Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

high efficiency Related Abstracts

8 Novel Approach to Design of a Class-EJ Power Amplifier Using High Power Technology

Authors: F. Rahmani, F. Razaghian, A. R. Kashaninia


This article proposes a new method for application in communication circuit systems that increase efficiency, PAE, output power and gain in the circuit. The proposed method is based on a combination of switching class-E and class-J and has been termed class-EJ. This method was investigated using both theory and simulation to confirm ~72% PAE and output power of > 39 dBm. The combination and design of the proposed power amplifier accrues gain of over 15dB in the 2.9 to 3.5 GHz frequency bandwidth. This circuit was designed using MOSFET and high power transistors. The load- and source-pull method achieved the best input and output networks using lumped elements. The proposed technique was investigated for fundamental and second harmonics having desirable amplitudes for the output signal.

Keywords: Power Amplifier (PA), high power, class-J and class-E, high efficiency

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7 Operation System for Aluminium-Air Cell: A Strategy to Harvest the Energy from Secondary Aluminium

Authors: Binbin Chen, Dennis Y. C. Leung


Aluminium (Al) -air cell holds a high volumetric capacity density of 8.05 Ah cm-3, benefit from the trivalence of Al ions. Additional benefits of Al-air cell are low price and environmental friendliness. Furthermore, the Al energy conversion process is characterized of 100% recyclability in theory. Along with a large base of raw material reserve, Al attracts considerable attentions as a promising material to be integrated within the global energy system. However, despite the early successful applications in military services, several problems exist that prevent the Al-air cells from widely civilian use. The most serious issue is the parasitic corrosion of Al when contacts with electrolyte. To overcome this problem, super-pure Al alloyed with various traces of metal elements are used to increase the corrosion resistance. Nevertheless, high-purity Al alloys are costly and require high energy consumption during production process. An alternative approach is to add inexpensive inhibitors directly into the electrolyte. However, such additives would increase the internal ohmic resistance and hamper the cell performance. So far these methods have not provided satisfactory solutions for the problem within Al-air cells. For the operation of alkaline Al-air cell, there are still other minor problems. One of them is the formation of aluminium hydroxide in the electrolyte. This process decreases ionic conductivity of electrolyte. Another one is the carbonation process within the gas diffusion layer of cathode, blocking the porosity of gas diffusion. Both these would hinder the performance of cells. The present work optimizes the above problems by building an Al-air cell operation system, consisting of four components. A top electrolyte tank containing fresh electrolyte is located at a high level, so that it can drive the electrolyte flow by gravity force. A mechanical rechargeable Al-air cell is fabricated with low-cost materials including low grade Al, carbon paper, and PMMA plates. An electrolyte waste tank with elaborate channel is designed to separate the hydrogen generated from the corrosion, which would be collected by gas collection device. In the first section of the research work, we investigated the performance of the mechanical rechargeable Al-air cell with a constant flow rate of electrolyte, to ensure the repeatability experiments. Then the whole system was assembled together and the feasibility of operating was demonstrated. During experiment, pure hydrogen is collected by collection device, which holds potential for various applications. By collecting this by-product, high utilization efficiency of aluminum is achieved. Considering both electricity and hydrogen generated, an overall utilization efficiency of around 90 % or even higher under different working voltages are achieved. Fluidic electrolyte could remove aluminum hydroxide precipitate and solve the electrolyte deterioration problem. This operation system provides a low-cost strategy for harvesting energy from the abundant secondary Al. The system could also be applied into other metal-air cells and is suitable for emergency power supply, power plant and other applications. The low cost feature implies great potential for commercialization. Further optimization, such as scaling up and optimization of fabrication, will help to refine the technology into practical market offerings.

Keywords: Hydrogen, high efficiency, aluminium-air cell, mechanical recharge

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6 Study on the Retaining Sleeve Structure for the Reduction of Eddy Current in SPMSM

Authors: Ju Lee, Hyun-Woo Jun, Dong-Woo Kang, In-Gun Kim, Hyun Seok Hong


In high-speed SPMSM design, the rotor-retaining sleeve is inserted into rotor to prevent permanent magnet’s damage. It is quite efficient way considering manufacturability, but the sleeve becomes major source of ohm loss in high-speed operation. In this paper, the high-speed motor for turbo-blower at the rating of 100kW was introduced. To improve its efficiency, the retaining sleeve’s optimal design was needed. Within the range of satisfies the mechanical safety, sleeve’s some design variables have been changed. The effect of changing design variables of the sleeve was studied. This paper presents the optimized sleeve’s advantages in electrical efficiency from the result of electromagnetic FEA (finite element analysis) software. Finally, it suggests the optimal sleeve design to reduce eddy current loss, which is related to motor shape.

Keywords: eddy current, high efficiency, SPMSM, sleeve

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5 The Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenides as Materials for Storage Clean Energy: Ab initio Investigations

Authors: S. Meziane, H. I. Faraoun, C. Esling


Transition metal dichalcogenides have potential applications in power generation devices that convert waste heat into electric current by the so-called Seebeck and Hall effects thus providing an alternative energy technology to reduce the dependence on traditional fossil fuels. In this study, the thermoelectric properties of 1T and 2HTaX2 (X= S or Se) dichalcogenide superconductors have been computed using the semi-classical Boltzmann theory. Technologically, the task is to fabricate suitable materials with high efficiency. It is found that 2HTaS2 possesses the largest value of figure of merit ZT= 1.27 at 175 K. From a scientific point of view, we aim to model the underlying materials properties and in particular the transport phenomena as mediated by electrons and lattice vibrations responsible for superconductivity, Charge Density Waves (CDW) and metal/insulator transitions as function of temperature. The goal of the present work is to develop an understanding of the superconductivity of these selected materials using the transport properties at the fundamental level.

Keywords: Ab Initio, high efficiency, Power generation devices, Transition metal dichalcogenides

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4 Fabrication of Cesium Iodide Columns by Rapid Heating Method

Authors: Chien-Wan Hun, Shao-Fu Chang, Chien-Chon Chen, Ker-Jer Huang


This study presents how to use a high-efficiency process for producing cesium iodide (CsI) crystal columns by rapid heating method. In the past, the heating rate of the resistance wire heating furnace was relatively slow and excessive iodine and CsI vapors were therefore generated during heating. Because much iodine and CsI vapors are produced during heating process, the composition of CsI crystal columns is not correct. In order to enhance the heating rate, making CsI material in the heating process can quickly reach the melting point temperature. This study replaced the traditional type of external resistance heating furnace with halogen-type quartz heater, and then, CsI material can quickly reach the melting point. Eventually, CsI melt can solidify in the anodic aluminum template forming CsI crystal columns.

Keywords: cesium iodide, high efficiency, rapid heating, vapor, crystal column

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3 Concentrated Winding Permanent Magnet Axial Flux Motor with Soft Magnetic Composite Core

Authors: N. Aliyu, G. Atkinson, N. Stannard


Compacted insulated iron powder is a key material in high volume electric motors manufacturing. It offers high production rates, dimensionally stable components, and low scrap volumes. It is the aim of this paper to develop a three-phase compact single sided concentrated winding axial flux PM motor with soft magnetic composite (SMC) core for reducing core losses and cost. To succeed the motor would need to be designed in such a way as to exploit the isotropic magnetic properties of the material and open slot constructions with surface mounted PM for higher speed up to 6000 rpm, without excessive rotor losses. Higher fill factor up to 70% was achieved by compacting the coils, which offered a significant improvement in performance. A finite-element analysis was performed for accurate parameters calculation and the simulation results are thoroughly presented and agree with the theoretical calculations very well.

Keywords: torque, high efficiency, SMC core, axial gap motor

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2 Flooring Solution for Sports Courts Such as Ecological Mortar

Authors: Helida T. G. Soares, Antonio J. P. da Silva


As the society develops, the accumulation of solid waste in landfills, in the environment, and the depletion of the raw material increases. In this way, there is relevance in researching the interaction between the environmental management and civil construction; therefore, this project has for scope the analysis and the effects of the rubber microparticles use as a small aggregate added to the sand, producing an ecological mortar for the pavement constitution, from the mixture of a paste, composed of Portland cement and water, and its application in sports courts. It was used the detailed reutilization of micro rubber in its most primordial, micro form, highlighting the powder pattern as the additional balancing of the mortar, analyzing the evolution of the mechanical properties. Percentages of 5, 10 and 15% rubber were used based on the total mass of the trace, where there is no removal of aggregates or cement, only increment of the rubber. The results obtained through the mechanical test of simple compression showed that the rubber, added to the mortar, presents low mechanical resistance compared to the reference trait, the study of this subject is vast of possibilities to be explored. In this sense, we seek sustainability and innovation from the use of an ecological material, thus adding value and reducing the impact of this material on the environment. The manufacturing process takes place from the direct mixing of cement paste and rubber, whether manually, mechanically or industrially. It results in the production of a low-cost mortar, through the use of recycled rubber, with high efficiency in general properties, such as compressive strength and friction coefficient, allowing its use for the construction of floors for sports courts with high durability. Thus, it is possible to reuse this micro rubber residue in other applications in simple concrete artifacts.

Keywords: Rubber, civil construction, high efficiency, ecological mortar

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1 High Efficiency Double-Band Printed Rectenna Model for Energy Harvesting

Authors: Sandro T. M. Gonçalves, Rakelane A. Mendes, Raphaella L. R. Silva


The concepts of energy harvesting and wireless energy transfer have been widely discussed in recent times. There are some ways to create autonomous systems for collecting ambient energy, such as solar, vibratory, thermal, electromagnetic, radiofrequency (RF), among others. In the case of the RF it is possible to collect up to 100 μW / cm². To collect and/or transfer energy in RF systems, a device called rectenna is used, which is defined by the junction of an antenna and a rectifier circuit. The rectenna presented in this work is resonant at the frequencies of 1.8 GHz and 2.45 GHz. Frequencies at 1.8 GHz band are e part of the GSM / LTE band. The GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) is a frequency band of mobile telephony, it is also called second generation mobile networks (2G), it came to standardize mobile telephony in the world and was originally developed for voice traffic. LTE (Long Term Evolution) or fourth generation (4G) has emerged to meet the demand for wireless access to services such as Internet access, online games, VoIP and video conferencing. The 2.45 GHz frequency is part of the ISM (Instrumentation, Scientific and Medical) frequency band, this band is internationally reserved for industrial, scientific and medical development with no need for licensing, and its only restrictions are related to maximum power transfer and bandwidth, which must be kept within certain limits (in Brazil the bandwidth is 2.4 - 2.4835 GHz). The rectenna presented in this work was designed to present efficiency above 50% for an input power of -15 dBm. It is known that for wireless energy capture systems the signal power is very low and varies greatly, for this reason this ultra-low input power was chosen. The Rectenna was built using the low cost FR4 (Flame Resistant) substrate, the antenna selected is a microfita antenna, consisting of a Meandered dipole, and this one was optimized using the software CST Studio. This antenna has high efficiency, high gain and high directivity. Gain is the quality of an antenna in capturing more or less efficiently the signals transmitted by another antenna and/or station. Directivity is the quality that an antenna has to better capture energy in a certain direction. The rectifier circuit used has series topology and was optimized using Keysight's ADS software. The rectifier circuit is the most complex part of the rectenna, since it includes the diode, which is a non-linear component. The chosen diode is the Schottky diode SMS 7630, this presents low barrier voltage (between 135-240 mV) and a wider band compared to other types of diodes, and these attributes make it perfect for this type of application. In the rectifier circuit are also used inductor and capacitor, these are part of the input and output filters of the rectifier circuit. The inductor has the function of decreasing the dispersion effect on the efficiency of the rectifier circuit. The capacitor has the function of eliminating the AC component of the rectifier circuit and making the signal undulating.

Keywords: high efficiency, dipole antenna, rectenna, double-band

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