Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

hospitals Related Abstracts

14 Applying ASHRAE Standards on the Hospital Buildings of UAE

Authors: Hanan M. Taleb

Abstract:

Energy consumption associated with buildings has a significant impact on the environment. To that end, and as a transaction between the inside and outside and between the building and urban space, the building skin plays an especially important role. It provides protection from the elements; demarcates private property and creates privacy. More importantly, it controls the admission of solar radiation. Therefore, designing the building skin sustainably will help to achieve optimal performance in terms of both energy consumption and thermal comfort. Unfortunately, with accelerating construction expansion, many recent buildings do not pay attention to the importance of the envelope design. This piece of research will highlight the importance of this part of the creation of buildings by providing evidence of a significant reduction in energy consumption if the envelopes are redesigned. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to enhance the performance of the hospital envelope in order to achieve sustainable performance. A hospital building sited in Abu Dhabi, in the UAE, has been chosen to act as a case study. A detailed analysis of the annual energy performance of the case study will be performed with the use of a computerised simulation; this is in order to explore their energy performance shortcomings. The energy consumption of the base case will then be compared with that resulting from the new proposed building skin. The results will inform architects and designers of the savings potential from various strategies.

Keywords: hospitals, Building envelopes, Building Skin, ASHREA, Abu Dhabi, UAE, IES software

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13 Knowledge Management (KM) Practices: A Study of KM Adoption among Doctors in Kuwait

Authors: B. Alajmi, L. Marouf, A. S. Chaudhry

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In recent years, increasing emphasis has been placed upon issues concerning the evaluation of health care. In this regard, knowledge management has also been considered an important component of the evaluation process. KM facilitates the transfer of existing knowledge or the development of new knowledge among healthcare staff and patients. This research aimed to examine how hospitals in Kuwait employ knowledge management practices, including capturing, sharing, and generating, and the perceived impact of KM practices on performance of hospitals in Kuwait. Through adopting a quantitative survey method with 277 sample of doctors, the study found that in terms of the three major knowledge management practices – knowledge capturing, sharing, and generating – the adoption of KM practices were rated very low in the sampled hospitals in Kuwait. Hospitals paid little attention to the main activities that support the transfer of expertise among doctors in hospitals. However, as predicted by previous studies, knowledge management practices were perceived to have an impact on hospitals’ performance. Through knowledge capturing, sharing, and generating, hospitals could improve the services they provide through documenting best practices, transforming their hospitals into learning organizations in which lessons learned are captured, stored, and made available for others to learn from.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Performance, hospitals, knowledge management practices, knowledge management tools

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12 Biomedical Waste Management an Unsung Hero

Authors: Preeti Madan, Shalini Malhotra, Nirmaljit Kaur, Charoo Hans, VK Sabarwal

Abstract:

Hospital is one of the most diverse and complex institutions frequented by people from every walk of life without any distinction between age, sex, gender, religion or intellect. This is over and above the normal inhabitant of hospital i.e. doctors, patients, and paramedical staff. The hospital waste generated 85% is non hazardous, 10% infectious and around 5% are non-infectious but hazardous waste. The management of biomedical waste is still in its infancy. There is a lot of confusion with the problems among the generators, operators, decision makers, and general community about the safe management of biomedical waste prompt action initiated to seek new scientific, safe, and cost-effective management of waste.

Keywords: Waste Management, hospitals, Biomedical Waste, nosocomial infection

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11 Investigation of Information Security Incident Management Based on International Standard ISO/IEC 27002 in Educational Hospitals in 2014

Authors: Nahid Tavakoli, Asghar Ehteshami, Akbar Hassanzadeh, Fatemeh Amini

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Introduction: The Information security incident management guidelines was been developed to help hospitals to meet their information security event and incident management requirements. The purpose of this Study was to investigate on Information Security Incident Management in Isfahan’s educational hospitals in accordance to ISO/IEC 27002 standards. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to investigate on Information Security Incident Management of educational hospitals in 2014. Based on ISO/IEC 27002 standards, two checklists were applied to check the compliance with standards on Reporting Information Security Events and Weakness and Management of Information Security Incidents and Improvements. One inspector was trained to carry out the assessments in the hospitals. The data was analyzed by SPSS. Findings: In general the score of compliance Information Security Incident Management requirements in two steps; Reporting Information Security Events and Weakness and Management of Information Security Incidents and Improvements was %60. There was the significant difference in various compliance levels among the hospitals (p-valueKeywords: Standards, hospitals, Information Security Management, information security incident management

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10 Job Satisfaction Levels of Nurses Working in Public Hospitals

Authors: S. Kurt, B. C. Demirbag

Abstract:

Meeting employees’ expectations from an organization physically and mentally is a result of one’s assessing his or her work and its environment as well as his feeling about them. It was to determine the job satisfaction levels of the nurses in public hospitals. This descriptive study was carried out with 404 nurses (60%) accepting to take part in the study voluntarily and working in the same hospital for at least three months from 673 nurses working in hospitals depending on The Secretaryship of Public Hospital Association in Rize. The study aimed to reach the whole population by not taking samples. The data were collected by the personal information form (16 questions) prepared by the researcher, and the job satisfaction scale (36 articles) between June 1st and August 30th, 2014. According to scale, mean scores of nurses’ job satisfaction were 3.23±0.51. In addition, it was determined that the factors such as nurses’s age, marital status, childbearing, place of duty, position in workplace, being liked of job, education status, work experience, weekly working hours, maturing in professional practice, unit worked, hospital worked and colleagues affected the job satisfaction levels of nurses (p <0.05). In conclusion; the nurses’ general job satisfaction levels were moderate level.

Keywords: hospitals, Nurses, public hospitals, job satisfaction level

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9 Two-Stage Hospital Efficiency Analysis Including Qualitative Evidence: A Greek Case

Authors: Panos Xenos, Milton Nektarios, John Yfantopoulos

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Background: Policy makers, professional organizations and payers have introduced a variety of initiatives and reforms for the health systems worldwide, aimed at improving hospital efficiency. Their efforts are concentrated in two main categories: to constrain increasing healthcare costs and to enhance quality of services provided. Research Objectives: This study examines the efficiency of 112 Greek public hospitals for the year 2009, evaluates the importance of bootstrapping techniques and investigates the effect of contextual factors on hospital efficiency. Furthermore, the effect of qualitative evidence, on hospital efficiency is explored using data from 28 large hospitals. Methods: We applied Data Envelopment Analysis, augmented by bootstrapping techniques, to estimate efficiency scores. In order to measure the effect of environmental factors on hospital efficiency we used Tobit regression analysis. The significance of our models is evaluated using statistical tests to compare distributions. Results: The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test between the original and the bootstrap-corrected efficiency indicates that their distributions are significantly different (p-value<0.01). The environmental factors, that seem to influence efficiency, are Occupancy Rating and the ratio between Outpatient Visits and Inpatient Days. Results indicate that the inclusion of the quality variable in DEA modelling generates statistically significant variations in efficiency scores (p-value<0.05). Conclusions: The inclusion of quality variables and the use of bootstrap resampling in efficiency analysis impose a statistically significant effect on the distribution of efficiency scores. As a policy conclusion we highlight the importance of these methods on hospital efficiency analysis and, by implication, on healthcare resource allocation.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Quality, Efficiency, hospitals, Greek public hospital sector

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8 Mechanical Transmission of Parasites by Cockroaches’ Collected from Urban Environment of Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Farkhanda Manzoor, Hafsa Memona

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Cockroaches are termed as medically important pests because of their wide distribution in human habitation including houses, hospitals, food industries and kitchens. They may harbor multiple drug resistant pathogenic bacteria and protozoan parasites on their external surfaces, disseminate on human food and cause serious diseases and allergies to human. Hence, they are regarded as mechanical vector in human habitation due to their nocturnal activity and nutritional behavior. Viable eggs and dormant cysts of parasites can hitch a ride on cockroaches. Ova and cysts of parasitic organism may settle into the crevices and cracks between thorax and head. There are so many fissures and clefts and crannies on a cockroach which provide site for these organisms. This study aimed with identifying role of cockroaches in mechanically transmitting and disseminating gastrointestinal parasites in two environmental settings; hospitals and houses in urban area of Lahore. Totally, 250 adult cockroaches were collected from houses and hospitals by sticky traps and food baited traps and screened for parasitic load. All cockroaches were captured during their feeding time in natural habitat. Direct wet smear, 1% lugols iodine and modified acid-fast bacilli staining were used to identify the parasites from the body surfaces of cockroaches. Among human habitation two common species of cockroaches were collected i.e. P. americana and B. germanica. The results showed that 112 (46.8%) cockroaches harbored at least one human intestinal parasite on their body surfaces. The cockroaches from hospital environment harboured more parasites than houses. 47 (33.57%) cockroaches from houses and 65 (59.09%) from hospitals were infected with parasitic organisms. Of these, 76 (67.85%) were parasitic protozoans and 36(32.15%) were pathogenic and non-pathogenic intestinal parasites. P. americana harboured more parasites as compared to B. germanica in both environment. Most common human intestinal parasites found on cockroaches include ova of Ascaris lumbricoides (giant roundworm), Trichuris trichura (whipworm), Anchylostoma deodunalae (hookworm), Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm), Taenia spp. and Strongyloides stercoralis (threadworm). The cysts of protozoans’ parasites including Balantidium coli, Entomoeba hystolitica, C. parvum, Isospora belli, Giardia duodenalis and C. cayetenensis were isolated and identified from cockroaches. Both experimental sites were significantly different in carriage of parasitic load on cockroaches. Difference in the hygienic condition of the environments, including human excrement disposal, variable habitat interacted, indoor and outdoor species, may account for the observed variation in the parasitic carriage rate of cockroaches among different experimental site. Thus a finding of this study is that Cockroaches are uniformly distributed in human habitation and act as a mechanical vector of pathogenic parasites that cause common illness such as diarrhea and bowel disorders. This fact contributes to epidemiological chain therefore control of cockroaches will significantly lessen the prevalence of illness in human. Effective control strategies will reduce the public health burden of the gastro-intestinal parasites in the developing countries.

Keywords: Transmission, hospitals, cockroaches, Parasites, Health Risks, houses, protozoans

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7 Patient Safety of Eating Ready-Made Meals at Government Hospitals

Authors: Hala Kama Ahmed Rashwan

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Ensuring the patient safety especially at intensive care units and those exposed to hospital tools and equipment is one of the most important challenges facing healthcare today. Outbreak of food poisoning as a result of food-borne pathogens has been reported in many hospitals and care homes all over the world due to hospital meals. Patient safety of eating hospital meals is a fundamental principle of healthcare; it is new healthcare disciplines that assure the food raw materials, food storage, meals processing, and control of kitchen errors that often lead to adverse healthcare events. The aim of this article is to promote any hospital in attaining the hygienic practices and better quality system during processing of the ready-to- eat meals for intensive care units patients according to the WHO safety guidelines.

Keywords: Safety, hospitals, Intensive Care, meals

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6 Development of a Performance Measurement Model for Hospitals Using Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) Techniques: A Case Study of Three South Australian Major Public Hospitals

Authors: Yousef Amer, Mohammad Safaeipour

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This study directs its focus on developing a conceptual model to offer a systematic and integrated method to weigh the related measures and evaluate a competence of hospitals and rank of the selected hospitals that involve and consider the stakeholders’ key performance indicators (KPI’s). The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach will use to weigh the dimensions and related sub- components. The weights and performance scores will combine by using the Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and rank the selected hospitals. The results of this study provide interesting insight into the necessity of process improvement implementation in which hospital that received the lowest ranking score.

Keywords: hospitals, TOPSIS, AHP, performance measurement system, PMS

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5 Control of an Outbreak of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in a Tunisian Teaching Hospital

Authors: Hela Ghali, Sihem Ben Fredj, Mohamed Ben Rejeb, Sawssen Layouni, Salwa Khefacha, Lamine Dhidah, Houyem Said Laatiri

Abstract:

Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a growing threat to public health and motivates to improve prevention and control programs both at international (WHO) and national levels. Despite their low pathogenicity, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are common nosocomial pathogens in several countries. The high potential for transmission of VRE between patients and the threat to send its resistance genes to other bacteria such as staphylococcus aureus already resistant to meticilin, justify strict control measures. Indeed, in Europe, the proportion of Enterococcus faecium responsible for invasive infections, varies from 1% to 35% in 2011 and less than 5% were resistant to vancomycin. In addition, it represents the second cause of urinary tract and wound infections and the third cause of nosocomial bacteremia in the United States. The nosocomial outbreaks of VRE have been mainly described in intensive care services, hematology-oncology and haemodialysis. An epidemic of VRE has affected our hospital and the objective of this work is to describe the measures put in place. Materials/Methods: Following the alert given by the service of plastic surgery concerning a patient carrier of VRE, a team of the prevention and healthcare security service (doctor + technician) made an investigation. A review of files was conducted to draw the synoptic table and the table of cases. Results: By contacting the microbiology laboratory, we have identified four other cases of VRE and who were hospitalized in Medical resuscitation department (2 cases, one of them was transferred to the Physical rehabilitation department), and Nephrology department (2 cases). The visit has allowed to detect several malfunctions in professional practice. A crisis cell has allowed to validate, coordinate and implement control measures following the recommendations of the Technical Center of nosocomial infections. In fact, the process was to technically isolate cases in their sector of hospitalization, to restrict the use of antibiotics, to strength measures of basic hygiene, and to make a screening by rectal swab for both cases and contacts (other patients and health staff). These measures have helped to control the situation and no other case has been reported for a month. 2 new cases have been detected in the intensive care unit after a month. However, these are short-term strategies, and other measures in the medium and long term should be taken into account in order to face similar outbreaks. Conclusion: The efforts to control the outbreak were not efficient since 2 new cases have been reported after a month. Therefore, a continuous monitoring in order to detect new cases earlier is crucial to minimize the dissemination of VRE.

Keywords: hospitals, nosocomial infection, outbreak, vancomycin-resistant enterococci

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4 The Effect of Vertical Integration on Operational Performance: Evaluating Physician Employment in Hospitals

Authors: Gary Young, David Zepeda, Gilbert Nyaga

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This study investigated whether vertical integration of hospitals and physicians is associated with better care for patients with cardiac conditions. A dramatic change in the U.S. hospital industry is the integration of hospital and physicians through hospital acquisition of physician practices. Yet, there is little evidence regarding whether this form of vertical integration leads to better operational performance of hospitals. The study was conducted as an observational investigation based on a pooled, cross-sectional database. The study sample comprised over hospitals in the State of California. The time frame for the study was 2010 to 2012. The key performance measure was hospitals’ degree of compliance with performance criteria set out by the federal government for managing patients with cardiac conditions. These criteria relate to the types of clinical tests and medications that hospitals should follow for cardiac patients but hospital compliance requires the cooperation of a hospital’s physicians. Data for this measure was obtained from a federal website that presents performance scores for U.S. hospitals. The key independent variable was the percentage of cardiologists that a hospital employs (versus cardiologists who are affiliated but not employed by the hospital). Data for this measure was obtained from the State of California which requires hospitals to report financial and operation data each year including numbers of employed physicians. Other characteristics of hospitals (e.g., information technology for cardiac care, volume of cardiac patients) were also evaluated as possible complements or substitutes for physician employment by hospitals. Additional sources of data included the American Hospital Association and the U.S. Census. Empirical models were estimated with generalized estimating equations (GEE). Findings suggest that physician employment is positively associated with better hospital performance for cardiac care. However, findings also suggest that information technology is a substitute for physician employment.

Keywords: hospitals, Cardiac care, physician employment, verical integration

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3 Nurses' Assessments of Their Work Environments

Authors: Manar Aslan, Selver Gokdemir, Chatitze Chousein

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This research was conducted to evaluate the factors affecting the working environment of nurses working in three state hospitals. A favorable working environment contributes to increased job satisfaction of nurses and improved working conditions that affects the quality of the work done in a positive way. The population of the study was composed the three largest state hospitals in the region of Thrace in Turkey and 931 nurses working in there. In this research was not used any sampling method. The sampling was composed of nurses who accepted to take part in this research from three hospitals. It was used nursing work index-the practice work environment scale (Turkish version) for data collection (Cronbach alpha: 0.94).When the total scale scores of the nurses in the research were examined, it was determined that they evaluated the working environment below the average. It was also determined that the adequacy of human and other resources, dimensions of the physician-nurse communication scores were low. As in every profession group, the working environment in nursing has an importance to provide quality health and nursing care. A favorable working environment will increase nurses' performance and satisfaction with their work. Identifying the factors affecting the working environment and carrying out the remedial work for them will increase the quality of the health service.

Keywords: Nursing, hospitals, work environment, work index

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2 Measuring Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points Implementation in Riyadh Hospitals

Authors: A. Alrasheed, I. Connerton

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Daily provision of high quality food and hygiene to patients is a challenging goal of the healthcare. In Saudi Arabia, matters related to food safety and hygiene are regulated by the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Saudi Food and Drugs Authority (SFDA). The purpose of this research is to discuss the food safety management inconsistencies and flaws, in particular the ones related to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) in Riyadh’s MOH hospitals. As required by law, written HACCP regulations must be implemented, and food handlers need to receive the training accordingly. However, in Saudi hospitals, this is not a requirement, and the food handlers do not need to hold training certificates in food safety or HACCP. Nowadays, the matter of food safety and hygiene have become increasingly important since the decision makers want to align these regulations with the majority of the world and to implement HACCP fully and for this purpose, the SFDA was established. 

Keywords: Food Safety, hospitals, Saudi Arabia, patients, HACCP

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1 Management of Medical Equipment Maintenance

Authors: Gholamreza Madad

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The role of medical equipment in modern advanced hospitals is irrefutable. Despite limited financial resources, developing countries have taken an uncontrollable manner to the purchase of complex and expensive equipment, although they have not taken good maintenance to keep these huge capitals. In our country, limited studies have indicated that the irregularities exist in the management of medical equipment maintenance. Research method: The research was done as a cross-sectional one, and in this study, a questionnaire was used to collect data in 10 hospitals. After distributing and collecting questionnaires in person, the collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and SPSS software. Research findings: According to the obtained results from the four dimensions of the management of medical equipment maintenance, only (maintenance planning) was in a moderate position and other components with a score of less than 50% were at a low level. There was a direct relationship between the total score of maintenance management and guidance points and coordination of medical equipment maintenance, and as well as the age of hospital managers. Discussion and conclusion: In sum, we can say that problems such as lack of skilled staff in medical engineering departments of hospitals, lack of funds and unaware of the authorities of medical engineering units to their duties have caused that the maintenance situation of medical equipment maintenance is in poor condition (near average). The low inexperience of the authorities of the unit has also contributed to this problem.

Keywords: Equipment, Maintenance, hospitals, medical equipment

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