Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

hotspot Related Abstracts

2 Pattern and Trend of Open Burning Occurrence in Greater Mekong Sub-Region Countries: Case Study Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar

Authors: Nion Sirimongkonlertkun, Vivard Phonekeo


This research focused on open burning occurrence in Greater Mekong Sub-Region countries that influences the increase of PM10concentrations. Thailand, Myanmar, and Laos were chosen as a case study, and 2009, 2010, and 2012 were chosen as the year for case study. Hotspot detected by MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Specto radiometer) sensor on board of Terra/Aqua satellites and provided by Rapid Response System was used to represent open burning location in the region. Hotspot was selected through fire confidence with confidence levels of 80-100%. The spatial analysis by GIS was used as the main tool for analyzing and defining the location of open burning at study sites as hotspot with the pixel size of 1 km by 1 km. The total hotspot counts in the study period of four years (2007, 2009, 2010, and January-April 2012) at the regional level, including Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar were 255,177 hotspots or a very high yearly average of 63,795 hotspots. The highest amount was seen in Myanmar (50%), followed by Laos (36%), and Thailand (14%). For Thailand, the majority of burning or 64% occurred in the northern region with the density of 5 hotspots per 100 km2. According to statistics of the 4 years, the increasing rate of hotspot from January to February was 10 times and from February to March was 4 times. After that period, the hotspot started to decline by 2 times from March to April. Therefore, in order to develop a policy which aims to lessen open burning conduction, the government should seriously focus on this problem during the peak period—February to March in every year when hotspot and open burning area is significantly increased.

Keywords: open burning, PM10, hotspot, greater mekong sub-region

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1 Geo-Visualization of Crimes against Children: An India Level Study 2001-2012

Authors: Ritvik Chauhan, Vijay Kumar Baraik


Crime is a rare event on earth surface. It is not simple but a complex event occurring in a spatio- temporal environment. Crime is one of the most serious security threats to human environments as it may result in harm to the individuals through the loss of property, physical and psychological injuries. The conventional studies done on different nature crime was mostly related to laws, psychological, social and political themes. The geographical areas are heterogeneous in their environmental conditions, associations between structural conditions, social organization which contributing specific crimes. The crime pattern analysis is made through theories in which criminal events occurs in persistent, identifiable patterns in a particular space and time. It will be the combined analysis of spatial factors and rational factors to the crime. In this study, we are analyzing the combined factors for the origin of crime against children. Children have always been vulnerable to victimization more because they are silent victims both physically and mentally to crimes and they even not realize what is happening with them. Their trusting nature and innocence always misused by criminals to perform crimes. The nature of crime against children is changed in past years like child rape, kidnapping &abduction, selling & buying of girls, foeticide, infanticide, prostitution, child marriage etc turned to more cruel and inhuman. This study will focus on understanding the space-time pattern of crime against children during the period 2001-2012. It also makes an attempt to explore and ascertain the association of crimes categorised against children, its rates with various geographical and socio-demographic factors through causal analysis using selected indicators (child sex-ratio, education, literacy rate, employment, income, etc.) obtained from the Census of India and other government sources. The outcome of study will help identifying the high crime regions with specified nature of crimes. It will also review the existing efforts and exploring the new plausible measure for tracking, monitoring and minimization of crime rate to meet the end goal of protecting the children from crimes committed against them.

Keywords: spatio-temporal analysis, hotspot, crime against children, geographic profiling

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