Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

High Temperature Related Abstracts

15 Evaluating Residual Mechanical and Physical Properties of Concrete at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: S. Hachemi, A. Ounis, S. Chabi


This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the effects of elevated temperature on compressive and flexural strength of Normal Strength Concrete (NSC), High Strength Concrete (HSC) and High Performance Concrete (HPC). In addition, the specimen mass and volume were measured before and after heating in order to determine the loss of mass and volume during the test. In terms of non-destructive measurement, ultrasonic pulse velocity test was proposed as a promising initial inspection method for fire damaged concrete structure. 100 Cube specimens for three grades of concrete were prepared and heated at a rate of 3°C/min up to different temperatures (150, 250, 400, 600, and 900°C). The results show a loss of compressive and flexural strength for all the concretes heated to temperature exceeding 400°C. The results also revealed that mass and density of the specimen significantly reduced with an increase in temperature.

Keywords: High Temperature, compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, mass loss

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14 Physical and Thermo-Physical Properties of High Strength Concrete Containing Raw Rice Husk after High Temperature Effect

Authors: B. Akturk, N. Yuzer, N. Kabay


High temperature is one of the most detrimental effects that cause important changes in concrete’s mechanical, physical, and thermo-physical properties. As a result of these changes, especially high strength concrete (HSC), may exhibit damages such as cracks and spallings. To overcome this problem, incorporating polymer fibers such as polypropylene (PP) in concrete is a very well-known method. In this study, using RRH as a sustainable material instead of PP fiber in HSC to prevent spallings and improve physical and thermo-physical properties were investigated. Therefore, seven HSC mixtures with 0.25 water to binder ratio were prepared, incorporating silica fume and blast furnace slag. PP and RRH were used at 0.2-0.5% and 0.5-3% by weight of cement, respectively. All specimens were subjected to high temperatures (20 (control), 300, 600 and 900˚C) with a heating rate of 2.5˚C/min and after cooling, residual physical and thermo-physical properties were determined.

Keywords: High Temperature, polypropylene fiber, high strength concrete, raw rice husk, thermo-physical properties

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13 The Evaluation for Interfacial Adhesion between SOFC and Metal Adhesive in the High Temperature Environment

Authors: Sang Koo Jeon, Seung Hoon Nahm, Oh Heon Kwon


The unit cell of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) must be stacked as several layers type to obtain the high power. The most of researcher have concerned about the performance of stacked SOFC rather than the structural stability of stacked SOFC and especially interested how to design for reducing the electrical loss and improving the high efficiency. Consequently, the stacked SOFC able to produce the electrical high power and related parts like as manifold, gas seal, bipolar plate were developed to optimize the stack design. However, the unit cell of SOFC was just layered on the interconnector without the adhesion and the hydrogen and oxygen were injected to the interfacial layer in the high temperature. On the operating condition, the interfacial layer can be the one of the weak point in the stacked SOFC. Therefore the evaluation of the structural safety for the failure is essentially needed. In this study, interfacial adhesion between SOFC and metal adhesive was estimated in the high temperature environment. The metal adhesive was used to strongly connect the unit cell of SOFC with interconnector and provide the electrical conductivity between them. The four point bending test was performed to measure the interfacial adhesion. The unit cell of SOFC and SiO2 wafer were diced and then attached by metal adhesive. The SiO2 wafer had the center notch to initiate a crack from the tip of the notch. The modified stereomicroscope combined with the CCD camera and system for measuring the length was used to observe the fracture behavior. Additionally, the interfacial adhesion was evaluated in the high temperature condition because the metal adhesive was affected by high temperature. Also the specimen was exposed in the furnace during several hours and then the interfacial adhesion was evaluated. Finally, the interfacial adhesion energy was quantitatively determined and compared in the each condition.

Keywords: Adhesion, High Temperature, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), metal adhesive

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12 After-Cooling Analysis of RC Structural Members Exposed to High Temperature by Using Numerical Approach

Authors: Ju-young Hwang, Hyo-Gyoung Kwak


This paper introduces a numerical analysis method for reinforced-concrete (RC) structures exposed to fire and compares the result with experimental results. The proposed analysis method for RC structure under the high temperature consists of two procedures. First step is to decide the temperature distribution across the section through the heat transfer analysis by using the time-temperature curve. After determination of the temperature distribution, the nonlinear analysis is followed. By considering material and geometrical nonlinearity with the temperature distribution, nonlinear analysis predicts the behavior of RC structure under the fire by the exposed time. The proposed method is validated by the comparison with the experimental results. Finally, prediction model to describe the status of after-cooling concrete can also be introduced based on the results of additional experiment. The product of this study is expected to be embedded for smart structure monitoring system against fire in u-City.

Keywords: Nonlinear Analysis, High Temperature, after-cooling analysis

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11 Behaviour of Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregate Concrete Exposed to High Temperatures

Authors: Lenka Bodnarova, Rudolf Hela, Michala Hubertová, Iveta Nováková


This paper is concerning the issues of behaviour of lightweight expanded clay aggregates concrete exposed to high temperature. Lightweight aggregates from expanded clay are produced by firing of row material up to temperature 1050°C. Lightweight aggregates have suitable properties in terms of volume stability, when exposed to temperatures up to 1050°C, which could indicate their suitability for construction applications with higher risk of fire. The test samples were exposed to heat by using the standard temperature-time curve ISO 834. Negative changes in resulting mechanical properties, such as compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength were evaluated. Also visual evaluation of the specimen was performed. On specimen exposed to excessive heat, an explosive spalling could be observed, due to evaporation of considerable amount of unbounded water from the inner structure of the concrete.

Keywords: High Temperature, lightweight concrete, expanded clay aggregate, explosive spalling, temperature-time curve ISO 834

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10 Characterization of Sintered Fe-Cr-Mn Powder Mixtures Containing Intermetallics

Authors: A. Yönetken, A. Erol, M. Cakmakkaya


Intermetallic materials are among advanced technology materials that have outstanding mechanical and physical properties for high temperature applications. Especially creep resistance, low density and high hardness properties stand out in such intermetallics. The microstructure, mechanical properties of %88Ni-%10Cr and %2Mn powders were investigated using specimens produced by tube furnace sintering at 900-1300°C temperature. A composite consisting of ternary additions, a metallic phase, Fe ,Cr and Mn have been prepared under Ar shroud and then tube furnace sintered. XRD, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), were investigated to characterize the properties of the specimens. Experimental results carried out for composition %88Ni-%10Cr and %2Mn at 1300°C suggest that the best properties as 138,80HV and 6,269/cm3 density were obtained at 1300°C.

Keywords: sintering, Composite, High Temperature, intermetallic

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9 Effect of High Temperature on Residual Mechanical and Physical Properties of Brick Aggregate Concrete

Authors: Samia Hachemi, Abdelhafid Ounis, W. Heriheri


This paper presents an experimental investigation of high temperatures applied to normal and high performance concrete made with natural coarse aggregates. The experimental results of physical and mechanical properties were compared with those obtained with recycled brick aggregates produced by replacing 30% of natural coarse aggregates by recycled brick aggregates. The following parameters: compressive strength, concrete mass loss, apparent density and water porosity were examined in this experiment. The results show that concrete could be produced by using recycled brick aggregates and reveals that at high temperatures recycled aggregate concrete preformed similar or even better than natural aggregate concrete.

Keywords: High Temperature, compressive strength, mass loss, recycled brick aggregate

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8 Energy Dynamics of Solar Thermionic Power Conversion with Emitter of Graphene

Authors: Moses Emetere, Olukunle C. Olawole, Dilip K. De, Omoje Maxwell


Graphene can stand very high temperature up to 4500 K in vacuum and has potential for application in thermionic energy converter. In this paper, we discuss the application of energy dynamics principles and the modified Richardson-Dushman Equation, to estimate the efficiency of solar power conversion to electrical power by a solar thermionic energy converter (STEC) containing emitter made of graphene. We present detailed simulation of power output for different solar insolation, diameter of parabolic concentrator, area of the graphene emitter (same as that of the collector), temperature of the collector, physical dimensions of the emitter-collector etc. After discussing possible methods of reduction or elimination of space charge problem using magnetic field and gate, we finally discuss relative advantages of using emitters made of graphene, carbon nanotube and metals respectively in a STEC.

Keywords: Graphene, High Temperature, modified Richardson-Dushman equation, solar thermionic energy converter

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7 Inorganic Microporous Membranes Fabricated by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Liquid Deposition

Authors: Damian A. Mooney, Michael T. P. Mc Cann, J. M. Don MacElroy, Olli Antson, Denis P. Dowling


Atmospheric pressure plasma liquid deposition (APPLD) is a novel technology used for the deposition of thin films via the injection of a reactive liquid precursor into a high-energy discharge plasma at ambient pressure. In this work, APPLD, utilising a TEOS precursor, was employed to produce asymmetric membranes consisting of a thin (100 nm) layer of deposited silica on a microporous silica support in order to assess their suitability for high temperature gas separation applications. He and N₂ gas permeability measurements were made for each of the fabricated membranes and a maximum ideal He/N₂ selectivity of 66 was observed at room temperature. He, N₂ and CO2 gas permeances were also measured at the elevated temperature of 673K and ideal He/N₂ and CO₂/N₂ selectivities of 300 and 7.4, respectively, were observed. The results suggest that this plasma-based deposition technique can be a viable method for the manufacture of membranes for the efficient separation of high temperature, post-combustion gases, including that of CO₂/N₂ where the constituent gases differ in size by fractions of an Ångstrom.

Keywords: Thin Films, High Temperature, CO2 separation, asymmetric membrane, plasma deposition

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6 Corrosion Investigation of Superalloys, Molybdenum and TZM in Chloride Molten Salts

Authors: Craig Jantzen, Tim Abram, Dirk Engelberg, Hugues Lambert, Daniel Cooper


Molten salts are of high interest for use as coolants in nuclear reactors due to favourable high temperature and thermodynamic properties. The corrosive behaviour of molten salts however pose a materials integrity challenge. Three Ni / Ni-Fe based and two Mo based alloys have been exposed to molten eutectics (LiCl-KCl at 59.5:40.5 mol% and KCl-MgCl2 at 68:32 mol%) at 600°C and 800°C for durations up to 500hrs. Corrosion was observed to preferentially attack alloy constituents in order of their reactivity, with chromium the most vulnerable and depleted element. Alloy weight-loss per unit area was calculated to give linear corrosion rates, discounting any initial rapid corrosion of impurities. Further analysis was carried out using ICP-MS, SEM and EDX techniques to give a more detailed view of the corrosion mechanisms.

Keywords: Corrosion, Molybdenum, Salt, Superalloys, High Temperature, Nickel, molten salt, KCl, licl, MgCl

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5 Alterations of Molecular Characteristics of Polyethylene under the Influence of External Effects

Authors: Vigen Barkhudaryan


The influence of external effects (γ-, UV–radiations, high temperature) in presence of air oxygen on structural transformations of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) have been investigated dependent on the polymers’ thickness, the intensity and the dose of external actions. The methods of viscosimetry, light scattering, turbidimetry and gelation measuring were used for this purpose. The comparison of influence of external effects on LDPE shows, that the destruction and cross-linking processes of macromolecules proceed simultaneously with all kinds of external effects. A remarkable growth of average molecular mass of LDPE along with the irradiation doses and heat treatment exposure growth was established. It was linear for the mass average molecular mass and at the initial doses is mainly the result of the increase of the macromolecular branching. As a result, the macromolecular hydrodynamic volumes have been changed, and therefore the dependence of viscosity average molecular mass on the doses was going through the minimum at initial doses. A significant change of molecular mass, sizes and shape of macromolecules of LDPE occurs under the influence of external effects. The influence is limited only by diffusion of oxygen during -irradiation and heat treatment. At UV–irradiation the influence is limited both by diffusion of oxygen and penetration of radiation. Consequently, the molecular transformations are deeper and evident in case of -irradiation, as soon as the polymer is transformed in a whole volume. It was also established, that the mechanism of molecular transformations in polymers from the surface layer distinctly differs from those of the sample deeper layer. A comparison of the results of these investigations allows us to conclude, that the mechanisms of influence of investigated external effects on polyethylene are similar.

Keywords: High Temperature, LDPE, cross-linking, destruction, γ-radiations, UV-radiations

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4 Fire Resistance Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Member Strengthened by Fiber Reinforced Polymer

Authors: Soo-yeon Seo, Jong-Wook Lim, Se-Ki Song


Currently, FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) materials have been widely used for reinforcement of building structural members. However, since the FRP and the epoxy material for attaching it have very low resistance to heat, there is a problem in application where high temperature is an issue. In this paper, the resistance performance of FRP member made of carbon fiber at high temperature was investigated through experiment under temperature change. As a result, epoxy encapsulating FRP is damaged at not high temperatures, and the fibers are degraded. Therefore, when reinforcing a structure using FRP, a separate refractory heat treatment is necessary. The use of a 30 mm thick calcium silicate board as a fireproofing method can protect FRP up to 600ᵒC outside temperature.

Keywords: High Temperature, FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer), experiment under temperature change, calcium silicate board

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3 Improvement Performances of the Supersonic Nozzles at High Temperature Type Minimum Length Nozzle

Authors: W. Hamaidia, T. Zebbiche


This paper presents the design of axisymmetric supersonic nozzles, in order to accelerate a supersonic flow to the desired Mach number and that having a small weight, in the same time gives a high thrust. The concerned nozzle gives a parallel and uniform flow at the exit section. The nozzle is divided into subsonic and supersonic regions. The supersonic portion is independent to the upstream conditions of the sonic line. The subsonic portion is used to give a sonic flow at the throat. In this case, nozzle gives a uniform and parallel flow at the exit section. It’s named by minimum length Nozzle. The study is done at high temperature, lower than the dissociation threshold of the molecules, in order to improve the aerodynamic performances. Our aim consists of improving the performances both by the increase of exit Mach number and the thrust coefficient and by reduction of the nozzle's mass. The variation of the specific heats with the temperature is considered. The design is made by the Method of Characteristics. The finite differences method with predictor-corrector algorithm is used to make the numerical resolution of the obtained nonlinear algebraic equations. The application is for air. All the obtained results depend on three parameters which are exit Mach number, the stagnation temperature, the chosen mesh in characteristics. A numerical simulation of nozzle through Computational Fluid Dynamics-FASTRAN was done to determine and to confirm the necessary design parameters.

Keywords: Air, High Temperature, finite difference method, method of characteristics, error, flux supersonic flow, axisymmetric minimum length nozzle, calorically imperfect gas, trust coefficient, mass of the nozzle, specific heat at constant pressure

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2 Normal Spectral Emissivity of Roughened Aluminum Alloy AL 6061 Surfaces at High Temperature

Authors: Krishnan Balasubramaniam, C. V. Krishnamurthy, Sumeet Kumar


Normal spectral emissivity of Al 6061 alloys with different surface finishes was experimentally measured at 833°K. Four different samples were prepared by polishing the surfaces of the alloy by 80, 220, 600 grit sizes of SiC abrasive papers and diamond paste. The samples were heated in air for 6 h at 833°K, and the emissivity was measured during the process from pyrometers operating at wavelengths of 3.9, 5.14 and 7.8 μm. The results indicated that the emissivity was increasing with heating time and the rate of increase was rapid during the initial stage of heating in comparison with the later stage. This appears to be because of the parabolic rate law followed by the process of oxidation. Further, it is found that the increase in emissivity with heating time was higher for rough surfaces than that for polished surfaces. Both the results were analyzed at all the three wavelengths, and qualitatively similar results were obtained for all of them. In this way emissivity of the alloy can be increased by roughening the surfaces and heating it at high temperature until the surfaces are oxidized.

Keywords: High Temperature, Aluminum Alloy, surface roughness, normal spectral emissivity

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1 Investigation on the Fire Resistance of Ultra-High Performance Concrete with Natural Fibers

Authors: Dong Zhang, Kang Hai Tan, Aravind Dasari


Increasing concern on environmental sustainability and waste management has driven the construction and building sector towards renewable materials. In this work, we have explored the usage of natural fibers as an alternative to synthetic fibers like polypropylene (PP) in ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). PP fibers are incorporated into concrete to resist explosive thermal spalling of UHPC during a fire exposure scenario. Experimental studies on the effect of natural fiber on the mechanical properties and spalling resistance of UHCP were conducted. The residual mechanical properties of UHPC with natural fibers were tested after heating to different temperatures. Spalling behavior of UHPC with natural fibers is also assessed by heating the samples according to ISO 834 fire curve. A range of analytical, physical and microscopic characterization techniques was also used on the concrete samples before and after being subjected to elevated temperature to investigate the phase and microstructural change of the sample. The findings show that natural fibers are able to improve fire resistance of UHPC. Adding natural fibers can prevent UHPC from spalling at high temperature. This study provides an alternative, which is at low cost and environmentally friendly, to prevent spalling of UHPC.

Keywords: Natural Fiber, High Temperature, spalling, ultra-high performance concrete

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