Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

horses Related Abstracts

4 African Horse Sickness a Possible Threat to Horses in Al-Baha

Authors: Ghanem Al-Ghamdi

Abstract:

African Horse Sickness causes significant challenges to horse practitioners and owners in Africa and possibly in certain locations in the Arab Pensila. The aim of this work was to observe a hot spot of epidemic in Al-Baha, Southwestern of Saudi Arabia that could be AHS. A five year-old horse farm that had eight horses with no history of clinical problems was visited in late October 2014. In August 2014, horses showed clinical signs of severe pain, congestion of mucus membranes, foam oozing of the nose, recumbency, difficult breath and ultimately death. The course of the disease averaged 2 days. The farm had no previous history of this episode. Other animals including camel, sheep reside the same farm sharing feeding and water sources however no obvious similar clinical problems were noticed among the two species. Five horses showed the clinical disease and all horses were lost. Veterinary help was not available for diagnosis or treatment. A follow up visit to the farm after one year indicated that the three remaining horses were healthy but were relocated to a different facility out the Al-Baha Region. The most likely cause of such clinical problem is African Horse Sickness, however clinical exam and sampling of other horses in the region is absolute must as well as examining arthropods.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Al-Baha, African horse sickness, horses

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3 Nutritional Value Determination of Different Varieties of Oats and Barley Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Method for the Horses Nutrition

Authors: V. Viliene, A. Raceviciute-Stupeliene, V. Sasyte, R. Gruzauskas

Abstract:

In horse nutrition, the most suitable cereal for their rations composition could be defined as oats and barley. Oats have high nutritive value because it provides more protein, fiber, iron and zinc than other whole grains, has good taste, and an activity of stimulating metabolic changes in the body. Another cereal – barley is very similar to oats as a feed except for some characteristics that affect how it is used; however, barley is lower in fiber than oats and is classified as a "heavy" feed. The value of oats and barley grain, first of all is dependent on its composition. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has long been considered and used as a significant method in component and quality analysis and as an emerging technology for authenticity applications for cereal quality control. This paper presents the chemical and amino acid composition of different varieties of barley and oats, also digestible energy of different cereals for horses. Ten different spring barley (n = 5) and oats (n = 5) varieties, grown in one location in Lithuania, were assayed for their chemical composition (dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, crude fiber, starch) and amino acids content, digestible amino acids and amino acids digestibility. Also, the grains digestible energy for horses was calculated. The oats and barley samples reflectance spectra were measured by means of NIRS using Foss-Tecator DS2500 equipment. The chemical components: fat, crude protein, starch and fiber differed statistically (P<0.05) between the oats and barley varieties. The highest total amino acid content between oats was determined in variety Flamingsprofi (4.56 g/kg) and the lowest – variety Circle (3.57 g/kg), and between barley - respectively in varieties Publican (3.50 g/kg) and Sebastian (3.11 g/kg). The different varieties of oats digestible amino acid content varied from 3.11 g/kg to 4.07 g/kg; barley different varieties varied from 2.59 g/kg to 2.94 g/kg. The average amino acids digestibility of oats varied from 74.4% (Liz) to 95.6% (Fen) and in barley - from 75.8 % (Tre) to 89.6% (Fen). The amount of digestible energy in the analyzed varieties of oats and barley was an average compound 13.74 MJ/kg DM and 14.85 MJ/kg DM, respectively. An analysis of the results showed that different varieties of oats compared with barley are preferable for horse nutrition according to the crude fat, crude fiber, ash and separate amino acids content, but the analyzed barley varieties dominated the higher amounts of crude protein, the digestible Liz amount and higher DE content, and thus, could be recommended for making feed formulation for horses combining oats and barley, taking into account the chemical composition of using cereal varieties.

Keywords: Nutritional Value, oats, barley, horses, digestive energy

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2 Profile of Serological Response of Equids Naturally Infected with Burkholderia mallei

Authors: Muhammad Younus, Aman Ullah Khan, Iahtasham Khan, Vania Lucia De Assis Santana, Marcilia Maria Alves De Souza, Mabel Hanna Vance Harrop, Fernando Leandro Dos Santos, Cecília Maria Souza Leão E. Silva, Pedro Paulo Silveira, Marcelo Brasil, Marcus Vinícius, Hélio Cordeiro Manso Filho

Abstract:

Glanders ranks high on clinical lists in some regions of Brazil as a cause of respiratory and lymphatic disease in equids. Glanders is caused by Burkolderia mallei (B. mallei) Gram-negative bacterium. B. mallei was first biological agent used in World War I in 20th century. The complement fixation test (CFT) is a serodiagnostic tool prescribed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)for the diagnosis of glanders in the international trade of equids. The aim of the present study was to monitor the serological responses in equines naturally infected with B. mallei using the CFT. A total of 574 equids were tested with CFT, 30 days apart in a total of 12 samplings. One hundred thirty-four sera tested negative in all samplings; 192 sera tested positive in one sampling and 125 sera tested positive in two or more samplings. Remaining 123 samples showed uncertain results. Thus, CFT results can vary over a period of time. These variations could be the consequence of the effects of the natural immune response in each animal. The findings of the present study demonstrate difficulties regarding the simultaneous implementation of CFT and test and slaughter policies to eradicate glanders. Another constraint to control this disease is the presence of carrier/transitory CFT-negative animals, which are a potential source of disease in glanders-free areas. Serodiagnostic tests of higher sensitivity and specificity like immunobloat should be implemented to achieve success in the eradication of glanders.

Keywords: Immunological, horses, glanders, equids, mules

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1 West Nile Virus in North-Eastern Italy: Overview of Integrated Surveillance Activities

Authors: Matteo Mazzucato, Laura Amato, Paolo Mulatti, Fabrizio Montarsi, Laura Gagliazzo, Michele Brichese, Manlio Palei, Gioia Capelli, Lebana Bonfanti

Abstract:

West Nile virus (WNV) re-emerged in north-eastern Italy in 2008, after ten years from its first appearance in Tuscany. In 2009, a national surveillance programme was implemented, and re-modulated in north-eastern Italy in 2011. Hereby, we present the results of surveillance activities in 2008-2016 in the north-eastern Italian regions, with inferences on WNV epidemiological trend in the area. The re-modulated surveillance programmes aimed at early detecting WNV seasonal reactivation by searching IgM antibodies in horses. In 2013, the surveillance plans were further modified including a risk-based approach. Spatial analysis techniques, including Bernoulli space-time scan-statistics, were applied to the results of 2010–2012 surveillance on mosquitoes, equines, and humans to identify areas where WNV reactivation was more likely to occur. From 2008 to 2016, residential horses tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies on a yearly basis (503 cases), also in areas where WNV circulation was not detected in mosquito populations. Surveillance activities detected 26 syndromic cases in horses, 102 infected mosquito pools and WNV in 18 dead wild birds. Human cases were also recurrently detected in the study area during the surveillance period (68 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease). The recurrent identification of WNV in animals, mosquitoes, and humans indicates the virus has likely become endemic in the area. In 2016, findings of WNV positives in horses or mosquitoes were included as triggers for enhancing screening activities in humans. The evolution of the epidemiological situation prompts for continuous and accurate surveillance measures. The results of the 2013-2016 surveillance indicate that the risk-based approach was effective in early detecting seasonal reactivation of WNV, key factor of the integrated surveillance strategy in endemic areas.

Keywords: west nile virus, Zoonoses, Surveillance, Italy, horses, arboviruses

Procedia PDF Downloads 141