Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

high strength concrete Related Abstracts

14 Real-Time Compressive Strength Monitoring for NPP Concrete Construction Using an Embedded Piezoelectric Self-Sensing Technique

Authors: Junkyeong Kim, Seunghee Park, Ju-Won Kim, Myung-Sug Cho

Abstract:

Recently, demands for the construction of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) using high strength concrete (HSC) has been increased. However, HSC might be susceptible to brittle fracture if the curing process is inadequate. To prevent unexpected collapse during and after the construction of HSC structures, it is essential to confirm the strength development of HSC during the curing process. However, several traditional strength-measuring methods are not effective and practical. In this study, a novel method to estimate the strength development of HSC based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) measurements using an embedded piezoelectric sensor is proposed. The EMI of NPP concrete specimen was tracked to monitor the strength development. In addition, cross-correlation coefficient was applied in sequence to examine the trend of the impedance variations more quantitatively. The results confirmed that the proposed technique can be applied successfully monitoring of the strength development during the curing process of HSC structures.

Keywords: Nuclear Power Plant, concrete curing, embedded piezoelectric sensor, high strength concrete, self-sensing impedance

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13 Physical and Thermo-Physical Properties of High Strength Concrete Containing Raw Rice Husk after High Temperature Effect

Authors: B. Akturk, N. Yuzer, N. Kabay

Abstract:

High temperature is one of the most detrimental effects that cause important changes in concrete’s mechanical, physical, and thermo-physical properties. As a result of these changes, especially high strength concrete (HSC), may exhibit damages such as cracks and spallings. To overcome this problem, incorporating polymer fibers such as polypropylene (PP) in concrete is a very well-known method. In this study, using RRH as a sustainable material instead of PP fiber in HSC to prevent spallings and improve physical and thermo-physical properties were investigated. Therefore, seven HSC mixtures with 0.25 water to binder ratio were prepared, incorporating silica fume and blast furnace slag. PP and RRH were used at 0.2-0.5% and 0.5-3% by weight of cement, respectively. All specimens were subjected to high temperatures (20 (control), 300, 600 and 900˚C) with a heating rate of 2.5˚C/min and after cooling, residual physical and thermo-physical properties were determined.

Keywords: High Temperature, polypropylene fiber, high strength concrete, raw rice husk, thermo-physical properties

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12 High Performance Concrete Using “BAUT” (Metal Aggregates) the Gateway to New Concrete Technology for Mega Structures

Authors: Arjun, Gautam, Sanjeev Naval

Abstract:

Concrete technology has been changing rapidly and constantly since its discovery. Concrete is the most widely used man-made construction material, versatility of making concrete is the 2nd largest consumed material on earth. In this paper an effort has been made to use metal aggregates in concrete has been discussed, the metal aggregates has been named as “BAUT” which had outstandingly qualities to resist shear, tension and compression forces. In this paper, COARSE BAUT AGGREGATES (C.B.A.) 10mm & 20mm and FINE BAUT AGGREGATES (F.B.A.) 3mm were divided and used for making high performance concrete (H.P.C). This “BAUT” had cutting edge technology through draft and design by the use of Auto CAD, ANSYS software can be used effectively In this research paper we study high performance concrete (H.P.C) with “BAUT” and consider the grade of M65 and finally we achieved the result of 90-95 Mpa (high compressive strength) for mega structures and irregular structures where center of gravity (CG) is not balanced. High Performance BAUT Concrete is the extraordinary qualities like long-term performance, no sorptivity by BAUT AGGREGATES, better rheological, mechanical and durability proportion that conventional concrete. This high strength BAUT concrete using “BAUT” is applied in the construction of mega structure like skyscrapers, dam, marine/offshore structures, nuclear power plants, bridges, blats and impact resistance structures. High Performance BAUT Concrete which is a controlled concrete possesses invariable high strength, reasonable workability and negligibly permeability as compare to conventional concrete by the mix of Super Plasticizers (SMF), silica fume and fly ash.

Keywords: High Performance Concrete, high strength concrete, BAUT, Fine BAUT Aggregate, Coarse BAUT Aggregate, metal aggregates, cutting edge technology

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11 Investigation of Rehabilitation Effects on Fire Damaged High Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Ji Yeon Kang, Hee Sun Kim, Yeong Soo Shin, Eun Mi Ryu, Ah Young An

Abstract:

As the number of fire incidents has been increased, fire incidents significantly damage economy and human lives. Especially when high strength reinforced concrete is exposed to high temperature due to a fire, deterioration occurs such as loss in strength and elastic modulus, cracking, and spalling of the concrete. Therefore, it is important to understand risk of structural safety in building structures by studying structural behaviors and rehabilitation of fire damaged high strength concrete structures. This paper aims at investigating rehabilitation effect on fire damaged high strength concrete beams using experimental and analytical methods. In the experiments, flexural specimens with high strength concrete are exposed to high temperatures according to ISO 834 standard time temperature curve. After heated, the fire damaged reinforced concrete (RC) beams having different cover thicknesses and fire exposure time periods are rehabilitated by removing damaged part of cover thickness and filling polymeric mortar into the removed part. From four-point loading test, results show that maximum loads of the rehabilitated RC beams are 1.8~20.9% higher than those of the non-fire damaged RC beam. On the other hand, ductility ratios of the rehabilitated RC beams are decreased than that of the non-fire damaged RC beam. In addition, structural analyses are performed using ABAQUS 6.10-3 with same conditions as experiments to provide accurate predictions on structural and mechanical behaviors of rehabilitated RC beams. For the rehabilitated RC beam models, integrated temperature–structural analyses are performed in advance to obtain geometries of the fire damaged RC beams. After spalled and damaged parts are removed, rehabilitated part is added to the damaged model with material properties of polymeric mortar. Three dimensional continuum brick elements are used for both temperature and structural analyses. The same loading and boundary conditions as experiments are implemented to the rehabilitated beam models and nonlinear geometrical analyses are performed. Structural analytical results show good rehabilitation effects, when the result predicted from the rehabilitated models are compared to structural behaviors of the non-damaged RC beams. In this study, fire damaged high strength concrete beams are rehabilitated using polymeric mortar. From four point loading tests, it is found that such rehabilitation is able to make the structural performance of fire damaged beams similar to non-damaged RC beams. The predictions from the finite element models show good agreements with the experimental results and the modeling approaches can be used to investigate applicability of various rehabilitation methods for further study.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Fire, high strength concrete, reinforced concrete beam

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10 Behaviour of Hybrid Steel Fibre Reinforced High Strength Concrete

Authors: Muhammad N. S. Hadi, Emdad K. Z. Balanji, M. Neaz Sheikh

Abstract:

This paper presents results of an experimental investigation on the behaviour of Hybrid Steel Fibre Reinforced High Strength Concrete (HSFR-HSC) cylinder specimens (150 mm x 300 mm) under uniaxial compression. Three different combinations of HSFR-HSC specimens and reference specimens without steel fibres were prepared. The first combination of HSFR-HSC included 1.5% Micro Steel (MS) fibre and 1% Deformed Steel (DS) fibre. The second combination included 1.5% MS fibre and 1.5% Hooked-end Steel (HS) fibre. The third combination included 1% DS fibre and 1.5% HS fibre. The experimental results showed that the addition of hybrid steel fibres improved the ductility of high strength concrete. The combination of MS fibre and HS fibre in high strength concrete mixes showed best stress-strain behaviour compared to the other combinations and the reference specimens.

Keywords: high strength concrete, micro steel fibre (MS), deformed steel fibre (DS), hooked-end steel fibre (HS), hybrid steel fibre

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9 Development of Tensile Stress-Strain Relationship for High-Strength Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: W. A. Elsaigh, H. A. Alguhi

Abstract:

This paper provides a tensile stress-strain (σ-ε) relationship for High-Strength Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HSFRC). Load-deflection (P-δ) behavior of HSFRC beams tested under four-point flexural load were used with inverse analysis to calculate the tensile σ-ε relationship for various tested concrete grades (70 and 90MPa) containing 60 kg/m3 (0.76 %) of hook-end steel fibers. A first estimate of the tensile (σ-ε) relationship is obtained using RILEM TC 162-TDF and other methods available in literature, frequently used for determining tensile σ-ε relationship of Normal-Strength Concrete (NSC) Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis (NLFEA) package ABAQUS® is used to model the beam’s P-δ behavior. The results have shown that an element-size dependent tensile σ-ε relationship for HSFRC can be successfully generated and adopted for further analyzes involving HSFRC structures.

Keywords: Steel Fibers, high strength concrete, non-linear finite element analysis, flexural response, tensile stress-strain

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8 Influence of Silica Fume Addition on Concrete

Authors: Rahul Roy, Gaurav Datta, Sourav Ghosh

Abstract:

The incorporation of silica fume into the normal concrete is a routine one in the present days to produce the tailor made high strength and high performance concrete. The design parameters are increasing with the incorporation of silica fume in conventional concrete and the mix proportioning is becoming complex. The main objective of this paper has been made to investigate the different mechanical properties like compressive strength, permeability, porosity, density, modulus of elasticity, compacting factor, slump of concrete incorporating silica fume. In this present paper 5 (five) mix of concrete incorporating silica fume is cast to perform experiments. These experiments were carried out by replacing cement with different percentages of silica fume at a single constant water-cementitious materials ratio keeping other mix design variables constant. The silica fume was replaced by 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% for water-cementitious materials (w/cm) ratio for 0.40. For all mixes compressive strengths were determined at 24 hours, 7 and 28 days for 100 mm and 150 mm cubes. Other properties like permeability, porosity, density, modulus of elasticity, compacting factor, and slump were also determined for five mixes of concrete.

Keywords: Strength, High Performance Concrete, silica fume, high strength concrete

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7 Diagonal Crack Width of RC Members with High Strength Materials

Authors: H. S. Lim, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Yoon

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis of the diagonal crack widths of RC members with various types of materials by simulating a compatibility-aided truss model. The analytical results indicated that the diagonal crack width was influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. The yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete decreased the diagonal shear crack width of RC members for the same shear force because of the change of shear failure modes. However, regarding the maximum shear crack width at shear failure, the shear crack width of the beam with high strength materials was greater than that of the beam with normal strength materials.

Keywords: high strength concrete, shear behavior, diagonal crack width, high strength stirrups, RC members

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6 Effect of Waste Foundry Slag and Alccofine on Durability Properties of High Strength Concrete

Authors: Sanjay Sharma, Devinder Sharma, Ajay Goyal, Ashish Kapoor

Abstract:

The present research paper discussed the durability properties of high strength concrete (HSC) using Foundry Slag(FD) as partial substitute for fine aggregates (FA) and Alccofine (AF) in addition to portland pozzolana (PPC) cement. Specimens of Concrete M100 grade with water/binder ratio 0.239, with Foundry Slag (FD) varying from 0 to 50% and with optimum quantity of AF(15%) were casted and tested for durability properties such as Water absorption, water permeability, resistance to sulphate attack, alkali attack and nitrate attack of HSC at the age of 7, 14, 28, 56 and 90 days. Substitution of fine aggregates (FA) with up to 45% of foundry slag(FD) content and cement with 15% substitution and addition of alccofine showed an excellent resistance against durability properties at all ages but showed a decrease in these properties with 50% of FD contents. Loss of weight in concrete samples due to sulphate attack, alkali attack and nitrate attack of HSC at the age of 365 days was compared with loss in compressive strength. Correlation between loss in weight and loss in compressive strength in all the tests was found to be excellent.

Keywords: high strength concrete, water permeability, water absorption, alccofine, alkali attack, foundry slag, nitrate attack

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5 Evaluation of Applicability of High Strength Stirrup for Prestressed Concrete Members

Authors: J.-Y. Lee, H.-S. Lim, S.-E. Kim

Abstract:

Recently, the use of high-strength materials is increasing as the construction of large structures and high-rise structures increases. This paper presents an analysis of the shear behavior of prestressed concrete members with various types of materials by simulating a finite element (FE) analysis. The analytical results indicated that the shear strength and shear failure mode were strongly influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. Though the yield strength of shear reinforcement increased the shear strength of prestressed concrete members, there was a limit to the increase in strength because of the change of shear failure modes. According to the results of FE analysis on various parameters, the maximum yield strength of the steel stirrup that can be applied to prestressed concrete members was about 860 MPa.

Keywords: high strength concrete, shear behavior, prestressed concrete members, high strength reinforcing bars

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4 Microscopic Analysis of Interfacial Transition Zone of Cementitious Composites Prepared by Various Mixing Procedures

Authors: Josef Fládr, Jiří Němeček, Veronika Koudelková, Petr Bílý

Abstract:

Mechanical parameters of cementitious composites differ quite significantly based on the composition of cement matrix. They are also influenced by mixing times and procedure. The research presented in this paper was aimed at identification of differences in microstructure of normal strength (NSC) and differently mixed high strength (HSC) cementitious composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation together with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) phase analysis of NSC and HSC samples was conducted. Evaluation of interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between the aggregate and cement matrix was performed. Volume share, thickness, porosity and composition of ITZ were studied. In case of HSC, samples obtained by several different mixing procedures were compared in order to find the most suitable procedure. In case of NSC, ITZ was identified around 40-50% of aggregate grains and its thickness typically ranged between 10 and 40 µm. Higher porosity and lower share of clinker was observed in this area as a result of increased water-to-cement ratio (w/c) and the lack of fine particles improving the grading curve of the aggregate. Typical ITZ with lower content of Ca was observed only in one HSC sample, where it was developed around less than 15% of aggregate grains. The typical thickness of ITZ in this sample was similar to ITZ in NSC (between 5 and 40 µm). In the remaining four HSC samples, no ITZ was observed. In general, the share of ITZ in HSC samples was found to be significantly smaller than in NSC samples. As ITZ is the weakest part of the material, this result explains to large extent the improved mechanical properties of HSC compared to NSC. Based on the comparison of characteristics of ITZ in HSC samples prepared by different mixing procedures, the most suitable mixing procedure from the point of view of properties of ITZ was identified.

Keywords: Scanning Electron Microscopy, high strength concrete, normal strength concrete, interfacial transition zone, electron diffraction spectroscopy

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3 Evaluation of Fire Resistance of High Strength Reinforced Concrete Columns with Spiral Wire Rope

Authors: Ki-Seok Kwon, Heung-Youl Kim

Abstract:

This research evaluated fire resistances of high-strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) column, spiral wire rope which applied with 60, and 100MPa. The fire resistance test of RC column with loading condition was conducted following the ISO 834 (3 hours). This experiment set mixing of fiber (PP fiber, Steel fiber) and types of horizontal reinforcement as a variable of reinforcement method. The fire resistance test measured the main steel bar’s max and mean temperatures also the shrinkage and shrinking ratio of columns(500 X 500 X 3,000mm) with loadings. As a result, the specimen of 60MPa attained three hours fire resistance with only spiral wire rope. Also, the specimen of 100MPa must be reinforced with fibers and spiral wire rope to attain three hours fire resistance.

Keywords: high strength concrete, reinforced concrete column, wire rope, fire resistance test

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2 An Experimental Study on the Influence of Mineral Admixtures on the Fire Resistance of High-Strength Concrete

Authors: Ki-Seok Kwon, Heung-Youl Kim, Dong-woo Ryu

Abstract:

Although high-strength concrete has many advantages over generic concrete at normal temperatures (around 20℃), it undergoes spalling at high temperatures, which constitutes its structurally fatal drawback. In this study, fire resistance tests were conducted for 3 hours in accordance with ASTM E119 on bearing wall specimens which were 3,000mm x 3,000mm x 300mm in dimensions to investigate the influence the type of admixtures would exert on the fire resistance performance of high-strength concrete. Portland cement, blast furnace slag, fly ash and silica fume were used as admixtures, among which 2 or 3 components were combined to make 7 types of mixtures. In 56MPa specimens, the severity of spalling was in order of SF5 > F25 > S65SF5 > S50. Specimen S50 where an admixture consisting of 2 components was added did not undergo spalling. In 70MPa specimens, the severity of spalling was in order of SF5 > F25SF5 > S45SF5 and the result was similar to that observed in 56MPa specimens. Acknowledgements— This study was conducted by the support of the project, “Development of performance-based fire safety design of the building and improvement of fire safety” (18AUDP-B100356-04) which is under the management of Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement as part of the urban architecture research project for the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, for which we extend our deep thanks.

Keywords: fire resistance, high strength concrete, mineral admixture, social disaster

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1 Experimental Studies on Reactive Powder Concrete Containing Fly Ash and Steel Fibre

Authors: A. J. Shah, Neeraj Kumar Sahu

Abstract:

Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is high performance and high strength concrete which composes of very fine powdered materials like cement, sand, silica fume and quartz powder. It also constitutes steel fibre (optional) and super-plasticizer. The present study investigates the performance of reactive powder concrete with fly ash as a replacement of cement under hot water and normal water curing conditions. The replacement of cement with fly ash is done at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. To compare the results of cement replaced RPC and traditional RPC, the performance of various mixes is evaluated by compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength and durability. The results show that with increasing percentage of fly ash, improvement in durability is observed and a slight decrease in compressive strength and flexural strength is also observed. It is observed that specimen under hot water curing showed 15 to 20 % more strength than specimens under normal water curing.

Keywords: Durability, high strength concrete, the flexural strength of RPC, compressive strength of RPC

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