Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

hepatotoxicity Related Abstracts

14 Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Β Receptor/P38 Pathway May Be the Potential Liver Damage Mechanisms Caused by Saikosaponin D

Authors: Li Chen, Feng Zhang, Shizhong Zheng

Abstract:

SaikosaponinD (SSD) is a major component of saikosaponins isolated from Bupleurumfalactum. Our current study was to examine the toxic effect of SSD on liver cells and explore the possible mechanism. The results demonstrated that SSD induced mouse liver injury and led to apoptosis in LO2 cells. HE staining and TUNEL analyses showed that SSD stimulated liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis in vivo. Subsequent experiments showed that SSD down-regulated Bcl-2 but up-regulated Bax. In vitro, SSD-treated LO2 cells exhibited apparent down-regulated expression of p-p38. Moreover, PDGF-βR agonist PDGF-BB alone significantly upregulated p38 phosphorylation, while combined with SSD, p38 phosphorylation expression was reduced. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated PDGF-βR knockdown augmented the inactivation of p-p38 and Bcl2 but abrogated the activation of Bax, these results were more obvious when shRNA combined with SSD. These data indicated that SSD stimulated liver injury and apoptosis in hepatocytes and PDGF-βR /p38 pathway may be the potential mechanistic.

Keywords: apoptosis, saikosaponin D, hepatotoxicity, liver injury, platelet-derived growth factor-β receptor, p38

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13 Preventive Effect of Zinc on Nickel Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Albino (Wistar) Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid, Samira Bouhalit

Abstract:

Aim: We studied the effect of intraperitonial zinc treatment on nickel sulphate-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in Wistar strain male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver and kidney dysfunction parameters represented by aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood glucose, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine, and serum belurebin were estimated. Liver glutathione level, catalase and GPx activities were also determined in liver as indicators of oxidative damage. Result: Nickel treatment led to high serum glucose concentration and produced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity characterized by increasing GPT, GOT and alkaline phosphatase activities, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine and serum belurebin concentrations. In addition, liver glutathione level, catalase and GSH-Px activities diminished due to high lipid peroxidation. The simultaneous administration of zinc with nickel sulphate resulted in a remarkable improvement of the previous parameters compared with rats treated with nickel alone. Conclusion: In conclusion, nickel sulphate led to liver and kidney dysfunctions and hepatic lipid peroxidation in animals, but simultaneous treatment with zinc offers a relative protection against nickel induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: rats, Nickel, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, zinc, GOT, GPT

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12 Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Aqueous Flower Extract from Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.

Authors: Brahmanage S. Rangika, Dinithi C. Peiris

Abstract:

Boiled Aqueous Flower Extract (AFE) of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. (Family: Oleaceae) is used in traditional Sri Lankan medicinal system to treat diabetes. However, this is not scientifically proven and the mechanisms by which the flowers reduce diabetes have not been investigated. The present study was carried out to examine the hypoglycemic potential and toxicity effects of aqueous flower extract of N. arbor-tristis. AFE was prepared and mice were treated orally either with 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg of AFE or distilled water (Control). Fasting and random blood glucose levels were determined. In addition, the toxicity of AFE was determined using chronic oral administration. In normoglycemic mice, mid dose (500mg/kg) of AFE significantly (p < 0.01) reduced fasting blood glucose levels by 49% at 4h post treatment. Further, 500mg/kg of AFE significantly (p < 0.01) lowered random blood glucose level of non-fasted normoglycemic mice. AFE significantly lowered total cholesterol and triglyceride levels while increasing the HDL levels in the serum. Further, AFE significantly inhibited the glucose absorption from the lumen of the intestine and it increases the diaphragm uptake of glucose. Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity was also evident. However, AFE did not induce any overt signs of toxicity or hepatotoxicity. There were no adverse effects on food and water intake and body weight of mice during the experimental period. It can be concluded that AFE of N. arbor-tristis posses safe oral anti diabetic potentials mediated via multiple mechanisms. Results of the present study scientifically proved the claims made about the uses of N. arbor-tristis in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional Sri Lankan medicinal system. Further, flowers can also be used for as a remedy to improve blood lipid profile.

Keywords: hepatotoxicity, aqueous extract, hypoglycemic hypolipidemic, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis flowers

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11 Interaction between NiCl2 and Selenium on Energy Profiles in Wistar albino Preimplanted Rats

Authors: O. Adjroud

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to investigate the interaction between selenium (Se) and chloride nickel (NiCl2) on energy profiles in Wistar albino preimplanted rats. NiCl2 was given on day 3 of pregnancy either in distilled drinking water at a dose of 20 mg/L/day for 16 consecutive days or as a single subcutaneous (s.c.) dose of 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg. Se was given as a s.c. injection (0.3 mg/kg) together with the higher dose (100 mg/kg) of NiCl2. Changes in energy profiles were evaluated in treated and control groups on days 5 and 20 of gestation. NiCl2 s.c. induced a significant increase in plasma glucose on day 20 of pregnancy. NiCl2 s.c. induced on day 5 and 20 of gestation a significant decrease in plasma triglycerides, with the higher dose. This decrease was maintained at day 20 of gestation with doses of 50 mg /kg. In addition, NiCl2 s.c. caused on day 5 of gestation a significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol with the low and medium doses. The pretreatment with Se reversed the effects of NiCl2 on plasma glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. NiCl2 administered in the drinking water augmented significantly the plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol levels and slighty the plasma glucose on day 20 of gestation, while on day 5 of gestation NiCl2 s.c. Induced a significant decrease in cholesterol. Three doses of NiCl2 (sc) induced severe alterations in liver and architecture which are markedly improved by Selenium. These results suggested that selenium has protective effects on energy profiles against the toxicity induced by NiCl2 administered subcutaneously in preimplanted rats.

Keywords: hepatotoxicity, biochemical parameters, nickel chloride, preimplanted rat

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10 Hepatotoxicity Induced by Arsenic Trioxide in Adult Mice and Their Progeny

Authors: Bouaziz H., Soudania N., Essafia M., Ben Amara I., Hakim A., Jamoussi K., Zeghal Km, Zeghal N.

Abstract:

In this investigation, we have evaluated the effects of arsenic trioxide on hepatic function in pregnant and lactating Swiss albino mice and their suckling pups. Experiments were carried out on female mice given 175 ppm As2O3 in their drinking water from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery. Our results showed a significant decrease in plasma levels of total protein and albumin, cholesterol and triglyceride in As2O3 treated mice and their pups. The hyperbilirubinemia and the increased plasma total alkaline phosphatase activity suggested the presence of cholestasis. Transaminase activities as well as lactate deshydrogenase activity in plasma, known as biomarkers of hepatocellular injury, were elevated indicating hepatic cells’damage after treatment with As2O3. Exposure to arsenic led to an increase of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level along with a concomitant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and in glutathione.

Keywords: mice, Oxidative Stress, hepatotoxicity, antioxidant status, arsenic trioxide

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9 Effects of Ethanolic Purslane Shoot and Seed Extracts on Doxorubicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Walaa G. Hozayen, Osama M. Ahmed, Haidy Tamer Abo Sree

Abstract:

Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic is a broad-spectrum antineoplastic agent, which is commonly used in the treatment of uterine, ovarian, breast and lung cancers, Hodgkin's disease and soft tissue sarcomas as well as in several other cancer types. The effect of doxorubicin (4 mg/kg b.w.week) without or with oral administration of ethanolic purslane (Portulaca oleracea) shoot (leaves and stems) extract (50 mg/kg b.w. day) or ethanolic purslane seeds extract (50 mg/kg b.w.day) co-treatments for 6 weeks was evaluated in adult male rats. Serum ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, total bilirubin, total protein, and albumin levels were assayed. Lipid peroxidation (indexed by MDA) and antioxidants like hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, and CAT were assessed. There was an increase in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and total bilirubin. In addition, hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, and CAT activities were decreased while lipid peroxidation in the liver was increased. Co-administration of ethanolic purslane and seed extracts successfully improved the adverse changes in the liver functions with an increase in antioxidants activities and reduction of lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, it can be supposed that dietary purslane extract supplementation may provide a cushion for a prolonged therapeutic option against DOX hepatopathy without harmful side effects. However, further clinical studies are required to assess the safety and efficacy of these extract in human beings.

Keywords: Antioxidants, doxorubicin, hepatotoxicity, purslane

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8 Protective Effects of Ethanolic Purslane Extracts on Doxorubicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Walaa G. Hozayen, Osama M. Ahmed, Haidy Tamer Abo Sree

Abstract:

The effect of doxorubicin (4 mg/kg b.w.week) without or with oral administration of ethanolic purslane (Portulaca oleracea) shoot (leaves and stems) extract (50 mg/kg b.w.day) or ethanolic purslane seeds extract (50 mg/kg b.w.day) co-treatments for 6 weeks was evaluated in adult male rats. There was an increase in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and total bilirubin. In addition, hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, CAT activities were decreased while lipid peroxidation in the liver was increased. Co-administration of ethanolic purslane and seed extracts successfully improved the adverse changes in the liver functions with an increase in antioxidants activities and reduction of lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: Antioxidants, doxorubicin, hepatotoxicity, purslane

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7 MCD-017: Potential Candidate from the Class of Nitroimidazoles to Treat Tuberculosis

Authors: Gurleen Kour, Mowkshi Khullar, B. K. Chandan, Parvinder Pal Singh, Kushalava Reddy Yumpalla, Gurunadham Munagala, Ram A. Vishwakarma, Zabeer Ahmed

Abstract:

New chemotherapeutic compounds against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are urgently needed to combat drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB). Apart from in-vitro potency against the target, physiochemical properties and pharmacokinetic properties play an imperative role in the process of drug discovery. We have identified novel nitroimidazole derivatives with potential activity against mycobacterium tuberculosis. One lead candidates, MCD-017, which showed potent activity against H37Rv strain (MIC=0.5µg/ml) and was further evaluated in the process of drug development. Methods: Basic physicochemical parameters like solubility and lipophilicity (LogP) were evaluated. Thermodynamic solubility was determined in PBS buffer (pH 7.4) using LC/MS-MS. The partition coefficient (Log P) of the compound was determined between octanol and phosphate buffered saline (PBS at pH 7.4) at 25°C by the microscale shake flask method. The compound followed Lipinski’s rule of five, which is predictive of good oral bioavailability and was further evaluated for metabolic stability. In-vitro metabolic stability was determined in rat liver microsomes. The hepatotoxicity of the compound was also determined in HepG2 cell line. In vivo pharmacokinetic profile of the compound after oral dosing was also obtained using balb/c mice. Results: The compound exhibited favorable solubility and lipophilicity. The physical and chemical properties of the compound were made use of as the first determination of drug-like properties. The compound obeyed Lipinski’s rule of five, with molecular weight < 500, number of hydrogen bond donors (HBD) < 5 and number of hydrogen bond acceptors(HBA) not more then 10. The log P of the compound was less than 5 and therefore the compound is predictive of exhibiting good absorption and permeation. Pooled rat liver microsomes were prepared from rat liver homogenate for measuring the metabolic stability. 99% of the compound was not metabolized and remained intact. The compound did not exhibit cytoxicity in hepG2 cells upto 40 µg/ml. The compound revealed good pharmacokinetic profile at a dose of 5mg/kg administered orally with a half life (t1/2) of 1.15 hours, Cmax of 642ng/ml, clearance of 4.84 ml/min/kg and a volume of distribution of 8.05 l/kg. Conclusion : The emergence of multi drug resistance (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Tuberculosis emphasize the requirement of novel drugs active against tuberculosis. Thus, the need to evaluate physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties in the early stages of drug discovery is required to reduce the attrition associated with poor drug exposure. In summary, it can be concluded that MCD-017 may be considered a good candidate for further preclinical and clinical evaluations.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, Physicochemical properties, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, hepatotoxicity

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6 Development and Characterization of Soya Phosphatidylcholine Complex of Coumestans from Eclipta alba for the Management of Hepatotoxicity

Authors: Yuvraj Singh Dangi, Abhishek Kumar Jain, Anki Jain, Brajesh Kumar Tiwari

Abstract:

The plant Eclipta alba Hassk. (Family: Compositae) contains coumestans (wedelolactone and demethyl wedelolactone) used in liver disorders. The objective of the present investigation was to develop a formulation of these coumestans in combination with the soya phosphatidylcholine (PC), in order to overcome the limitation of absorption and to investigate the protective effect of coumestans–phosphatidylcholine complex (C-PC) on carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver damage in rats. Methanolic extract (ME) of the whole plant of Eclipta alba was fractionated with water and then with ehylacetate. Coumestans were characterized in the ethylacetate fraction of methanolic extract (EFME). The C-PC was prepared by dissolving EFME and PC in 1:1 ratio in dichloromethane and heating at 60°C for 2 h. The C-PC was characterized by DSC and FTIR spectroscopy. In vitro drug release from EFME and C-PC through egg membrane was measured using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The hepatoprotective activity of C-PC (equivalent to 5.35 and 10.7 mg/kg body weight of EFME), ME 250 mg/kg and EFME 5.35 mg/kg was evaluated by measuring various enzymes level. C-PC significantly provided better protection to the liver by restoring the enzyme levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and total billirubin with respect to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated group (P < 0.001). Histopathological studies were also performed. The C-PC provided better protection to rat liver than ME and EFME at similar doses as well as shown significant regeneration of hepatocytes, central vein, intact cytoplasm, and nucleus.

Keywords: hepatotoxicity, wedelolactone, soya phosphatidylcholine, eclipta alba

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5 Attenuation of Endotoxin Induced Hepatotoxicity by Dexamethasone, Melatonin and Pentoxifylline in White Albino Mice: A Comparative Study

Authors: Ammara Khan

Abstract:

Sepsis is characterized by an overwhelming surge of cytokines and oxidative stress to one of many factors, gram-negative bacteria commonly implicated. Despite major expansion and elaboration of sepsis pathophysiology and therapeutic approach; death rate remains very high in septic patients due to multiple organ damages including hepatotoxicity.The present study was aimed to ascertain the adequacy of three different drugs delivered separately and collectively- low dose steroid-dexamethasone (3mg/kg i.p) ,antioxidant-melatonin(10 mg/kg i.p) ,and phosphodiesterases inhibitor - pentoxifylline (75 mg/kg i.p)in endotoxin-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Endotoxin/lipopolysaccharides induced hepatotoxicity was reproduced in mice by giving lipopolysaccharide of serotype E.Coli intraperitoneally. The preventive role was questioned by giving the experimental agent half an hour prior to LPS injection whereas the therapeutic potential of the experimental agent was searched out via post-LPS delivering. The extent of liver damage was adjudged via serum alanine aminotransferases (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) estimation along with a histopathological examination of liver tissue. Dexamethasone is given before (Group 3) and after LPS (group 4) significantly attenuated LPS generated liver injury.Pentoxifylline generated similar results and serum ALT; AST histological alteration abated considerably (p≤ 0.05) both in animals subjected to pentoxifylline pre (Group 5) and post-treatment(Group 6). Melatonin was also prosperous in aversion (Group 7) and curation (Group 8) of LPS invoked hepatotoxicity as evident by lessening of augmented ALT (≤0.01) and AST (≤0.01) along with restoration of pathological changes in liver sections (p≤0.05). Combination therapies with dexamethasone in conjunction with melatonin (Group 9), dexamethasone together with pentoxifylline (Group 10), and pentoxifylline along with melatonin (Group 11) after LPS administration tapered LPS evoked hepatic dysfunction statistically considerably. In conclusion, both melatonin and pentoxifylline set up promising results in endotoxin-induced hepatotoxicity and can be used therapeutic adjuncts to conventional treatment strategies in sepsis-induced liver failure.

Keywords: Melatonin, hepatotoxicity, dexamethasone, endotoxin/lipopolysacchride, pentoxifylline

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4 Comparative Study on the Influence of Different Drugs against Aluminium- Induced Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Toqa M. Elnahhas, Abeer I. Abd El-Fattah, Mona M. Kamal, Karema Abu-Elfotuh

Abstract:

Background: Environmental pollution with the different aluminium (Al) containing compounds especially those in industrial waste water exposes people to higher than normal levels of Al that represents an environmental risk factor. Cosmetics, Al ware, and containers are also sources of Al besides some foods and food additives. In addition to its known neurotoxicity, Al affects other body structures like skeletal system, blood cells, liver and kidney. Accumulation of Al in kidney and liver induces nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a pseudo-vitamin substance primarily present in the mitochondria. It is a powerful antioxidant and acts as radical scavenger. Wheat grass is a natural product that contains carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, enzymes and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and cardiovascular protection activities. Cocoa is an excellent source of iron, potent antioxidants and can protect against many diseases. Vinpocetine is an antioxidant and anti inflammatory while zinc is an essential trace element involved in cell division and its deficiency is observed in many types of liver disease. Objective: To evaluate and compare the potency of different drugs (CoQ10, wheatgrass, cocoa, vinpocetine and zinc) against nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by Al in rats. Methods: Rats were divided to seven groups and received daily for three weeks either saline for control group or AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) for Al-toxicity model groups. Five groups of Al-toxicity model (treated groups) were orally received together with Al each of the following; CoQ10 (200mg/kg), wheat grass (100mg/kg), cocoa powder (24mg/kg), vinpocetine (20mg/kg) or zinc (32mg/kg). Biochemical changes in the serum level of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate deshydrogenase (LDH) as well as total bilirubin, lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, creatinine and urea were measured. Liver and kidney specimens from all groups were also collected for the assessment of hepatic and nephrotic level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6β, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), Caspase-3, oxidative parameters (MDA, SOD, TAC, NO) and DNA fragmentation. Histopathological changes in liver and kidney were also evaluated. Results: Three weeks of AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) exposure induced nephro- and hepato-toxicity in rats. Treatment by the all used drugs showed protection against hazards of AlCl3. The protective effects were indicated by the significant decrease in ALT, AST, ALP, LDH as well as total bilirubin, lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, creatinine and urea levels which were increased by Al. Liver and kidney of the treated groups showed decrease in MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation which were increased by Al, together with significant increase in total proteins, SOD and TAC which were decreased by Al. The protection against both nephro- and hepato-toxicity was more pronounced especially with CoQ10 and wheat grass than the other used drugs. Histopathological examinations confirmed the biochemical results of toxicity and of protection. Conclusion: Protection from nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and the consequent degenerations induced by Al can be achieved by using different drugs as CoQ10, wheatgrass, cocoa, vinpocetine and zinc, but CoQ10 as well as wheat grass possesses the most superior protection.

Keywords: Aluminum, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, zinc, coenzyme Q10, cocoa, wheatgrass, vinpocetine

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3 Impact of Stress and Protein Malnutrition on the Potential Role of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in Providing Protection from Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity Induced by Aluminum in Rats

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Mona G. Khalil, Hemat A. Elariny, Shereen S. El Shaer

Abstract:

Background: Aluminium (Al) is very abundant metal in the earth’s crust. It is a constituent of cooking utensils, medicines, cosmetics, some foods and food additives. Salts of Al are widely used in the treatment of drinking water for purification purposes. Excessive and prolonged exposure to Al causes oxidative stress and impairment of many physiological functions. Its accumulation in liver and kidney causes hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Social isolation (SI) or Protein malnutrition (PM) also increases oxidative stress and may enhance the toxicity of Al as well as the degeneration in liver and kidney. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin in green tea and has strong antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory activities and can protect against oxidative stress-induced degenerations. Objective: To study the influence of stress or PM on Al-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats, as well as on the potential role of EGCG in providing protection. Methods: Rats received daily AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) for three weeks (Al-toxicity groups) except one normal control group received saline. Al-toxicity groups were divided into four treated and four untreated groups; treated rats received EGCG (10 mg/kg, IP) together with AlCl3. One group of both treated and untreated rats served as control for each of them, and the others were subjected to either stress (mild using isolation or high using electric shock) or to PM (10% casein diet). Specimens of liver and kidney were used for assessment of levels of inflammatory mediators as TNF-α, IL6β, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), oxidative stress (MDA, SOD, TAC, NO), Caspase-3 and for DNA fragmentation as well as for histopathological examinations. Biochemical changes were also measured in the serum as total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, bilirubin, creatinine and urea as well as the level of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate deshydrogenase (LDH). Results: Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by Al were enhanced in rats exposed to stress and to PM. The influence of stress was more pronounced than PM. Al-toxicity was indicated by the increase in liver and kidney MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3, DNA fragmentation and in ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, bilirubin, creatinine and urea levels, together with the decrease in total proteins, SOD, TAC. EGCG provided protection against hazards of Al as indicated by the decrease in MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation as well as in levels of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, bilirubin, creatinine and urea in liver and kidney, together with the increase in total proteins, SOD, TAC and confirmed by histopathological examinations. It provided more pronounced protection in high stressful conditions than in mild one than in PM. Conclusion: Stress have a bad impact on Al-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity more than PM. Thus it can clarify and maximize the role of EGCG in providing protection. Consequently, administration of EGCG is advised with excessive Al-exposure to avoid nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity especially in populations more subjected to stress or PM.

Keywords: rats, stress, Aluminum, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, protein malnutrition, epigallocatechin-3-gallate

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2 Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity Induced by Chronic Aluminium Exposure in Rats: Impact of Nutrients Combination versus Social Isolation and Protein Malnutrition

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Karema Abu-Elfotuh, Doaa M. Abd El-Latif, Amany M. Gad, Yasser M. A. Elnahas

Abstract:

Background: Exposure to Aluminium (Al) has been increased recently. It is found in food products, food additives, drinking water, cosmetics and medicines. Chronic consumption of Al causes oxidative stress and has been implicated in several chronic disorders. Liver is considered as the major site for detoxification while kidney is involved in the elimination of toxic substances and is a target organ of metal toxicity. Social isolation (SI) or protein malnutrition (PM) also causes oxidative stress and has negative impact on Al-induced nephrotoxicity as well as hepatotoxicity. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a powerful intracellular antioxidant with mitochondrial membrane stabilizing ability while wheat grass is a natural product with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and different protective activities, cocoa is also potent antioxidants and can protect against many diseases. They provide different degrees of protection from the impact of oxidative stress. Objective: To study the impact of social isolation together with Protein malnutrition on nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by chronic Al exposure in rats as well as to investigate the postulated protection using a combination of Co Q10, wheat grass and cocoa. Methods: Eight groups of rats were used; four served as protected groups and four as un-protected. Each of them received daily for five weeks AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) for Al-toxicity model groups except one group served as control. Al-toxicity model groups were divided to Al-toxicity alone, SI- associated PM (10% casein diet) and Al- associated SI&PM groups. Protection was induced by oral co-administration of CoQ10 (200mg/kg), wheat grass (100mg/kg) and cocoa powder (24mg/kg) combination together with Al. Biochemical changes in total bilirubin, lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, creatinine and urea as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate deshydrogenase (LDH) were measured in serum of all groups. Specimens of kidney and liver were used for assessment of oxidative parameters (MDA, SOD, TAC, NO), inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6β, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), Caspase-3) and DNA fragmentation in addition to evaluation of histopathological changes. Results: SI together with PM severely enhanced nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by chronic Al exposure. Co Q10, wheat grass and cocoa combination showed clear protection against hazards of Al exposure either alone or when associated with SI&PM. Their protection were indicated by the significant decrease in Al-induced elevations in total bilirubin, lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, creatinine and urea levels as well as ALT, AST, ALP, LDH. Liver and kidney of the treated groups also showed significant decrease in MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation, together with significant increase in total proteins, SOD and TAC. Biochemical results were confirmed by the histopathological examinations. Conclusion: SI together with PM represents a risk factor in enhancing nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by Al in rats. CoQ10, wheat grass and cocoa combination provide clear protection against nephro- and hepatotoxicity as well as the consequent degenerations induced by chronic Al-exposure even when associated with the risk of SI together with PM.

Keywords: Aluminum, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, coenzyme Q10, cocoa, wheatgrass, isolation and protein malnutrition, nutrients combinations

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1 Protective Role of Fish Oil against Hepatotoxicity Induced by Fipronil on Female Rats

Authors: Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa, Amel A. Refaie, Amal Ramadan

Abstract:

This study was designed to evaluate the adverse effects of sub-chronic exposure to the fipronil on the liver of female rats at a dose equal to 400 mg /kg (1/10LD50) in drinking water and the protective role of fish oil at concentration 117.6 mg/Kg b.wt via oral routes daily for 28 days. Fipronil treatment caused a decrease in body weight gain and increase in relative liver weight. Fipronil induced a significant increase in the liver biomarkers enzymes such as alanine aminotransferases (ALT), aspartate aminotransferases (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and levels of total protein while fipronil caused a significant decrease in butyryl cholinesterase activity in FPN-treated rats. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were significantly decreased in liver tissue, while lipid peroxidation (LPO) was significantly increased in fipronil treating rats in a dose-dependent manner. FPN caused histopathological alterations in liver of female rats. From our results, it can be reported that FPN induced lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, liver injury in female rats and fish oil used to protect animals against the adverse effect of pesticide exposure. These pathophysiological alterations in liver tissues could be due to the toxic effect of fipronil that associated with a generation of free radicals.

Keywords: hepatotoxicity, antioxidant enzymes, fish oil, transaminases, fipronil (FPN), female rats

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