Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Histology Related Abstracts

18 Histological and Ultrastructural Study on the Effect

Authors: Olfat Mohamed Hussien Yousef


Tamoxifen (TM) is a synthetic non-steroidal antiestrogen. It is one of the most effective drugs for treatment of estrogen-dependent cancer by binding to estrogen receptors, suppressing of epithelial proliferation and as a chemotherapeutic agent. Recently, more attention has been paid to the protective effects of natural antioxidants against toxicities induced by anti-cancer drugs involving free radical-mediated oxidative stress and tissue injury. Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant that has the ability to scavenge factors causing free radical formation in animals receiving tamoxifen. The present study aims at pinpointing the TM-induced histopathological and ultrastructural changes in the kidneys and to assess the possible chemoprotective role of vitamin C against such TM-induced microscopic changes. Thirty adult male CD-1 mice, 25-30 g in weight and 3 months old, were divided into three groups. The first group served as control. The second group received the therapeutic dose of TM at daily oral dose of 40 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. The third group received the therapeutic dose of vitamin C at a daily dose of 500 mg/kg body weight simultaneously with the therapeutic dose of TM used in group two for 28 days. Animals were sacrificed and kidney samples were obtained and processed for histological and ultrastructural examination. Histological changes induced by TM included damage of the renal corpuscles including obliteration of the subcapsular space, congestion of the glomerular blood capillaries, segmental mesangial cell proliferation with matrix expansion, capsular adhesions with the glomerular tuft especially at the urinary pole of the corpuscles. Moreover, some proximal and distal tubules suffered various degrees of degeneration in some lining cells. Haemorrhage and inflammatory cell infiltration were also observed in the intertubular spaces. Ultrastructural observations revealed damage of the parietal epithelium of Bowman’s capsule, fusion and destruction of the foot processes of podocytes and great increase of mesangial cells and mesangial matrix. The cells of the proximal convoluted tubules displayed marked destruction of the microvilli constituting the brush borders and degeneration of the mitochondria; besides, abundant lysosomes, numerous vacuoles and pyknotic nuclei were observed. The distal convoluted tubules displayed marked distruction of both the basal infolding and the mitochondria in some areas. Histological and ultrastructural results revealed that treatment of male mice with TM simultaneously with vitamin C led to apparent repair of the injured renal tissue. This might suggest that vitamin C (an antioxidant agent) can minimize the toxic effects of TM (an antiestrogen).

Keywords: Histology, Ultrastructure, vitamin C, tamoxifen, mammalian kidney

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17 Effect of Methanolic Extract of Punica granatum L. Fruit Rind on Kidney, Liver Marker Enzymes, Electrolytes, and Their Histology in Normal Healthy Rats

Authors: Y. A. Shettima, M. A. Tijjani, S. Modu, F. I. Abdulrahman, B. M. Abubakar


The toxicity profile of the methanolic extract of Punica granatum L. fruit rind was studied in normal rats. The rats were administered orally by intubating graded doses of 150, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight of the extract for 28 days and the effects on biochemical parameters and histology of the liver and kidney were evaluated. There was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the levels of liver enzymes of the rats that received the highest dose of 750 mg/kg body weight. The AST and ALT levels were 41.59±0.18 ALP and 9.25±0.29 IU/L, respectively, while the ALP level was 15.68±10 IU/L.There was a significant difference in the albumin and globulin levels; 3.72±0.05 and 4.05±0.13 g/dl, respectively. Serum urea and creatinine levels remained normal, as well as the electrolyte levels. The increase in sodium concentration observed was not statistically significant (P≥0.05) when the control group (131.50±3.11) was compared with the experimental groups (132.25±3.86, 132.75±3.86, 133.50±3.11 and 134.00±1.83). The increase in potassium concentration was not statistically significant (P≥0.05) when the control group with a value of 95.50±3.51 mmol/L was compared with the experimental groups 98.00±3.16, 99.25±2.22, 99.79±0.36 and 99.99±0.02 mmol/L. The increase observed in bicarbonate concentration was not statistically significant (P≥0.05) when the control group with a value of 20.75±1.71 mmol/L was compared with the experimental groups 21.68±0.62, 24.25±2.99, 24.50±3.42, 25.50±2.65 mmol/L.

Keywords: electrolytes, Histology, AST, punical granatum, methanolic, ALT

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16 Reproductive Behavior of the Red Sea Immigrant Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789) from the Mediterranean Coast, Egypt

Authors: Mohsen A. Moustafa, Mahmoud M. S. Farrag, Alaa A. K. Elhaweet, El-Sayed Kh. A. Akel


The present work aimed to study the reproductive strategy of the common lessepsian puffer fish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1879) from the Egyptian Mediterranean Waters. It is a famous migratory species plays an important role in the field of fisheries and ecology of aquatic ecosystem. The specimens were collected monthly from the landing centers along the Egyptian Mediterranean coast during 2012. Six maturity stages were recorded: (I) Thread like stage, (II) Immature stage (Virgin stage), (III) Maturing stage (Developing Virgin and recovering spent), (IV) Nearly ripe stage, (V) Fully ripe, (VI) Spawning stage, (VII) Spent stage. According to sex ratio, males exhibited higher number than females representing 52.44 % of the total fishes with sex ratio 1: 0.91. Fish length corresponding to 50% maturation was 38.5 cm for males and 41 cm for females. The corresponding ages (age at first maturity) are equal to 2.14 and 2.27 years for male and female respectively. The ova diameter ranged from 0.02mm to 0.85mm, the mature ova ranged from 0.16mm to 0.85mm and showed progressive increase from April towards September. Also, the presences of ova diameter in one peak of mature and ripe eggs in the ovaries were observed during spawning period. The relationship between gutted weight and absolute fecundity indicated that that fecundity increased as the fish grew in weight. The absolute fecundity ranged from 260288 to 2372931 for fish weight ranged from 698 to 3285 cm with an average of 1449522±720975. The relative fecundity ranged from 373 to 722 for fish weight ranged from 698 to 3285 cm with an average of 776±231. The spawning season of L. sceleratus was investigated from the data of gonado-somatic index and monthly distribution of maturity stages along the year as well as sequence of ova diameter for mature stages and exhibited a relatively prolong spawning season extending from April for both sexes and ends in August for male while ends in September for female. Fish releases its ripe ova in one batch during the spawning season. Histologically, the ovarian cycle of L. sceleratus was classified into six stages and the testicular cycle into five stages. Histological characters of gonads of L. sceleratus during the year of study had confirmed the previous results of distribution of maturity stages, gonado-somatic index and ova diameter, indicating this fish species has prolonged spawning season from April to September. This species is considered totally or uni spawner with synchronous group as it contained one to two developmental stages at the same gonad.

Keywords: Reproductive Biology, Histology, Oogenesis, Lagocephalus sceleratus

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15 Image Enhancement of Histological Slides by Using Nonlinear Transfer Function

Authors: D. Suman, B. Nikitha, J. Sarvani, V. Archana


Histological slides provide clinical diagnostic information about the subjects from the ancient times. Even with the advent of high resolution imaging cameras the image tend to have some background noise which makes the analysis complex. A study of the histological slides is done by using a nonlinear transfer function based image enhancement method. The method processes the raw, color images acquired from the biological microscope, which, in general, is associated with background noise. The images usually appearing blurred does not convey the intended information. In this regard, an enhancement method is proposed and implemented on 50 histological slides of human tissue by using nonlinear transfer function method. The histological image is converted into HSV color image. The luminance value of the image is enhanced (V component) because change in the H and S components could change the color balance between HSV components. The HSV image is divided into smaller blocks for carrying out the dynamic range compression by using a linear transformation function. Each pixel in the block is enhanced based on the contrast of the center pixel and its neighborhood. After the processing the V component, the HSV image is transformed into a colour image. The study has shown improvement of the characteristics of the image so that the significant details of the histological images were improved.

Keywords: Image, Enhancement, Histology, HSV space

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14 Reproductive Behaviour of the Red Sea Immigrant Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789) from the Mediterranean Coast, Egypt

Authors: Mahmoud Farrag, Alaa Elhaweet, El-Sayed Akel, Mohsen Moustafa


The present work aimed to study the reproductive strategy of the common lesspsian puffer fish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmeln, 1879) from the Egyptian Mediterranean Waters. It is a famous migratory species plays an important role in the field of fisheries and ecology of aquatic ecosystem. The obtained results illustrated seven maturity stages of gonads as; I- Thread like stage: II- Immature stage (Virgin stage), III- Maturing stage (Developing Virgin and recovering spent), IV - Nearly ripe stage, V- Fully ripe; VI-Spawning stage, VII- Spent stage. Sex ratio, exhibited males had higher number than females representing 52.44 % of the total fishes with sex ratio 1: 0.91. Fish length corresponding to 50% maturation was 38.5 cm for males and 41 cm for females. The corresponding ages (age at first maturity) are equal to 2.14 and 2.27 years for male and female respectively. The gonado somatic index (GSI) increased from April for both sexes with peak in June (8.567±4.729) for males and May (6.769±4.662) for females, then the sharp decrease was observed in October showing prolong spawning season from April to September for both sexes. The hepato somatic indices (HSI) for males were lower values than those of females, it were high from December to early spawning (April & May), with the peak in April (5.217 ± 2.167) for males, and in March (5.453± 1.792) for females, then these values started to decrease towards the end of spawning period. The ova diameter ranged from 0.02 to 0.85mm, the mature ova ranged from 0.16 to 0.85mm and showed progressive increase from April towards September during spawning period introducing one peak of mature and ripe eggs. The absolute fecundity increased as the fish grew in weight and length; it was ranged from 260288 to 2372931 for fish weight and ranged from 698 to 3285 cm for length with an average of 1449522±720975. The relative fecundity ranged from 373 to 722 for fish weight with an average of 776±231, while it range from 5784 to 32957 for fish length groups ranged from 43-45 to 70-72 cm with an average of 24478 ±10011 eggs. Histological characters of gonads during the year of study indicating this fish species has prolonged spawning season from April to September where ripe oocytes were observed during this period. This species is considered totally or uni spawner with synchronous group as it contained one to two developmental stages at the same gonad and releases its ripe ova in one batch during the spawning season. These results illustrated more adaptation of this species in new habitat.

Keywords: Reproductive Biology, Histology, Egypt, Lagocephalus sceleratus, Mediterranean Sea

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13 Histogenesis of the Stomach of Pre-Hatching Quail: A Light and Electron Microscopic Study

Authors: Soha A Soliman, Yasser A Ahmed, Mohamed A Khalaf


Although the enormous literature describing the histology of the stomach of different avian species during the posthatching development, the available literature on the pre-hatching development of quail stomach development is scanty. Thus, the current study was undertaken to provide a careful description of the main histological events during the embryonic development of quail stomach. To achieve this aim, daily histological specimens from the stomach of quail of 4 days post-incubation till the day 17 (few hours before hatching) were examined with light microscopy. The current study showed that the primitive gut tube of the embryonic quail appeared at the 4th day post incubation, and both parts of stomach (proventriculus and gizzard) were similar in structure and composed of endodermal epithelium of pseudostratified type surrounded by undifferentiated mesenchymal tissue. The sequences of the developmental events in the gut tube were preceded in a cranio-caudal pattern. By the 5th day, the endodermal covering of the primitive proventriculus gave rise to sac-like invaginations. The primitive gizzard was distinguished into thick-walled bodies and thin-walled sacs. In the 6th day, the prospective proventricular glandular epithelium became canalized and the muscular layer was developed in the cranial part of the proventriculus, whereas the primitive muscular coat of the gizzard was represented by a layer of condensed mesenchyme. In the 7th day, the proventricular glandular epithelial invaginations increased in depth and number, while, the muscularis mucosa and the muscular layer began to be distinguished. In the 8th day, the myoblasts differentiated into spindle shaped smooth muscle fibers. In the 10th day, branching of the proventricular glands began. The branching continued later on. The surface and the glandular epithelium were transformed into simple columnar type in the 12th day. The epithelial covering of the gizzard gave rise to tubular invaginations lined by simple cuboidal epithelium and the surface epithelium became simple columnar. Canalization of the tubular glands was recognized in the 14th day. In the 15th day, the proventricular surface epithelium invaginated in an concentric manner around a central cavity to form immature secretory units. The central cavity was lined by eosinophilic cells which form the ductal epithelia. The peripheral lamellae were lined by basophilic cells; the undifferentiated oxyntico-peptic cells. Entero-endocrine cells stained positive for silver impregnation in the proventricular glands. The mucosal folding in the gizzard appeared in the 15th day to form the plicae and the sulci. The wall of the proventriculus and gizzard in the 17th day acquired the main histological features of post-hatching birds, but neither the surface nor the ductal epithelium were differentiated to mucous producing cells. The current results shoed be considered in the molecular developmental studies.

Keywords: Histology, quail, proventriculus, gizzard, pre-hatching

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12 Detection the Abundance of Chicken Skin in Hamburger in Tehran

Authors: Ghazanfari Masoumeh, Hajimohammadi Bahador, Eskandari Soheyl, Karimian Khosroshahi Nader


Consumption of ready to cook meat products such as hamburgers, sausages and etc is being increased in the worldwide specially in the big cities , so safety and quality required for food products is very important and vital for consumers with consideration of meat price and increasing demands for meat products, possibility of substitution of cheep and unauthorized textures such as undesirable enclosures animals (massacre, lung tissue, breast of spleen, the organs abdominal cavity, gizzard chicken, skin, etc. ) have increased in the recent years, in this study 30 industrial and 30 handmade hamburgers in fast food restaurants detected out of Iranian national standard for hamburger No. 2304 in using the unauthorized textures. The purpose of this study was to determine using of chicken skin in produced hamburgers from chicken meat in Tehran base on histology methods. The rates of skin used were, 2 % in industrial and 9 % in handmade formula samples. Statistically using the unauthorized textures had significant higher rate in handmade (P < 0.05) in compare with the industrial samples. The results showed the handmade hamburgers with higher adulteration rate and non-compliance with the hamburger national standard could be a potentially health hazard.

Keywords: Histology, adulteration, unauthorized textures, undesirable enclosures animals

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11 The Effect of Vitamin "E" on the Peripheral Neurotoxicity of Antimony in Adult Male Albino Rat

Authors: Pymaneh Bairami Rad


The present work was planned with the aim to study the histological changes that might occur in the sciatic nerve of adult male albino rat following antimony trioxide exposure and to throw more light on the protective role of vitamin "E" on the peripheral neurotoxicity induced by this environmental toxin Sixty adult male albino rats, weighing 183 - 235 grams, were utilized in this work. The animals were divided into 3 groups; each of 20 rats: animals of group I served as control, animals of group II received antimony trioxide daily for 12 successive weeks , animals of group III received antimony trioxide and vitamin "E" daily for the same duration. Antimony trioxide was given in a daily dose of 500 mg/ kg body weight which represents 1/40 of the known LD50 and vitamin "E" was administered in a daily dose of 300 mg/kg body weight. Both antimony trioxide and vitamin "E" were given to the animals by gastric intubation. This research revealed many histological changes in the sciatic nerve, following exposure to antimony trioxide, including Wallerian degeneration in most myelinated nerve fibers with pleomorphic destruction, fragmentation, loss of normal lamination and rupture of myelin sheaths. The axoplasms of these nerve fibers were irregular, degenerated and contained myelin fragments with loss of neurofibrils. Obvious increase in endoneurium was also observed. Concomitant administration of vitamin "E" with antimony trioxide resulted in marked improvement in the histological changes observed in the sciatic nerve.

Keywords: Anatomy, Histology, vitamin E, neurotoxicity, antimony

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10 Cellular Components of the Hemal Node of Egyptian Cattle

Authors: Amira E. Derbalah, Doaa M. Zaghloul


10 clinically healthy hemal nodes were collected from male bulls aged 2-3 years. Light microscopy revealed a capsule of connective tissue consisted mainly of collagen fiber surrounding hemal node, numerous erythrocytes were found in wide subcapsular sinus under the capsule. The parenchyma of the hemal node was divided into cortex and medulla. Diffused lymphocytes, and lymphoid follicles, having germinal centers were the main components of the cortex, while in the medulla there was wide medullary sinus, diffused lymphocytes and few lymphoid nodules. The area occupied with lymph nodules was larger than that occupied with non-nodular structure of lymphoid cords and blood sinusoids. Electron microscopy revealed the cellular components of hemal node including elements of circulating erythrocytes intermingled with lymphocytes, plasma cells, mast cells, reticular cells, macrophages, megakaryocytes and endothelial cells lining the blood sinuses. The lymphocytes were somewhat triangular in shape with cytoplasmic processes extending between adjacent erythrocytes. Nuclei were triangular to oval in shape, lightly stained with clear nuclear membrane indentation and clear nucleoli. The reticular cells were elongated in shape with cytoplasmic processes extending between adjacent lymphocytes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and few lysosomes were seen in their cytoplasm. Nucleus was elongated in shape with less condensed chromatin. Plasma cells were oval to irregular in shape with numerous dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing electron lucent material occupying the whole cytoplasm and few mitochondria were found. Nuclei were centrally located and oval in shape with heterochromatin emarginated and often clumped near the nuclear membrane. Occasionally megakaryocytes and mast cells were seen among lymphocytes. Megakaryocytes had multilobulated nucleus and free ribosomes often appearing as small aggregates in their cytoplasm, while mast cell had their characteristic electron dense granule in the cytoplasm, few electron lucent granules were found also, we conclude that, the main function of the hemal node of cattle is proliferation of lymphocytes. No role for plasma cell in erythrophagocytosis could be suggested.

Keywords: Histology, Electron Microscopy, Immune System, Cattle, hemal node

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9 Study of the Toxic Activity of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana on the Wistar Rat Rattus norvegicus

Authors: F. Haddadj, S. Hamdi, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, B. Doumandji-Mitiche, A. Milla, F. Marniche


The use of a biopesticide based on a microorganism scale requires particular care including safety against the useful auxiliary fauna and mammals among other human beings. Due to its persistence in soil and its apparent human and animal safety, Beauveria bassiana is a cryptogram used for controlling pests organizations, particularly in the locust where its effectiveness has been proven. This fungus is also called for greater respect for biotic communities and the environment. Indeed, biopesticides have several environmental benefits: biodegradability, their activity and selectivity decrease unintended non-target species effects, decreased resistance to some of them. It is in this sense that we contribute by presenting our work on the safety of B. bassiana against mammals. For this we conducted a toxicological study of this fungus strain on Wistar rats Rattus norvegicus, first its effect on weight gain. In a second time were performed histological target organ is the liver. After 20 days of treatment, the results of the toxicological studies have shown that B. bassiana caused no change in the physiological state of rats or weight gain, behavior and diet. On cuts in liver histology revealed no disturbance on the organ.

Keywords: Histology, entomopathogenic fungus, B. bassiana, Rattus norvegicus

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8 Hepatoprotective Effect of Oleuropein against Cisplatin-Induced Liver Damage in Rat

Authors: Salim Çeriğ, Fatime Geyikoglu, Murat Bakir, Suat Colak, Merve Sonmez, Kubra Koc


Cisplatin (CIS) is one of the most effective an anticancer drug and also toxic to cells by activating oxidative stress. Oleuropein (OLE) has key role against oxidative stress in mammalian cells, but the role of this antioxidant in the toxicity of CIS remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of OLE on CIS-induced liver damages in male rats. With this aim, male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of eight groups: Control group; the group treated with 7 mg/kg/day CIS; the groups treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day OLE (i.p.); and the groups treated with OLE for three days starting at 24 h following CIS injection. After 4 days of injections, serum was provided to assess the blood AST, ALT and LDH values. The liver tissues were removed for histological, biochemical (TAC, TOS and MDA) and genotoxic evaluations. In the CIS treated group, the whole liver tissue showed significant histological changes. Also, CIS significantly increased both the incidence of oxidative stress and the induction of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Moreover, the rats taking CIS have abnormal results on liver function tests. However, these parameters reached to the normal range after administration of OLE for 3 days. Finally, OLE demonstrated an acceptable high potential and was effective in attenuating CIS-induced liver injury. In this trial, the 200 mg/kg dose of OLE firstly appeared to induce the most optimal protective response.

Keywords: Histology, Liver, cisplatin, antioxidant response, oleuropein

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7 Safety Assessment of Tuberous Roots of Boerhaavia diffusa Root Extract: Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies

Authors: Surender Singh, Yogendra Kumar Gupta


Boerhaavia diffusa (BD) Linn. belonging to family Nyctaginaceae is a herbaceous plant and known as ‘punarnava’ in Hindi, used as herbal medicine for pain relief and various ailments. It is widely used as a green leafy vegetable in many Asian and African countries. The objective of present study was to investigate potential adverse effects, if any, of standardized root extract of Boerhaavia diffusa in rats following subchronic administration. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was found at a dose of 2000mg/kg which indicates that oral LD50 of Boerhaavia diffusa root extract is more than 2000mg/kg. The chronic administration of Boerhaavia diffusa for 28 days at a dose of 1000mg/kg body weight did not produce any significant changes in hematological (RBC, WBC, platelets, hemoglobin, bleeding time, clotting time) and biochemical (triglycerides, blood glucose, high density lipoprotein, serum creatinine, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) parameters of male and female rats as compared to normal control group. All the animals survived until the scheduled necropsy, and their physical and behavioral examinations did not reveal any treatment-related adverse effects. No pathological changes were observed in histological section of heart, kidney, liver, testis, ovaries and brain of Boerhaavia diffusa treated male and female rats as compared to normal control animals.These observations from oral acute toxicitystudy suggest that the extract is practically non-toxic. Thus, it can be inferred that the Boerhaavia diffusa root extract at levels up to 1000 mg/kg/day was found to be safe and does not cause adverse effects in rats. So, the no-observed effect level (NOAEL) of the extract was found to be 1000mg/kg/day.

Keywords: Toxicity, Histology, Boerhaavia diffusa, sub-acute

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6 Mechanisms of Atiulcerogenic Activity of Costus speciosus Rhizome Extract in Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

Authors: Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Somayeh Fani


Costus speciosus is an important Malaysian medicinal plant commonly used traditionally in the treatment of many aliments. The present investigation is designed to elucidate preventive effects of ethanolic extracts of C. speciosus rhizome against absolute ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. Five groups of rats were orally pre-treated with vehicle, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as normal control group (Group 1), ethanol as ulcer control group (Group 2), omeprazole 20 mg/kg (reference group) (Group 3), and 250 and 500 mg/kg of C. speciosus extract (experimental groups) (Group 4 and 5), respectively. An hour later, CMC was given orally to Group 1 rats and absolute ethanol was given orally to Group 2-5 rats to generate gastric mucosal injury. After an additional hour, the rats were sacrificed. Grossly, ulcer control group exhibited severe of gastric mucosal hemorrhagic injury and increased in ulcer area, whereas groups pre-treated with omeprazole or plant’s rhizomes exhibited the significant reduction of gastric mucosal injury. Significant increase in the pH and mucous of gastric content was observed in rats re-treated with C. speciosus rhizome. Histology, ulcer control rats, demonstrated remarkable disruption of gastric mucosa, increased in edema and inflammatory cells infiltration of submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with rhizomes extract. Periodic acid Schiff staining for glycoprotein, rats pre-fed with C. speciosus C. displayed remarkably intense uptake of magenta color by glandular gastric mucosa compared with ulcer control rats. Immunostaining of gastric epithelium, rats pre-treatment with rhizome extract provide evidence of up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of Bax proteins compared to ulcer control animals. Gastric tissue homogenate, C. speciosus significantly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), increased the level of non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) and decreased the level of lipid peroxidation after ethanol administration. Acute toxicity test did not show any signs of toxicity. The mechanisms implicated the gasrtoprotective property of C. speciosus depend upon the antisecretory activity, increased in gastric mucus glycoprotein, up-regulation of HSP70 protein and down-regulation of Bax proteins, reduction in the lipid peroxidation and increase in the level of NP-SH and antioxidant enzymes activity in gastic homogenate.

Keywords: Histology, antioxidant, omeprazole, gastric ulcer, Costus speciosus

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5 Effect of Diet Inulin Prebiotic on Growth, Reproductive Performance, Carcass Composition and Resistance to Environmental Stresses in Zebra Danio (Danio rerio)

Authors: Ehsan Ahmadifar


In this research, the effects of different levels (control group (T0), (T1)1, (T2)2 and (T3)3 gr Inulin per Kg diet) of prebiotic Inulin as nutritional supplement on Danio rerio were investigated for 4 month. Since the beginning of feeding larvae until adult (average weight: 67.1 g, length: 4.5 cm) were fed with experimental diets. The survival rate of fish had no significant effect on rate survival (P > 0.05). The highest food conversion ratio (FCR) was in control group and the lowest was observed in T3. Treatment of T3 significantly caused the best feed conversion ratio in Zebra fish (P < 0.05). By increasing the inulin diet during the experiment, specific growth rate increased. The highest and the lowest body weight gain and condition factor were observed in T3 and control, respectively (P < 0.05). Adding 3 gr inulin in Zebra fish diet can improve the performance of the growth indices and final biomass, also this prebiotic can be considered as a suitable supplement for Cyprinidae diet. In the first sampling stage for feeding fish, fat and muscle protein was significantly higher than the second sampling stage (P < 0.05). Given that the second stage fish were full sexual maturity, the amount of fat in muscle decreased (P < 0.05). Moisture and ash levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the second stage sampling than the first stage. Overall, different stage of living affected on muscle chemical composition muscle. Reproductive performance in treatment T2 and T3 were significantly higher than other treatments (P < 0.05). According to the results, the prebiotic inulin does not have a significant impact on the sex ratio in zebrafish (P > 0.05). Based on histology of the gonads, the use of dietary inulin accelerates the process of gonad development in zebrafish.

Keywords: Reproduction, Histology, inulin, zebrafish

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4 Endometriosis-Associated Ovarian Cancer: Clinical and Pathological Pattern

Authors: I. Ramalho, S. Campos, M. Dias


Introduction: Endometriosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer (OC), however, the risk and prognosis have not been well established. The association between these two pathologies could have an important impact on prevention and early diagnosis of OC. Objective: To analyze the prevalence of endometriosis associated ovarian cancer and related clinical, epidemiological and histopathological issues. Design: We conducted a retrospective case series analysis of patients diagnosed with endometriosis and ovarian cancer in the Gynecology Department of Coimbra University Hospital Center since 2006 to 2015. Methods: We collected data from women diagnosed with ovarian cancer, with anatomopathology records reporting findings of endometriosis in ovarian cancer patients. Patients were retrieved from the pathological records and appropriate medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0. Results: Histological evidence of endometriosis was found in 17 out of 261 patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer (OC) (6.51%). The most usual symptoms were pelvic pain, abdominal distension, asthenia, ascites, weight loss and nausea. Mean age at diagnosis was 61.2 ± 15.1, 41-86 years old, 33.3% were pre-menopausal patients and cancer stage distribution was predominantly stage I (31.3%) and stage III (56.3%). OC occurred unilaterally in 14 patients and 2 patients were diagnosed with a synchronous ovarian and endometrial cancer. Regarding histological type, 10 OC were classified as clear cell carcinoma (CCC), 4 endometrioid carcinomas (EC) and 3 mixed type (clear cell and endometrioid). Four ovarian carcinomas presumably arose from endometriomas: 3 CCC and 1 EC. Conclusions: In accordance with previous studies, clear cell was the most common pathological type in endometriotic patients, followed by endometrioid carcinomas, and two rare synchronous ovarian and endometrial carcinomas were registered. Although endometriosis association to OC is uncommon, endometriosis should be managed with special care in order to early diagnosis.

Keywords: Endometriosis, Histology, Ovarian Cancer, observational study

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3 Pufferfish Skin Collagens and Their Role in Inflation

Authors: Kirti, Samanta Sekhar Khora


Inflation serves different purposes in different organisms and adds beauty to their behavioral attributes. Pufferfishes are also known as blowfish, swellfish, and globefish due to their remarkable ability to puff themselves up like a balloon when threatened. This ability to inflate can be correlated with anatomical features that are unique to pufferfishes. Pufferfish skin provides a rigid framework to support the body contents and a flexible covering to allow whatever changes are necessary for remarkable inflation mechanism. Skin, the outer covering of animals is made up of collagen fibers arranged in more or less ordered arrays. The ventral skin of pufferfish stretches more than dorsal skin during inflation. So, this study is of much of the interest in comparing the structure and mechanical properties of these two skin regions. The collagen fibers were found to be arranged in different ordered arrays for ventral and dorsal skin and concentration of fibers were also found to be different for these two skin parts. Scanning electron microscopy studies of the ventral skin showed a unidirectional arrangement of the collagen fibers, which provide more stretching capacity. Dorsal skin, on the other hand, has an orthogonal arrangement of fibers. This provides more stiffness to the ventral skin at the time of inflation. In this study, the possible role of collagen fibers was determined which significantly contributed to the remarkable inflation mechanism of pufferfishes.

Keywords: Histology, Inflation, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, collagen, pufferfish, Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS)

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2 Evaluation of Diagnostic Values of Culture, Rapid Urease Test, and Histopathology in the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection and in vitro Effects of Various Antimicrobials against Helicobacter pylori

Authors: Huseyin Bilgin, Recep Kesli, Yasar Unlu, Gokhan Gungor


Aim: The aim of this study, was to investigate the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection by culture, histology, and RUT (Rapid Urease Test) in gastric antrum biopsy samples taken from patients presented with dyspeptic complaints and to determine resistance rates of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin and metronidazole against the H. pylori strains by E-test. Material and Methods: A total of 278 patients who admitted to Konya Education and Research Hospital Department of Gastroenterology with dyspeptic complaints, between January 2011-July 2013, were included in the study. Microbiological and histopathological examinations of biopsy specimens taken from antrum and corpus regions were performed. The presence of H. pylori in biopsy samples was investigated by culture (Portagerm pylori-PORT PYL, Pylori agar-PYL, GENbox microaer, bioMerieux, France), histology (Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin staining), and RUT(CLOtest, Cimberly-Clark, USA). Antimicrobial resistance of isolates against amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole was determined by E-test method (bioMerieux, France). As a gold standard in the diagnosis of H. pylori; it was accepted that the culture method alone was positive or both histology and RUT were positive together. Sensitivity and specificity for histology and RUT were calculated by taking the culture as a gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity for culture were also calculated by taking the co-positivity of both histology and RUT as a gold standard. Results: H. pylori was detected in 140 of 278 of patients with culture and 174 of 278 of patients with histology in the study. H. pylori positivity was also found in 191 patients with RUT. According to the gold standard criteria, a false negative result was found in 39 cases by culture method, 17 cases by histology, and 8 cases by RUT. Sensitivity and specificity of the culture, histology, and RUT methods of the patients were 76.5 % and 88.3 %, 87.8 % and 63 %, 94.2 % and 57.2 %, respectively. Antibiotic resistance was investigated by E-test in 140 H. pylori strains isolated from culture. The resistance rates of H. pylori strains to the amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole was detected as 9 (6.4 %), 22 (15.7 %), 17 (12.1 %), 57 (40.7 %), respectively. Conclusion: In our study, RUT was found to be the most sensitive, culture was the most specific test between culture, histology, and RUT methods. Although we detected the specificity of the culture method as high, its sensitivity was found to be quite low compared to other methods. The low sensitivity of H. pylori culture may be caused by the factors affect the chances of direct isolation such as spoild bacterium, difficult-to-breed microorganism, clinical sample retrieval, and transport conditions.

Keywords: Culture, Antimicrobial resistance, Histology, H. pylori, RUT

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1 Coherent Optical Tomography Imaging of Epidermal Hyperplasia in Vivo in a Mouse Model of Oxazolone Induced Atopic Dermatitis

Authors: Eric Lacoste


Laboratory animals are currently widely used as a model of human pathologies in dermatology such as atopic dermatitis (AD). These models provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of this complex and multifactorial disease, the discovery of potential new therapeutic targets and the testing of the efficacy of new therapeutics. However, confirmation of the correct development of AD is mainly based on histology from skin biopsies requiring invasive surgery or euthanasia of the animals, plus slicing and staining protocols. However, there are currently accessible imaging technologies such as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), which allows non-invasive visualization of the main histological structures of the skin (like stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) and assessment of the dynamics of the pathology or efficacy of new treatments. Briefly, female immunocompetent hairless mice (SKH1 strain) were sensitized and challenged topically on back and ears for about 4 weeks. Back skin and ears thickness were measured using calliper at 3 occasions per week in complement to a macroscopic evaluation of atopic dermatitis lesions on back: erythema, scaling and excoriations scoring. In addition, OCT was performed on the back and ears of animals. OCT allows a virtual in-depth section (tomography) of the imaged organ to be made using a laser, a camera and image processing software allowing fast, non-contact and non-denaturing acquisitions of the explored tissues. To perform the imaging sessions, the animals were anesthetized with isoflurane, placed on a support under the OCT for a total examination time of 5 to 10 minutes. The results show a good correlation of the OCT technique with classical HES histology for skin lesions structures such as hyperkeratosis, epidermal hyperplasia, and dermis thickness. This OCT imaging technique can, therefore, be used in live animals at different times for longitudinal evaluation by repeated measurements of lesions in the same animals, in addition to the classical histological evaluation. Furthermore, this original imaging technique speeds up research protocols, reduces the number of animals and refines the use of the laboratory animal.

Keywords: Imaging, Atopic dermatitis, Histology, mouse model, oxzolone model

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