Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Hofstede Related Abstracts

3 The Next Frontier for Mobile Based Augmented Reality: An Evaluation of AR Uptake in India

Authors: K. Krishna Milan Rao, Nelvin Joseph, Praveen Dwarakanath

Abstract:

Augmented and Virtual Realties is quickly becoming a hotbed of activity with millions of dollars being spent on R & D and companies such as Google and Microsoft rushing to stake their claim. Augmented reality (AR) is however marching ahead due to the spread of the ideal AR device – the smartphone. Despite its potential, there remains a deep digital divide between the Developed and Developing Countries. The Technological Acceptance Model (TAM) and Hofstede cultural dimensions also predict the behaviour intention to uptake AR in India will be large. This paper takes a quantified approach by collecting 340 survey responses to AR scenarios and analyzing them through statistics. The Survey responses show that the Intention to Use, Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Enjoyment dimensions are high among the urban population in India. This along with the exponential smartphone indicates that India is on the cusp of a boom in the AR sector.

Keywords: India, Mobile Augmented Reality, technology acceptance model, cultural dimensions, Hofstede

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2 The Interplay between Technology and Culture in Inbound Call Center Industry

Authors: Kriztine R. Viray, Joseph Reylan Viray

Abstract:

Call center conversations, more than the business dimensions that they normally manifest, are interactions between human beings. These are communication exchanges that are packed with psychological, cultural and social dimensions that affect the specific experience of the parties. The increasing development of information and communication technology over the past decades brought about important advantages and corresponding disadvantages in the process of communicational transactions in call center industry. It has been established that the technology is so powerful that it strongly affects, among others, call center business. In the present study, the author explores the interplay between the technology being utilized by the industry and the cultural orientations of both the call center agents and their customers in the process of communication exchanges. Specifically, the paper seeks to (1) describe the interplay between culture and technology in inbound call center industry as it affects the communication exchange of the agents and customers; (2) understand the nature and the dynamics of the call center industry as regards the cultural dimensions of Hofstede; and (3) come up with a simple study where the cross-cultural aspect of the call center industry could be highlighted and could provide necessary knowledge to the stakeholders. Cognizant of the complexity of the topic, the researchers employed Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Likewise, another theory that was used in this study is the Computer Mediated Communication Theory.

Keywords: Culture, Technology, CMT, Hofstede, call center industry

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1 Effect of Long Term Orientation and Indulgence on Earnings Management: The Moderating Role of Legal Tradition

Authors: I. Martinez-Conesa, E. Garcia-Meca, M. Barradas-Quiroz

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to assess the impact on earnings management of latest two Hofstede cultural dimensions: long-term orientation and indulgence. Long-term orientation represents the alignment of a society towards the future and indulgence expresses the extent to which a society exhibits willingness, or restrain, to realise their impulses. Additionally, this paper tests if there are relevant differences by testing the moderating role of the legal tradition, Continental versus Anglo-Saxon. Our sample comprises 15 countries: Belgium, Canada, Germany, Spain, France, Great Britain, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Philippines, Portugal, Sweden, and Thailand, with a total of 12,936 observations from 2003 to 2013. Our results show that managers in countries with high levels of long-term orientation reduce their levels of discretionary accruals. The findings do not confirm the effect of indulgence on earnings management. In addition, our results confirm previous literature regarding the effect of individualism, noting that firms in countries with high levels of collectivism might be more inclined to use earnings discretion to protect the welfare of the collective group of firm stakeholders. Uncertainty avoidance results in downwards earnings management as well as high disclosure, suggesting that less manipulation takes place when transparency is higher. Indulgence is the cultural dimension that confronts wellbeing versus survival; dimension is formulated including happiness, the perception of live control and the importance of leisure. Indulgence shows a weak negative correlation with power distance indicating a slight tendency for more hierarchical societies to be less indulgent. Anglo-Saxon countries are a positive effect of individualism and a negative effect of masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, and disclosure. With respect to continental countries, we can see a significant and positive effect of individualism and a significant and negative effect of masculinity, long-term orientation, and indulgence. Therefore, we observe the negative effect on earnings management provoked by higher disclosure and uncertainty avoidance only happens in Anglo-Saxon countries. Meanwhile, the improvement in reporting quality motivated by higher long-term orientation and higher indulgence is dominant in Continental countries. Our results confirm that there is a moderating effect of the legal system in the association between culture and earnings management. This effect is especially relevant in the dimensions related to uncertainty avoidance, long term orientation, indulgence, and disclosure. The negative effect of long-term orientation on earnings management only happens in those countries set in continental legal systems because of the Anglo-Saxon legal systems is supported by the decisions of the courts and the traditions, so it already has long-term orientation. That does not occur in continental systems, depending mainly of contend of the law. Sensitivity analysis used with Jones modified CP model, Jones Standard model and Jones Standard CP model confirm the robustness of these results. This paper collaborates towards a better understanding on how earnings management, culture and legal systems relate to each other, and contribute to previous literature by examining the influence of the two latest Hofstedeā€™s dimensions not previously studied in papers.

Keywords: Earnings Management, Hofstede, long-term-orientation, indulgence

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