywords: Housing, Flood, risk reduction, Vulnerability, Hazards

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18 Evaluating India's Smart Cities against the Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Suneet Jagdev

Abstract:

17 Sustainable Development Goals were adopted by the world leaders in September 2015 at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit. These goals were adopted by UN member states to promote prosperity, health and human rights while protecting the planet. Around the same time, the Government of India launched the Smart City Initiative to speed up development of state of the art infrastructure and services in 100 cities with a focus on sustainable and inclusive development. These cities are meant to become role models for other cities in India and promote sustainable regional development. This paper examines goals set under the Smart City Initiative and evaluates them in terms of the Sustainable Development Goals, using case studies of selected Smart Cities in India. The study concludes that most Smart City projects at present actually consist of individual solutions to individual problems identified in a community rather than comprehensive models for complex issues in cities across India. Systematic, logical and comparative analysis of important literature and data has been done, collected from government sources, government papers, research papers by various experts on the topic, and results from some online surveys. Case studies have been used for a graphical analysis highlighting the issues of migration, ecology, economy and social equity in these Smart Cities.

Keywords: Migration, Housing, Smart Cities, urban infrastructure, Sustainable Development Goals

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17 Self-Help Adaptation to Flooding in Low-Income Settlements in Chiang Mai, Thailand

Authors: Nachawit Tikul

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine low-income housing adaptations for flooding, which causes living problems and housing damage, and the results from improvement. Three low-income settlements in Chiang Mai which experienced different flood types, i.e. flash floods in Samukeepattana, drainage floods in Bansanku, and river floods in Kampangam, were chosen for the study. Almost all of the residents improved their houses to protect the property from flood damage by changing building materials to flood damage resistant materials for walls, floors, and other parts of the structure that were below the base of annual flood elevation. They could only build some parts of their own homes, so hiring skilled workers or contractors was still important. Building materials which have no need for any special tools and are easy to access and use for construction, as well as low cost, are selected for construction. The residents in the three slums faced living problems for only a short time and were able to cope with them. This may be due to the location of the three slums near the city where assistance is readily available. But the housing and the existence in the slums can endure only the regular floods and residence still have problems in unusual floods, which have been experienced 1-2 times during the past 10 years. The residents accept the need for evacuations and prepare for them. When faced with extreme floods, residence have evacuated to the nearest safe place such as schools and public building, and come back to repair the houses after the flood. These are the distinguishing characteristics of low-income living which can withstand serious situations due to the simple lifestyle. Therefore, preparation of living areas for use during severe floods and encouraging production of affordable flood resistant materials should be areas of concern when formulating disaster assistance policies for low income people.

Keywords: Housing, Adaptation, Flooding, low-income settlement

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16 Housing Practices of the Young Southern Europeans in Connection with Family Strategies during the Crisis

Authors: Myrto Dagkouli-Kyriakoglou

Abstract:

Southern European countries tend to have a lot of connections in their culture, customs, ideals and attitude towards everyday aspects. On the contrary, all of them demonstrate a lot of differences in their history, political life and economic situation. Nevertheless, the state welfare and its insufficiency to deal with citizens’ needs, is common for the whole region. As the global financial crisis initiated, all of them gradually were affected and established austerity measures. Consequently, there were crucial budget cuts in state welfare and accordingly limited support to the citizens at a time that is most needed as the economic difficulties of the households are rising rapidly. Crisis in connection with austerity measures brought up a housing problem which was hidden for decades with the assistance of the institution of the Southern European family. New or old copying practices concerning housing are already developed and more will rise in order to survive this new era. Expressly, youth is one of the most vulnerable groups in this situation and therefore there is a special focus on the policies that affect their housing as well as their copying practices in connection with the family/kinship strategies.

Keywords: Housing, Greece, coping practices, familism

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15 Microeconomic Consequences of the Housing Market Deformation in the Selected Region of the Czech Republic

Authors: Hana Janáčková

Abstract:

Housing can be sorted as basic needs of households. Purchase of acceptable ownership housing is important investments for most them. For rental housing households must consider the part of rent expenditure paid in the total household income. For this reason, financial considerations of households in this area depend on the government innervations (public administration) in housing - on housing policy. Market system of housing allocation, whether ownership or tenancy, is based on the fact that housing is a scarce good. The allocation of housing is based on demand and supply. The market system of housing can sometimes have a negative impact on some households, the market is unable to satisfy certain groups of the population that are not able or willing to accept market price. For these reasons, there is a more or less regulation of the market. Regulation is both on the demand and supply side, and the state determines the rules of behaviour for all economic entities of the housing market. This article submits results of analysis of selected regulatory interference of the state in the housing market and assesses their implications deforming the market in the selected region of the Czech Republic. The first part describes tools of supports and the second part discusses deformations and analyses their consequences on the demand side of housing market and on supply side.

Keywords: Housing, deformation, Housing market, microeconomic consequences

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14 Social Impact Evaluation in the Housing Sector

Authors: Edgard Barki, Tânia Modesto Veludo-de-Oliveira, Felipe Zambaldi

Abstract:

The social enterprise sector can be characterized as organizations that aim to solve social problems with financial sustainability and using market mechanisms. This sector has shown an increasing interest worldwide. Despite the growth and relevance of the sector, there is still a gap regarding the assessment of the social impact resulting from the initiatives of the organizations in this field. A number of metrics have been designed worldwide to evaluate the impact of social enterprises (e.g., IRIS, GIIRS, BACO), as well as some ad hoc studies that have been carried out, mainly in the microcredit sector, but there is still a gap to be filled in the development of research in social impact evaluation. Therefore, this research seeks to evaluate the social impact of two social enterprises (Terra Nova and Vivenda) in the area of housing in Brazil. To evaluate these impacts and their dimensions, we conducted an exploratory research, through three focus groups, thirty in-depth interviews and a survey with beneficiaries of both organizations. The results allowed us to evaluate how the two organizations were able to create a deep social impact in the populations served. Terra Nova has a more collective perspective, with a clear benefit of social inclusion and improvement of the community’s infrastructure, while Vivenda has a more individualized perspective, improving self-esteem, sociability and family coexistence.

Keywords: Housing, Social Enterprise, Brazil, social impact evaluation

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13 Impact of Flexibility on Residential Buildings in Egypt

Authors: Aly Mohamed El Husseiny, Azza Ezz Abdelkader

Abstract:

There is a critical thin line between freedom of choice and randomness. The distance between imagination and perception and between perception and execution varies depending on numerous factors. While in developed areas residents have the opportunity and abilities to build flexible homes, residents in developing areas create their own dwellings in informal settlements, even though none of them is comfortable at home in the long run. This paper explores three factors: What residents really need, what they do with limited flexibility, and what they do when there are no limits, as in the case of informal settlements. This paper studies alteration to residential buildings and how they connect to the changes in people’s lifecycle in all past cases. This study also examines all approaches to flexibility, focusing on a social approach. The results of this study are based on three practical studies: Interviews with residents in an informal settlement (Eshash Mahfouz in Minya in Egypt), a civil study of buildings in a middle-class district, and a survey of residents from many countries, including Egypt, and interviews with a number of them to determine residents’ needs and the extent of renovations they made or would like to make to their homes.

Keywords: Housing, Social, Flexibility, changes, residents, freedom of choice

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12 Reading High Rise Residential Development in Istanbul on the Theory of Globalization

Authors: Tuba Sari

Abstract:

One of the major transformations caused by the industrial revolution, technological developments and globalization is undoubtedly acceleration of urbanization process. Globalization, in particular, is one of the major factors that trigger this transformation. In this context, as a result of the global metropolitan city system, multifunctional rising structure forms are becoming undeniable fact of the world’s leading metropolises as the manifestation of prestige and power with different life choices, easy accessibility to services related to the era of technology. The scope of research deals with five different urban centers in İstanbul where high-rise housing is increasing dramatically after 2000’s. Therefore, the research regards multi-centered urban residential pattern being created by high-rise housing structures in the city. The methodology of the research is based on two main issue, one of them is related to sampling method of high-rise housing projects in İstanbul, while the other method of the research is based on the model of Semantics. In the framework of research hypothesis, it is aimed to prove that the character of vertical intensive structuring in Istanbul is based on seeking of different forms and images in the expressive quality, considering the production of existing high-rise buildings in residential areas in recent years. In respect to rising discourse of 'World City' in the globalizing world, it is very important to state the place of Istanbul in other developing world metropolises. In the perspective of 'World City' discourse, Istanbul has different projects concerning with globalization, international finance companies, cultural activities, mega projects, etc. In brief, the aim of this research is examining transformation forms of high-rise housing development in Istanbul within the frame of developing world cities, searching and analyzing discourse and image related to these projects.

Keywords: Housing, Image, Globalization, high-rise

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11 Assessment of Low Income Housing Delivery, Accessibility and Affordability Problem in Nigeria

Authors: Asimiyu Mohammed Jinadu

Abstract:

Housing is a basic necessity of life. Housing plays a central role in the life of living organisms as it provides the basic platform for the life support systems in human settlements. It is considered a social service and a basic right. Despite the importance of housing, Nigeria as a nation is faced with the problem of quantitative and qualitative shortfall in the number of housing units required to accommodate the citizens. This study examined the accessibility and affordability problems of low-income housing in Nigeria. It relied on secondary data obtained for the records of government ministries and agencies. Descriptive statistics were used in the analysis, and the information was presented in simple tables and charts. The findings show that over the years the government has provided serviced plots of land, owner occupier houses and mortgage loans for the people. As at 2016, the Federal Housing Authority (FHA) has completed a total of 23,038 housing units while another 14, 488 units were on-going under the Public Private Partnership scheme across the country. The study revealed that a total of 910, 671 housing units were proposed by the Government under the various low-income housing programmes between 1960 and 2017, but only 156, 336 units were delivered within the period, representing 17.17% success rate. Amongst others, the low-income group faced the problems of low access to and unaffordability of the few low-income housing delivered in Nigeria. The study recommended that all abandoned housing projects should be reviewed, rationalized, completed and made available to the targeted low-income people. Investment in micro housing finance, design and implementation of pro-poor housing programme and massive investment in innovative slum upgrading programmes by both the government and private sector are also recommended to ameliorate the housing problems of the low-income group in Nigeria.

Keywords: Housing, problem, low income group, programme

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10 Reading the Interior Furnishings of the Houses through Turkish Films in the 1980's

Authors: Dicle Aydın, Esra Yaldız, Tuba Bulbul Bahtiyar

Abstract:

Housing offers a confirmed space for individuals. In the sense of interior decoration design, housing is a kind of typology in which user’s profile and individual preferences are considered as primary determinants. In Turkish society, the transition from traditional residences to apartment buildings brings the change in interior fittings depending upon the location of houses in its wake. The social status of the users in the residence and the differences of their everyday life can be represented more evident in these interior fittings. Hence, space becomes a tool to carry the information of users and the act. From this aspect, space as a concrete tool also enables a multidirectional communication with the cinema which reflects the social, cultural and economic changes of the society. While space takes a virtual or real part of the cinema, architecture discipline has also been influenced by cinematic phenomenas in its own practice. The subject of the movie and its content commune with the space, therefore, the design of the space is formed to support the subject. The purpose of this study is to analyze the space through motion pictures that convey the information of social life with an objective perspective. In addition, this study aims to determine the space, fittings and the use of fittings with respect to the social status of users. Morever, three films in 1980s in which Kemal Sunal, protagonist of the scripts that reflect society in many ways, performed are examined in this study. Movie sets are considered in many ways. For instance, in one of these movies, different houses from an apartment are analyzed vis a vis the perspective of the study.

Keywords: Housing, Furniture, interior, furnishing, user

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9 Valuation of Cultural Heritage: A Hedonic Pricing Analysis of Housing via GIS-based Data

Authors: Yun-Yao Chi, Dai-Ling Li, Jung-Fa Cheng, Min-Lang Huang

Abstract:

The hedonic pricing model has been popularly applied to describe the economic value of environmental amenities in urban housing, but the results for cultural heritage variables remain relatively ambiguous. In this paper, integrated variables extending by GIS-based data and an existing typology of communities used to examine how cultural heritage and environmental amenities and disamenities affect housing prices across urban communities in Tainan, Taiwan. The developed models suggest that, although a sophisticated variable for central services is selected, the centrality of location is not fully controlled in the price models and thus picked up by correlated peripheral and central amenities such as cultural heritage, open space or parks. Analysis of these correlations permits us to qualify results and present a revised set of relatively reliable estimates. Positive effects on housing prices are identified for views, various types of recreational infrastructure and vicinity of nationally cultural sites and significant landscapes. Negative effects are found for several disamenities including wasteyards, refuse incinerators, petrol stations and industries. The results suggest that systematic hypothesis testing and reporting of correlations may contribute to consistent explanatory patterns in hedonic pricing estimates for cultural heritage and landscape amenities in urban.

Keywords: Housing, Cultural Heritage, hedonic pricing model, landscape amenities

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8 Choice of Landscape Elements for Residents' Quality of Life Living in Apartment Housing: Case Study of Bhopal, India

Authors: Ankita Srivastava, Yogesh K. Garg

Abstract:

Housing provides comforts and well being leading towards the quality of life. Earlier research had established that landscape elements enhance the residents’ quality of life through its significant experiences occur due to their presence in the housing. This paper tries to identify the preference of landscape elements that enhance residents’ quality of life living in the apartment. Hence, landscape elements that can be planned in the open spaces of housing and quality of life components were identified from the secondary data sources. Experts’ were asked to identify the quality of life components with respect to landscape elements. A questionnaire survey of residents’ living in the apartment housing in Bhopal, India was conducted. The statistical analysis of survey data facilitated to explore the preference of landscape elements for the quality of life in the apartment housing. The final ranking compiled from the experts’ opinion, residents’ perception as well as factor analysis results to have an insight of the preference of landscape elements for the quality of life living in the apartment. Preference of landscape elements present in the paper may provide an overview of planning for apartment housing that may be used by architects, planners and developers for enhancing residents’ quality of life.

Keywords: Housing, Quality of Life, residents, landscape elements

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7 Resourcing for Post-Disaster Housing Reconstruction: The Case of Cyclone Sidr and Aila in Bangladesh

Authors: Zahidul Islam

Abstract:

This study investigates the effectiveness of resourcing in post-disaster housing reconstruction with reference to Cyclones Sidr and Aila in Bangladesh. Through evaluating three key theories- Build Back Better approach, Balance Scorecard approach and Dynamic Competency theories, the synthesis of literature, and empirical fieldwork, this research develops a dynamic theoretical framework that moves the trajectory of post-disaster housing reconstruction towards the reconstruction of more resilient houses. The ultimate goal of any post-disaster housing reconstruction project is to provide quality houses and to achieve high levels of satisfaction for beneficiaries. However, post-disaster reconstruction projects often fail in their stated objectives; only 10-20% housing needs are met, with most houses constructed on a temporary rather than permanent basis. A number of scholars have argued that access to resources can significantly increase the capacity and capability of disaster victims to rebuild their lives, including the construction of new homes. This study draws on structured interviews of 285 villagers affected by cyclones to investigate the effectiveness of resourcing in rebuilding houses after Cyclone Sidr in 2007 and Cyclone Aila in 2009. Furthermore, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 key stakeholders in UNDP, Oxfam, government officials, and national and international NGOs. The results of this study show that recovery rate of cyclone resilient houses that can withstand cyclone is very low and majority of the population are still vulnerable. Furthermore, hierarchical regression of survey data and thematic analyses of qualitative data indicate that access to resources, level of education, quality of building materials and income generating activities of the respondents are critical for effective post-disaster recovery. Conversely, resource availability, lack of coordination among participant organisations, corruption and lack of access to appropriate land constituted significant obstacles to livelihood recovery. Finally, this study makes significant theoretical contributions to theories of post-disaster recovery by introducing new variables and measures for evaluating the quality and effectiveness of post-disaster housing.

Keywords: Housing, Disaster, Resilience, resourcing

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6 The Emergence of Smart Growth in Developed and Developing Countries and Its Possible Application in Kabul City, Afghanistan

Authors: Nsenda Lukumwena, Bashir Ahmad Amiri

Abstract:

The global trend indicates that more and more people live and will continue to live in urban areas. Today cities are expanding both in physical size and number due to the rapid population growth along with sprawl development, which caused the cities to expand beyond the growth boundary and exerting intense pressure on environmental resources specially farmlands to accommodate new housing and urban facilities. Also noticeable is the increase in urban decay along with the increase of slum dwellers present another challenge that most cities in developed and developing countries have to deal with. Today urban practitioners, researchers, planners, and decision-makers are seeking for alternative development and growth management policies to house the rising urban population and also cure the urban decay and slum issues turn to Smart Growth to achieve their goals. Many cities across the globe have adopted smart growth as an alternative growth management tool to deal with patterns and forms of development and to cure the rising urban and environmental problems. The method used in this study is a literature analysis method through reviewing various resources to highlight the potential benefits of Smart Growth in both developed and developing countries and analyze, to what extent it can be a strategic alternative for Afghanistan’s cities, especially the capital city. Hence a comparative analysis is carried on three countries, namely the USA, China, and India to identify the potential benefits of smart growth likely to serve as an achievable broad base for recommendations in different urban contexts.

Keywords: Housing, Growth Management, Smart Growth, Kabul city, urban-expansion

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5 Investigating Elements of Identity of Traditional Neighborhoods in Isfahan and Using These Elements in the Design of Modern Neighborhoods

Authors: Saman Keshavarzi

Abstract:

The process of planning, designing and building neighborhoods is a complex and multidimensional part of urban planning. Understanding the elements that give a neighborhood a sense of identity can lead to successful city planning and result in a cohesive and functional community where people feel a sense of belonging. These factors are important in ensuring that the needs of the urban population are met to live in a safe, pleasant and healthy society. This research paper aims to identify the elements of the identity of traditional neighborhoods in Isfahan and analyzes ways of using these elements in the design of modern neighborhoods to increase social interaction between communities and cultural reunification of people. The neighborhood of Jolfa in Isfahan has a unique socio-cultural identity as it dates back to the Safavid Dynasty of the 16th century, and most of its inhabitants are Christian Armenians of a religious minority. The elements of the identity of Jolfa were analyzed through the following research methods: field observations, distribution of questionnaires and qualitative analysis. The basic methodology that was used to further understand the Jolfa neighborhood and deconstruct the identity image that residents associate with their respective neighborhoods was a qualitative research method. This was done through utilizing questionnaires that respondents had to fill out in response to a series of research questions. From collecting these qualitative data, the major finding was that traditional neighborhoods that have elements of identity embedded in them are seen to have closer-knit communities whose residents have strong societal ties. This area of study in urban planning is vital to ensuring that new neighborhoods are built with concepts of social cohesion, community and inclusion in mind as they are what lead to strong, connected, and prosperous societies.

Keywords: Development, Housing, Identity, Policy, Urbanization, Neighborhood

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4 The Influence of Housing Choice Vouchers on the Private Rental Market

Authors: Randy D. Colon

Abstract:

Through a freedom of information request, data pertaining to Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) households has been obtained from the Chicago Housing Authority, including rent price and number of bedrooms per HCV household, community area, and zip code from 2013 to the first quarter of 2018. Similar data pertaining to the private rental market will be obtained through public records found through the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. The datasets will be analyzed through statistical and mapping software to investigate the potential link between HCV households and distorted rent prices. Quantitative data will be supplemented by qualitative data to investigate the lived experience of Chicago residents. Qualitative data will be collected at community meetings in the Chicago Englewood neighborhood through participation in neighborhood meetings and informal interviews with residents and community leaders. The qualitative data will be used to gain insight on the lived experience of community leaders and residents of the Englewood neighborhood in relation to housing, the rental market, and HCV. While there is an abundance of quantitative data on this subject, this qualitative data is necessary to capture the lived experience of local residents effected by a changing rental market. This topic reflects concerns voiced by members of the Englewood community, and this study aims to keep the community relevant in its findings.

Keywords: Housing, Chicago, housing choice voucher program, housing subsidies, rental market

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