Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

High-Temperature Oxidation Related Abstracts

3 High Temperature Oxidation Resistance of NiCrAl Bond Coat Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering as Thermal Barrier Coatings

Authors: Folorunso Omoniyi, Peter Olubambi, Rotimi Sadiku


Thermal barrier coating (TBC) system is used in both aero engines and other gas turbines to offer oxidation protection to superalloy substrate component. In the present work, it shows the ability of a new fabrication technique to develop rapidly new coating composition and microstructure. The compact powders were prepared by Powder Metallurgy method involving powder mixing and the bond coat was synthesized through the application of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) at 10500C to produce a fully dense (97%) NiCrAl bulk samples. The influence of sintering temperature on the hardness of NiCrAl, done by Micro Vickers hardness tester, was investigated. And Oxidation test was carried out at 1100oC for 20h, 40h, and 100h. The resulting coat was characterized with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Micro XRD analysis after the oxidation test revealed the formation of protective oxides and non-protective oxides.

Keywords: powder metallurgy, High-Temperature Oxidation, spark plasma sintering, thermal barrier coating

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2 Formation of Protective Aluminum-Oxide Layer on the Surface of Fe-Cr-Al Sintered-Metal-Fibers via Multi-Stage Thermal Oxidation

Authors: Loai Ben Naji, Osama M. Ibrahim, Khaled J. Al-Fadhalah


The objective of this paper is to investigate the formation and adhesion of a protective aluminum-oxide (Al2O3, alumina) layer on the surface of Iron-Chromium-Aluminum Alloy (Fe-Cr-Al) sintered-metal-fibers. The oxide-scale layer was developed via multi-stage thermal oxidation at 930 oC for 1 hour, followed by 1 hour at 960 oC, and finally at 990 oC for 2 hours. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images show that the multi-stage thermal oxidation resulted in the formation of predominantly Al2O3 platelets-like and whiskers. SEM images also reveal non-uniform oxide-scale growth on the surface of the fibers. Furthermore, peeling/spalling of the alumina protective layer occurred after minimum handling, which indicates weak adhesion forces between the protective layer and the base metal alloy.  Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the heat-treated Fe-Cr-Al sintered-metal-fibers confirmed the high aluminum content on the surface of the protective layer, and the low aluminum content on the exposed base metal alloy surface. In conclusion, the failure of the oxide-scale protective layer exposes the base metal alloy to further oxidation, and the fragile non-uniform oxide-scale is not suitable as a support for catalysts.

Keywords: High-Temperature Oxidation, iron-chromium-aluminum alloy, alumina protective layer, sintered-metal-fibers

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1 The Role of Nickel on the High-Temperature Corrosion of Modell Alloys (Stainless Steels) before and after Breakaway Corrosion at 600°C: A Microstructural Investigation

Authors: Imran Hanif, Amanda Persdotter, Sedigheh Bigdeli, Jesper Liske, Torbjorn Jonsson


Renewable fuels such as biomass/waste for power production is an attractive alternative to fossil fuels in order to achieve a CO₂ -neutral power generation. However, the combustion results in the release of corrosive species. This puts high demands on the corrosion resistance of the alloys used in the boiler. Stainless steels containing nickel and/or nickel containing coatings are regarded as suitable corrosion resistance material especially in the superheater regions. However, the corrosive environment in the boiler caused by the presence of water vapour and reactive alkali very rapidly breaks down the primary protection, i.e., the Cr-rich oxide scale formed on stainless steels. The lifetime of the components, therefore, relies on the properties of the oxide scale formed after breakaway, i.e., the secondary protection. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of varying nickel content (0–82%) on the high-temperature corrosion of model alloys with 18% Cr (Fe in balance) in the laboratory mimicking industrial conditions at 600°C. The influence of nickel is investigated on both the primary protection and especially the secondary protection, i.e., the scale formed after breakaway, during the oxidation/corrosion process in the dry O₂ (primary protection) and more aggressive environment such as H₂O, K₂CO₃ and KCl (secondary protection). All investigated alloys experience a very rapid loss of the primary protection, i.e., the Cr-rich (Cr, Fe)₂O₃, and the formation of secondary protection in the aggressive environments. The microstructural investigation showed that secondary protection of all alloys has a very similar microstructure in all more aggressive environments consisting of an outward growing iron oxide and inward growing spinel-oxide (Fe, Cr, Ni)₃O₄. The oxidation kinetics revealed that it is possible to influence the protectiveness of the scale formed after breakaway (secondary protection) through the amount of nickel in the alloy. The difference in oxidation kinetics of the secondary protection is linked to the microstructure and chemical composition of the complex spinel-oxide. The detailed microstructural investigations were carried out using the extensive analytical techniques such as electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), energy dispersive X-rays spectroscopy (EDS) via the scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques and results are compared with the thermodynamic calculations using the Thermo-Calc software.

Keywords: High-Temperature Oxidation, SEM, TEM, EBSD, breakaway corrosion

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