Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

households Related Abstracts

12 The Role of Middle Class in Forming of Consumption Habits of Market Institutions among Kazakh Households in Transition Period

Authors: Daurenbek Kuleimenov, Elmira Otar

Abstract:

Market institutions extension within transit societies contributes to constituting the new type of middle class and households livelihood strategies. The middle class households as an example of prosperity in many cases encourage the ordinary ones to do the same economic actions. Therefore, practices of using market institutions by middle class households in transit societies, which are mostly characterized by huge influence of traditional attitudes, can carry habitual features for the whole society. Market institutions consumption habit of the middle class households makes them trendsetters of economic habits of other households while adapting to the market economy. Moreover different social-economic positions of households lead them to different consuming results such as worsening or improving household economy due to indebtedness.

Keywords: Transition, middle class, households, market institutions

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11 Analysis of Electricity Demand at Household Level Using Leap Model in Balochistan, Pakistan

Authors: Sheikh Saeed Ahmad

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Electricity is vital for any state’s development that needs policy for planning the power network extension. This study is about simulation modeling for electricity in Balochistan province. Baseline data of electricity consumption was used of year 2004 and projected with the help of LEAP model up to subsequent 30 years. Three scenarios were created to run software. One scenario was baseline and other two were alternative or green scenarios i.e. solar and wind energy scenarios. Present study revealed that Balochistan has much greater potential for solar and wind energy for electricity production. By adopting these alternative energy forms, Balochistan can save energy in future nearly 23 and 48% by incorporating solar and wind power respectively. Thus, the study suggests to government planners, an aspect of integrating renewable sources in power system for ensuring sustainable development and growth.

Keywords: Wind energy, Solar energy, households, demand and supply, LEAP

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10 Rural Households' Sources of Water and Willingness to Pay for Improved Water Services in South-West, Nigeria

Authors: Alaba M. Dare, Idris A. Ayinde, Adebayo M. Shittu, Sam O. Sam-Wobo

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Households' source of water is one of the core development indicators recently gaining pre-eminence in Nigeria. This study examined rural households' sources of water, Willingness to Pay (WTP) and factors influencing mean WTP. A cross-sectional survey which involved the use of questionnaire was used. A dichotomous choice (DC) with follow up was used as elicitation method. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 437 rural households. Descriptive statistics and Tobit model were used for data estimation. The result revealed that about 70% fetched from unimproved water sources. Most (74.4%) respondents showed WTP for improved water sources. Age (p < 0.01), sex (p < 0.01), education (p < 0.01), occupation (p < 0.01), income (p < 0.01), price of water (P < 0.01), quantity of water (p < 0.01), household size (p < 0.01) and distance (p < 0.01) to existing water sources significantly influenced rural households' WTP for these services. The inference from this study showed that rural dweller sources of water is highly primitive and deplorable. Governments and stakeholders should prioritize the provision of rural water at an affordable price by rural dwellers.

Keywords: households, Tobit model, source of water, willingness to pay (WTP)

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9 The Indebtedness of Men and Women: A Study of Personal Bankruptcies in the Czech Republic

Authors: Zuzana Fišerová, Marie Paseková

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Debt relief (also labelled personal bankruptcy) is a bankruptcy settlement method which was implemented into Czech legislation by the Insolvency Act (Act No. 182/2006 Coll. on Insolvency and its Resolution) on 1 January 2008. The need to implement the institute of personal bankruptcy arose from the excessive over-indebtedness of many inhabitants of the Czech Republic after the crisis that arose around 2008 and 2009. The contribution analyses the development in the manner in which households approach personal bankruptcy and assesses and surveys the differences between indebtedness among men and women. The first section analyses the development in numbers of filed personal bankruptcy petitions and the successfulness thereof; it likewise analyses the impact of other economic influences (regional differences, unemployment etc.). The differences between debtors in dependency to gender are also surveyed. A survey of insolvency proceedings for 664 persons whose insolvency proceedings were commenced in 2008 was conducted, whilst the data were acquired from the publicly accessible insolvency register. The hypothesis on the equality of the average debt level of men and women was tested when comparing indebtedness in dependency to debtor gender. At a significance level of 0.05, the test confirmed that the mean value of debt level for women is lower than the mean value of debt level for men. Through analysis of further results, it was found that the average level of debt among women was CZK 537 thousand, while the average level of creditor satisfaction reached 46.2%. Men in the monitored sample had an average level of reported receivables of CZK 652 thousand, satisfaction of their creditors reached 58.8%. The main changes in the institute of personal bankruptcy are then evaluated in the closing discussion, and the impacts of these changes for households are assessed. The development of legislation in the Czech Republic and practice are shifting towards broader usage of personal bankruptcy, especially insofar as it can now also be used by entrepreneurs. Furthermore, the amendment of the Insolvency Act has enabled married couples to apply for joint debt relief, which has improved the position of the marriage partner with lower income and who would not get permission for debt relief on his/her own (mostly women are at issue). In current practice, the condition of adequate income is also solved by the fact that another person (usually a family member) undertakes to donate a certain monthly sum throughout the duration of the debt relief. Personal bankruptcy can thus be completed also by individuals to whom it would previously have been denied by the court.

Keywords: households, debtor, insolvency act, over-indebtedness, personal bankruptcy

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8 Reformed Land: Extent of Use and Contribution to Livelihoods in the Waterberg District

Authors: A. J. Netshipale, M. L. Mashiloane, S. J. Oosting, I. J. M. De Boer, E. N. Raidimi

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Three tier land reform programme (land restitution, land redistribution and land tenure reform) had been implemented for the past two decades in South Africa with an aim of redressing the unjust land ownership patterns of the past. Land restitution and redistribution seeked to make land available for beneficiaries’ ownership based on policy guidelines. Attention given to the two sub-programmes was mostly land reform focused with the quantity of land that exchanged ownership being used as a measure of success with disregard for how the land is used by the beneficiaries for their livelihoods. In few cases that the land use assessment was done for the two sub-programmes it was assessed on a case basis or few selected cases. The current study intended to shed light on a broader scope. This study investigated the extent to which land reform farms were used and contribution made by farms to the livelihoods of active beneficiaries. Seventy six farms that represented restitution (16 farms) and redistribution (60) programmes were selected for land use investigation. Land use data were collected from farm representatives by means of semi-structured questionnaire. A stratified sample of 87 households (38 for restitution and 49 for redistribution) were selected for livelihood investigations. Data on income generating activities and passive income sources were collected from household heads using semi-structured questionnaire. Additional data were collected through focus group discussions and from stakeholders through key-informants interviews. Livestock production used more land per farm on average (45%) in relation to the amount of average total land used per farm of 77% under land redistribution programme. Land restitution transformed crop farms into mixed farming and unused farms to be under use while land redistribution converted conservation land into agricultural land and also unused farms to be used. Livestock production contributed on average 25% to the livelihoods of 48% of the households whereas crop production contributed 31% on average to the livelihoods of 67% of the households. Government grants had the highest contribution of 54% on average and contributed to most households (72%). Agriculture was the sole source of livelihoods to only three per cent of the households. Most households (40%) had a mix of three livelihoods sources as their livelihood strategy. It could be concluded that the use of reformed land would be mainly influenced by the agro-ecological conditions of the area and agriculture could not be the main source of livelihoods for households that benefited from land reform. Land reform policies which accommodate diverse livelihoods activities could contribute to sustainable livelihoods.

Keywords: Land Use, households, livelihoods, active beneficiaries, land reform

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7 Economics of Household Expenditure Pattern on Animal Products in Bauchi Metropolis, Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: B. Hamidu, A. Abdulhamid, S. Mohammed, S. Idi

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This study examined the household expenditure pattern on animal products in Bauchi metropolis. A cross-sectional data were collected from 157 households using systematic sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression models. The results reveal that the mean age, mean household size, mean monthly income and mean total expenditure on animal products were found to be 39 years, 7 persons, N28,749 and N1,740 respectively. It was also found that household monthly income, number of children and educational level of the household heads (P<0.01) significantly influence the level of household expenditure on animal products. Similarly, income was found to be the most important factor determining the proportion of total expenditure on animal products (20.91%). Income elasticity was found to be 0.66 indicating that for every 1% increase in income, expenditure on animal products would increase by 0.66%. Furthermore, beef was found to be the most preferred (54.83%) and most regularly consumed (61.84%) animal products. However, it was discovered that the major constraints affecting the consumption of animal products were low-income level of the households (29.85%), high cost of animal products (15.82%) and increase in prices of necessities (15.82%). Therefore to improve household expenditure on animal products per capita real income of the households should be improved through creation of employment opportunities. Also stabilization of market prices of animal products and other foods items of necessities through increased production are recommended.

Keywords: Economics, Animal Products, households, expenditure

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6 Household Energy Usage and Practices in the Rural Areas of Northern Part of Mindanao Island, Philippines

Authors: Odinah Cuartero-Enteria, Aive Pecasales, Jhadly Philip Buniel, Christian Joy Vega, Shiela Estubo

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In the Philippines, Mindanao Island has the cheapest electricity because of the hydroelectric plants. Due to the rapid increase of the electricity consumption which the sources of electricity cannot support, it causes rotating brownout during summer season. This study investigated the household energy usage and practices in the rural areas of northern part of the Mindanao Island, Philippines. The questionnaire that includes the respondents’ profile and their common practices in energy consumptions was used as a tool in gathering the data. Several households were subjected to the survey. Results show energy consumption is not dependent on the profile of the respondents. It was observed that most of the families prefer to use energy saving methods of reducing electricity consumption. The main energy saving methods are unplugging unused home appliances, using of compact fluorescent bulb and energy-efficient gadgets, and using high electricity consumption appliances by schedule. Based on the results, the households in the rural areas know the practices of reducing electricity consumption. However, it is highly recommended that concern agencies should initiate information dissemination and strict implementation of well-formulated energy conservation practices all over the areas in Mindanao.

Keywords: Practices, rural areas, households, Philippines, Mindanao Island, energy usages

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5 Income Diversification of Small Holder Farmers in Bosso Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Oladipo Joseph Ajayi, Yakubu Muhammed, Caleb Galadima

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This study was conducted to examine the income diversification of smallholder farmers in Bosso Local Government area of Niger state, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to examine the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers, identify the sources of income among the farmers, determine the pattern of income diversification and evaluate the determinants of income diversification of farmers in the study area. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 94 respondents for the study. Primary data were used, and these were collected with aid of a well structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics, diversity index, and Tobit regression model were employed to analyze the data. The mean age of the farmers was 44 years. The average household size was 8 members per household, and the average farming experience was 12 years. 21.27 percent did not have formal education. It was further found that 69.1 percent of the respondents had an income diversity index of 0.3-0.4. This indicated that their level of income diversification was moderately low. The determinants of income diversification in the study area were education, household size, marital status, and primary income. These variables were positively related to income diversification. The study revealed that diversification into various income sources has helped to increase household income to sustain the family demands even though their level of income diversification was low within the study area.

Keywords: Income, households, diversification, smallholder farmers

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4 Assessment of Households' Food Security and Hunger Level across Communities in Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Adebayo-Victoria Tobi Dada, Dada Emmanuel

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This study assessed households’ food security and hunger levels among different communities with varying educational and economic background in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, and its environment. It also examined the impacts of varying demography on the household food security level in the area. This was with a view to providing information on the food security status of the subjects within the study area. Ten different communities with varying demography (Parakin, Mokuro, Ilare, Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU) Staff Quarters, Ibadan Road, Aba-Iya Gani, Eleweran, Iraye, Boosa, and Eku-Isobo) were identified within the study area. Fieldwork was then carried out from 7th to 14th of March, 2016 in each of these communities through survey of market prices of food stuff, diet, and nutrition, social well-being, food accessibility and affordability as well as price fluctuation and variation in household’s social background. Selection of households for the survey was done using stratified random sampling method. Key informants included community heads, landlords, tenants, and household heads. Similarly, information on food security levels with respect to demographic backgrounds was obtained from the use of modified Food and Hunger Insecurity Module (FHIM) structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to one percent of the households’ population per community. The results showed that communities such as Parakin and OAU Senior Staff Quarters were dominated by civil servants, while community such as Boosa was dominated by artisans. Respondents earning between ₦11,000 and ₦20,000 per month, during the study period, had the highest percentage across the selected communities. The household food security indices showed that about 41% of the investigated respondents could not guarantee their household food for a month, while 18% reduced or skipped meals. There were positive significant relationships between monthly income (F-value = 132.04), educational status (F-value = 102.30), occupation (F-value = 104.05) and food budget (F-value = 122.09), all at p < 0.05. However, there was no significant relationship between the monthly food budget and household sizes (t-value = -1.4074, p > 0.05). Food secured households’ had the household heads with a higher level of educational attainment. The study concluded that large variations which existed between socio-economic and educational background among the communities had significant effects on households’ food security level in the study area.

Keywords: Food Security, households, hunger level, market prices

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3 Changes in Geospatial Structure of Households in the Czech Republic: Findings from Population and Housing Census

Authors: Jaroslav Kraus

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Spatial information about demographic processes are a standard part of outputs in the Czech Republic. That was also the case of Population and Housing Census which was held on 2011. This is a starting point for a follow up study devoted to two basic types of households: single person households and households of one completed family. Single person households and one family households create more than 80 percent of all households, but the share and spatial structure is in long-term changing. The increase of single households is results of long-term fertility decrease and divorce increase, but also possibility of separate living. There are regions in the Czech Republic with traditional demographic behavior, and regions like capital Prague and some others with changing pattern. Population census is based - according to international standards - on the concept of currently living population. Three types of geospatial approaches will be used for analysis: (i) firstly measures of geographic distribution, (ii) secondly mapping clusters to identify the locations of statistically significant hot spots, cold spots, spatial outliers, and similar features and (iii) finally analyzing pattern approach as a starting point for more in-depth analyses (geospatial regression) in the future will be also applied. For analysis of this type of data, number of households by types should be distinct objects. All events in a meaningful delimited study region (e.g. municipalities) will be included in an analysis. Commonly produced measures of central tendency and spread will include: identification of the location of the center of the point set (by NUTS3 level); identification of the median center and standard distance, weighted standard distance and standard deviational ellipses will be also used. Identifying that clustering exists in census households datasets does not provide a detailed picture of the nature and pattern of clustering but will be helpful to apply simple hot-spot (and cold spot) identification techniques to such datasets. Once the spatial structure of households will be determined, any particular measure of autocorrelation can be constructed by defining a way of measuring the difference between location attribute values. The most widely used measure is Moran’s I that will be applied to municipal units where numerical ratio is calculated. Local statistics arise naturally out of any of the methods for measuring spatial autocorrelation and will be applied to development of localized variants of almost any standard summary statistic. Local Moran’s I will give an indication of household data homogeneity and diversity on a municipal level.

Keywords: Census, households, The Czech Republic, geo-demography

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2 Global Evidence on the Seasonality of Enteric Infections, Malnutrition, and Livestock Ownership

Authors: Aishwarya Venkat, Anastasia Marshak, Ryan B. Simpson, Elena N. Naumova

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Livestock ownership is simultaneously linked to improved nutritional status through increased availability of animal-source protein, and increased risk of enteric infections through higher exposure to contaminated water sources. Agrarian and agro-pastoral households, especially those with cattle, goats, and sheep, are highly dependent on seasonally various environmental conditions, which directly impact nutrition and health. This study explores global spatiotemporally explicit evidence regarding the relationship between livestock ownership, enteric infections, and malnutrition. Seasonal and cyclical fluctuations, as well as mediating effects, are further examined to elucidate health and nutrition outcomes of individual and communal livestock ownership. The US Agency for International Development’s Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund’s Multi-Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) provide valuable sources of household-level information on anthropometry, asset ownership, and disease outcomes. These data are especially important in data-sparse regions, where surveys may only be conducted in the aftermath of emergencies. Child-level disease history, anthropometry, and household-level asset ownership information have been collected since DHS-V (2003-present) and MICS-III (2005-present). This analysis combines over 15 years of survey data from DHS and MICS to study 2,466,257 children under age five from 82 countries. Subnational (administrative level 1) measures of diarrhea prevalence, mean livestock ownership by type, mean and median anthropometric measures (height for age, weight for age, and weight for height) were investigated. Effects of several environmental, market, community, and household-level determinants were studied. Such covariates included precipitation, temperature, vegetation, the market price of staple cereals and animal source proteins, conflict events, livelihood zones, wealth indices and access to water, sanitation, hygiene, and public health services. Children aged 0 – 6 months, 6 months – 2 years, and 2 – 5 years of age were compared separately. All observations were standardized to interview day of year, and administrative units were harmonized for consistent comparisons over time. Geographically weighted regressions were constructed for each outcome and subnational unit. Preliminary results demonstrate the importance of accounting for seasonality in concurrent assessments of malnutrition and enteric infections. Household assets, including livestock, often determine the intensity of these outcomes. In many regions, livestock ownership affects seasonal fluxes in malnutrition and enteric infections, which are also directly affected by environmental and local factors. Regression analysis demonstrates the spatiotemporal variability in nutrition outcomes due to a variety of causal factors. This analysis presents a synthesis of evidence from global survey data on the interrelationship between enteric infections, malnutrition, and livestock. These results provide a starting point for locally appropriate interventions designed to address this nexus in a timely manner and simultaneously improve health, nutrition, and livelihoods.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Livestock, Enteric Infections, Diarrhea, Seasonality, households

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1 Analysis of Energy Consumption Based on Household Appliances in Jodhpur, India

Authors: A. Kumar, V. Devadas

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Energy is the basic element for any country’s economic development. India is one of the most populated countries, and is dependent on fossil fuel and nuclear-based energy generation. The energy sector faces huge challenges and is dependent on the import of energy from neighboring countries to fulfill the gap in demand and supply. India has huge setbacks for efficient energy generation, distribution, and consumption, therefore they consume more quantity of energy to produce the same amount of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) compared to the developed countries. Technology and technique use, availability, and affordability in the various sectors are varying according to their economic status. In this paper, an attempt is made to quantify the domestic electrical energy consumption in Jodhpur, India. Survey research methods have been employed and stratified sampling technique-based households were chosen for conducting the investigation. Pre-tested survey schedules are used to investigate the grassroots level study. The collected data are analyzed by employing statistical techniques. Thereafter, a multiple regression model is developed to understand the functions of total electricity consumption in the domestic sector corresponding to other independent variables including electrical appliances, age of the building, household size, education, etc. The study resulted in identifying the governing variable in energy consumption at the household level and their relationship with the efficiency of household-based electrical and energy appliances. The analysis is concluded with the recommendation for optimizing the gap in peak electrical demand and supply in the domestic sector.

Keywords: Electricity, consumption, households, appliance

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