Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Homeostasis Related Abstracts

3 Oxidosqualene Cyclase: A Novel Inhibitor

Authors: Devadrita Dey Sarkar

Abstract:

Oxidosqualene cyclase is a membrane bound enzyme in which helps in the formation of steroid scaffold in higher organisms. In a highly selective cyclization reaction oxidosqualene cyclase forms LANOSTEROL with seven chiral centres starting from the linear substrate 2,3-oxidosqualene. In humans OSC in cholesterol biosynthesis it represents a target for the discovery of novel anticholesteraemic drugs that could complement the widely used statins. The enzyme oxidosqualene: lanosterol cyclase (OSC) represents a novel target for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. OSC catalyzes the cyclization of the linear 2,3-monoepoxysqualene to lanosterol, the initial four-ringed sterol intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. OSC also catalyzes the formation of 24(S), 25-epoxycholesterol, a ligand activator of the liver X receptor. Inhibition of OSC reduces cholesterol biosynthesis and selectively enhances 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol synthesis. Through this dual mechanism, OSC inhibition decreases plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and prevents cholesterol deposition within macrophages. The recent crystallization of OSC identifies the mechanism of action for this complex enzyme, setting the stage for the design of OSC inhibitors with improved pharmacological properties for cholesterol lowering and treatment of atherosclerosis. While studying and designing the inhibitor of oxidosqulene cyclase, I worked on the pdb id of 1w6k which was the most worked on pdb id and I used several methods, techniques and softwares to identify and validate the top most molecules which could be acting as an inhibitor for oxidosqualene cyclase. Thus, by partial blockage of this enzyme, both an inhibition of lanosterol and subsequently cholesterol formation as well as a concomitant effect on HMG-CoA reductase can be achieved. Both effects complement each other and lead to an effective control of cholesterol biosynthesis. It is therefore concluded that 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclase plays a crucial role in the regulation of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. 2,3-Oxidosqualene cyclase inhibitors offer an attractive approach for novel lipid-lowering agents.

Keywords: Crystallization, Statins, Homeostasis, anticholesteraemic

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2 Acylated Ghrelin in Response to Aerobic Training Induced Weight Loss in Obese Men

Authors: Masoumeh Hosseini

Abstract:

Obesity is known to be associated with cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to assess the effect of a long term aerobic training program on serum ghrelin in obese men. For this purpose, twenty four sedentary adult obese men aged 30-40 years and body mass index 30-36 kg/m2 were participated in this study and divided randomly into exercise (3 months aerobic training, 3 times/weekly) or control (no training) groups. Serum ghrelin and cardiovascular risk factor (TG, TC, LDL, and HDL) were measured before and after treatment. Anthropometrical markers were measured at two occasions. Data were analyzed by independent-paired T-test. Significance was accepted at P < 0.05. Aerobic training resulted in significant decrease in serum ghrelin and TG in exercise group. All anthropometrical markers decreased significantly in exercise group but not in control subjects. Based on these data, it is concluded that weight loss by aerobic training can be affect serum ghrelin in obese subject, although some cardiovascular risk factor remained without changed.

Keywords: Obesity, Homeostasis, Aerobic Training, lipid profile

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1 The Molecular Mechanism of Vacuolar Function in Yeast Cell Homeostasis

Authors: Chang-Hui Shen, Paulina Konarzewska

Abstract:

Cell homeostasis is regulated by vacuolar activity and it has been shown that lipid composition of the vacuole plays an important role in vacuolar function. The major phosphoinositide species present in the vacuolar membrane include phosphatidylinositol 3,5-biphosphate (PI(3,5)P₂) which is generated from PI(3)P controlled by Fab1p. Deletion of FAB1 gene reduce the synthesis of PI(3,5)P₂ and thus result in enlarged or fragmented vacuoles, with neutral vacuolar pH due to reduced vacuolar H⁺-ATPase activity. These mutants also exhibited poor growth at high extracellular pH and in the presence of CaCl₂. Conversely, VPS34 regulates the synthesis of PI(3)P from phosphatidylinositol (PI), and the lack of Vps34p results in the reduction of vacuolar activity. Although the cellular observations are clear, it is still unknown about the molecular mechanism between the phospholipid biosynthesis pathway and vacuolar activity. Since both VPS34 and FAB1 are important in vacuolar activity, we hypothesize that the molecular mechanism of vacuolar function might be regulated by the transcriptional regulators of phospholipid biosynthesis. In this study, we study the role of the major phospholipid biosynthesis transcription factor, INO2, in the regulation of vacuolar activity. We first performed qRT-PCR to examine the effect of Ino2p on the expression of VPS34 and FAB1. Our results showed that VPS34 was upregulated in the presence of inositol for both WT and ino2Δ cells. However, FAB1 was only upregulated significantly in ino2Δ cells. This indicated that Ino2p might be the negative regulator for FAB1 expression. Next, growth sensitivity experiment showed that WT, vma3Δ, and ino2Δ grew well in growth medium buffered to pH 5.5 containing 10 mM CaCl₂. As cells were switched to growth medium buffered to pH 7 containing CaCl₂ WT, ino2Δ and opi1Δ showed growth reduction, whereas vma3Δ was completely nonviable. As the concentration of CaCl₂ was increased to 60 mM, ino2Δ cells showed moderate growth reduction compared to WT. This result suggests that ino2Δ cells have better vacuolar activity. Microscopic analysis and vacuolar acidification were employed to further elucidate the importance of INO2 in vacuolar homeostasis. Analysis of vacuolar morphology indicated that WT and vma3Δ cells displayed vacuoles that occupied a small area of the cell when grown in media buffered to pH 5.5. Whereas, ino2Δ displayed fragmented vacuoles. On the other hand, all strains grown in media buffered to pH 7, exhibited enlarged vacuoles that occupied most of the cell’s surface. This indicated that the presence of INO2 may play negative effect in vacuolar morphology when cells are grown in media buffered to pH 5.5. Furthermore, vacuolar acidification assay showed that only vma3Δ cells displayed notably less acidic vacuoles as cells were grown in media buffered to pH 5.5 and pH 7. Whereas, ino2Δ cells displayed more acidic pH compared to WT at pH7. Taken together, our results demonstrated the molecular mechanism of the vacuolar activity regulated by the phospholipid biosynthesis transcription factors Ino2p. Ino2p negatively regulates vacuolar activity through the expression of FAB1.

Keywords: Homeostasis, vacuole, phospholipid, Ino2p, FAB1

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