Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

hepatitis B virus Related Abstracts

10 A Mathematical Model for Hepatitis B Virus Infection and the Impact of Vaccination on Its Dynamics

Authors: T. G. Kassem, A. K. Adunchezor, J. P. Chollom


This paper describes a mathematical model developed to predict the dynamics of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and to evaluate the potential impact of vaccination and treatment on its dynamics. We used a compartmental model expressed by a set of differential equations based on the characteristic of HBV transmission. With these, we find the threshold quantity R0, then find the local asymptotic stability of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium. Furthermore, we find the global stability of the disease free and endemic equilibrium.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Vaccination, mathematical model, hepatitis B virus

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9 Bioinformatics Identification of Rare Codon Clusters in Proteins Structure of HBV

Authors: Abdorrasoul Malekpour, Mohammad Ghorbani Mojtaba Mortazavi, Mohammadreza Fattahi, Mohammad Hassan Meshkibaf, Ali Fakhrzad, Saeid Salehi, Saeideh Zahedi, Amir Ahmadimoghaddam, Parviz Farzadnia Dr., Mohammadreza Hajyani Asl Bs


Hepatitis B as an infectious disease has eight main genotypes (A–H). The aim of this study is to Bioinformatically identify Rare Codon Clusters (RCC) in proteins structure of HBV. For detection of protein family accession numbers (Pfam) of HBV proteins; used of uni-prot database and Pfam search tool were used. Obtained Pfam IDs were analyzed in Sherlocc program and RCCs in HBV proteins were detected. In further, the structures of TrEMBL entries proteins studied in PDB database and 3D structures of the HBV proteins and locations of RCCs were visualized and studied using Swiss PDB Viewer software. Pfam search tool have found nine significant hits and 0 insignificant hits in 3 frames. Results of Pfams studied in the Sherlocc program show this program not identified RCCs in the external core antigen (PF08290) and truncated HBeAg protein (PF08290). By contrast the RCCs become identified in Hepatitis core antigen (PF00906) Large envelope protein S (PF00695), X protein (PF00739), DNA polymerase (viral) N-terminal domain (PF00242) and Protein P (Pf00336). In HBV genome, seven RCC identified that found in hepatitis core antigen, large envelope protein S and DNA polymerase proteins and proteins structures of TrEMBL entries sequences that reported in Sherlocc program outputs are not complete. Based on situation of RCC in structure of HBV proteins, it suggested those RCCs are important in HBV life cycle. We hoped that this study provide a new and deep perspective in protein research and drug design for treatment of HBV.

Keywords: Infectious Disease, hepatitis B virus, rare codon clusters, bioinformatic study

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8 Comparison Between a Droplet Digital PCR and Real Time PCR Method in Quantification of HBV DNA

Authors: Surangrat Srisurapanon, Chatchawal Wongjitrat, Navin Horthongkham, Ruengpung Sutthent


HBV infection causes a potential serious public health problem. The ability to detect the HBV DNA concentration is of the importance and improved continuously. By using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR), several factors in standardized; source of material, calibration standard curve and PCR efficiency are inconsistent. Digital PCR (dPCR) is an alternative PCR-based technique for absolute quantification using Poisson's statistics without requiring a standard curve. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the data set of HBV DNA generated between dPCR and qPCR methods. All samples were quantified by Abbott’s real time PCR and 54 samples with 2 -6 log10 HBV DNA were selected for comparison with dPCR. Of these 54 samples, there were two outlier samples defined as negative by dPCR. Of these two, samples were defined as negative by dPCR, whereas 52 samples were positive by both the tests. The difference between the two assays was less than 0.25 log IU/mL in 24/52 samples (46%) of paired samples; less than 0.5 log IU/mL in 46/52 samples (88%) and less than 1 log in 50/52 samples (96%). The correlation coefficient was r=0.788 and P-value <0.0001. Comparison to qPCR, data generated by dPCR tend to be the overestimation in the sample with low HBV DNA concentration and underestimated in the sample with high viral load. The variation in DNA by dPCR measurement might be due to the pre-amplification bias, template. Moreover, a minor drawback of dPCR is the large quantity of DNA had to be used when compare to the qPCR. Since the technology is relatively new, the limitations of this assay will be improved.

Keywords: hepatitis B virus, real time PCR, digital PCR, DNA quantification

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7 Hepatitis B Prevalence in Institutionalized Intellectually Disabled Children

Authors: Maryam Vaezjalali, Foad Davoodbeglou, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Hossein Goudarzi, Fariba Shojaei, Hourieh Aram


Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes chronic infection in human population, with high mortality. Some people are more susceptible to this infection. One of the high risk communities is mentally retarded children, who are institutionalized. Special conditions in these centers predispose children for HBV infection and transmission to healthy people. In this study our objective was to determine the prevalence of HBV infection among institutionalized mentally retarded children and study its associated risk factors. Materials and methods: In this study, 250 mentally retarded children (younger than 14 years old) were included. They were living in 5 nursing institutions, located in different parts of Tehran. HBsAg was measured in the sera of these patients by ELISA method. Results: Among 250 children, 20 children (8%) were HBsAg positive. HBV infection in girls was more than boys (11% to 5.6%). Among the types of mental retardation, children with cerebral palsy had the highest positive result for HBsAg. The most HBV infection (28.5%) was seen in children with longest duration of being institutionalized (10 to 11 years). Vaccinated children were more HBsAg positive (8.7%) than non-vaccinated children (5.3%). However, no significant relationship was observed between any of these factors and HBsAg positivity. Conclusion: Despite improvement of people’s health condition and implementation of HBV vaccination, the prevalence of HBV infection is high in institutionalized mentally retarded children, which highlights the need for active measures to reduce this infection among this high risk population.

Keywords: HBV vaccine, hepatitis B virus, intellectually disabled children, mentally retarded

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6 In Vitro Hepatoprotective and Anti-Hepatitis B Activitis of Cyperus rotundus Rhizome Fractions

Authors: Mohammad K. Parvez, Ahmed H. Arbab, Mohammed S. Al-Dosari


Cyperus rotendus rhizomes are used as traditional medicine, including Ayurveda in chronic liver diseases and hepatitis B. We investigated the in vitro hepatoprotective and anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) potential of Cyperus rotundus rhizome organic and aqueous fractions. Of these, the n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed the most promising, dose-dependent hepatoprotection in DCFH-injured HepG2 cells at 48 h. DCFH-toxicated cells were recovered to about 88% and 96%, upon treatment with n-butanol and aqueous fractions (200 g/ml), respectively compared to DCFH-only treated cells. Further, C. rotundus fractions were tested for anti-HBV activities by measuring the expression levels of viral antigens (HBsAg and HBeAg) in the HepG2.2.15 culture supernatants. At 48 h post-treatment, the ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed dose-dependent inhibition wherein at a higher dose (100 g/ml), HBsAg production was reduced to 60.27%, 46.87 and 42.76%, respectively. In a time-course study, HBsAg production was inhibited up to 50% and 40% by ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions (100 g/ml), respectively on day 5. Three three active fractions were further subjected to time-dependent inhibition of HBeAg expression, an indirect measure of HBV active DNA replication. At day 5 post-treatment, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions downregulated HBV replication by 44.14% and 24.70%, respectively. In conclusion, our results showed very promising hepatoprotective and anti-HBV potential of C. rotendus tubers fractions in vitro. Our data could, therefore, provide the basis for the claimed traditional use of C. rotendus for jaundice and hepatitis.

Keywords: hepatitis B virus, hepatoprotection, cyperus rotundus, anti-hepatitis B

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5 The Prevalence of Blood-Borne Viral Infections among Autopsy Cases in Jordan

Authors: Emad Al-Abdallat, Faris G. Bakri, Azmi Mahafza, Rayyan Al Ali, Nidaa Ababneh, Ahmed Idhair


Background: Morgues are high-risk areas for the spread of infection from the cadavers to the staff during the postmortem examination. Infection can spread from corpses to workers by the airborne route, by direct contact, or from needle and sharp object injuries. Objective: Knowledge about the prevalence of these infections among autopsies is prudent to appreciate any risk of transmission and to further enforce safety measures. Method: A total of 242 autopsies were tested. Age ranged from 3 days to 94 years (median 75.5 years, mean 45.3 (21.9 ± SD)). There were 172 (71%) males. Results: The cause of death was considered natural in 137 (56.6%) cases, accidental in 89 (36.8%), homicidal in 9 (3.7%), suicidal in 4 (1.7%), and unknown in 3 (1.2%). Hepatitis B surface antigen was positive in 5 (2.1%) cases. Hepatitis C virus antibody was detected in 5 (2.1%) cases and the hepatitis C virus polymerase chain reaction was positive in 2 of them (0.8%). HIV antibody was not detected in any of the cases. Conclusions: Autopsies can be associated with exposure to blood borne viruses. Autopsies performed during the study period were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C virus antibody, and human immunodeficiency virus antibody. Positive tests were subsequently confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. There is low prevalence of infections with these viruses in our autopsy cases. However, the risk of transmission remains a threat. Healthcare workers in the forensic departments should adhere to standard precautions.

Keywords: Hepatitis C Virus, Autopsy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, jordan, hepatitis B virus

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4 Studies of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Proteosomal Gene Complex and Their Association with HBV Infection Risk in India

Authors: Jasbir Singh, Devender Kumar, Davender Redhu, Surender Kumar, Vandana Bhardwaj


Single Nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of proteosomal gene complex is involved in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. Some of such proteosomal gene complex are large multifunctional proteins (LMP) and antigen associated transporters that help in antigen presentation. Both are involved in intracellular processing and presentation of viral antigens in association with Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC) Class I molecules. A total of hundred each of hepatitis B virus infected and control samples from northern India were studied. Genomic DNA was extracted from all studied samples and PCR-RFLP method was used for genotyping at different positions of LMP genes. Genotypes at a given position were inferred from the pattern of bands and genotype frequencies and haplotype frequencies were also calculated. Homozygous SNP {A>C} was observed at codon 145 of LMP7 gene and having a protective role against HBV as there was statistically significant high distribution of this SNP among controls than cases. Heterozygous SNP {A>C} was observed at codon 145 of LMP7 gene and made individuals more susceptible to HBV infection as there was statistically significant high distribution of this SNP among cases than control. SNP {T>C} was observed at codon 60 of LMP2 gene but statistically significant differences were not observed among controls and cases. For codon 145 of LMP7 and codon 60 of LMP2 genes, four haplotypes were constructed. Haplotype I (LMP2 ‘C’ and LMP7 ‘A’) made individuals carrying it more susceptible to HBV infection as there was statistically significant high distribution of this haplotype among cases than control. Haplotype II (LMP2 ‘C’ and LMP7 ‘C’) made individuals carrying it more immune to HBV infection as there was statistically significant high distribution of this haplotype among control than cases. Thus it can be concluded that homozygous SNP {A>C} at codon 145 of LMP7 and Haplotype II (LMP2 ‘C’ and LMP7 ‘C’) has a protective role against HBV infection whereas heterozygous SNP {A>C} at codon 145 of LMP7 and Haplotype I (LMP2 ‘C’ and LMP7 ‘A’) made individuals more susceptible to HBV infection.

Keywords: hepatitis B virus, single nucleotide polymorphism, low molecular weight proteins, transporters associated with antigen presentation

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3 Vaccination against Hepatitis B in Tunisian Health Care Workers

Authors: Asma Ammar, Nabiha Bouafia , Asma BenCheikh, Mohamed Mahjoub, Olfa Ezzi, Wadiaa Bannour, Radhia Helali, Mansour Njah


Background: The objective of the present study was to identify factors associated with vaccination against Hepatitis B virus (HBV) among healthcare workers (HWs) in the University Hospital Center (UHC) Farhat Hached Sousse, Tunisia. Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study all licensed physicians (n= 206) and a representative sample of paramedical staff (n= 372) exercising at UHC Hached Sousse (Tunisia) during two months (January and February 2014). Data were collected using a self-administered and pre-tested questionnaire, which composed by 21 questions. In order to determinate factors associated with vaccination against hepatitis B among HWs, this questionnaire was based on the Health Belief Model, one of the most classical behavior theories. Logistic regression with the stepwise method of Hosmer and Lemeshow was used to identify the determinants of the use of vaccination against HBV. Results: The response rates were 79.8%. Fifty two percent believe that HBV is frequent in our healthcare units and 60.6% consider it a severe infection. The prevalence of HWs vaccination was 39%, 95% CI [34.49%; 43.5%]. In multivariate analysis, determinants of the use of vaccination against HBV among HWs were young age (p=10-4), male gender (p = 0. 006), high or very high importance accorded to health (p = 0.035), perception membership in a risk group for HBV infection (p = 0.038) and very favorable or favorable opinion about vaccination against HVB (p=10-4). Conclusion: The results of our study should be considered in any strategy for preventing VHB infection in HWs. In the mean time, coverage with standard vaccines should be improved also by supplying complete information on the risks of VHB infection and on the safety and efficacy of vaccination.

Keywords: Vaccination, Prevalence, hepatitis B virus, healthcare workers

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2 Predictive Value of Hepatitis B Core-Related Antigen (HBcrAg) during Natural History of Hepatitis B Virus Infection

Authors: Yanhua Zhao, Yu Gou, Shu Feng, Dongdong Li, Chuanmin Tao


The natural history of HBV infection could experience immune tolerant (IT), immune clearance (IC), HBeAg-negative inactive/quienscent carrier (ENQ), and HBeAg-negative hepatitis (ENH). As current biomarkers for discriminating these four phases have some weaknesses, additional serological indicators are needed. Hepatits B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) encoded with precore/core gene contains denatured HBeAg, HBV core antigen (HBcAg) and a 22KDa precore protein (p22cr), which was demonstrated to have a close association with natural history of hepatitis B infection, but no specific cutoff values and diagnostic parameters to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy. This study aimed to clarify the distribution of HBcrAg levels and evaluate its diagnostic performance during the natural history of infection from a Western Chinese perspective. 294 samples collected from treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in different phases (IT=64; IC=72; ENQ=100, and ENH=58). We detected the HBcrAg values and analyzed the relationship between HBcrAg and HBV DNA. HBsAg and other clinical parameters were quantitatively tested. HBcrAg levels of four phases were 9.30 log U/mL, 8.80 log U/mL, 3.00 log U/mL, and 5.10 logU/mL, respectively (p < 0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that the area under curves (AUCs) of HBcrAg and quantitative HBsAg at cutoff values of 9.25 log U/mL and 4.355 log IU/mL for distinguishing IT from IC phases were 0.704 and 0.694, with sensitivity 76.39% and 59.72%, specificity 53.13% and 79.69%, respectively. AUCs of HBcrAg and quantitative HBsAg at cutoff values of 4.15 log U/mlmL and 2.395 log IU/mlmL for discriminating between ENQ and ENH phases were 0.931 and 0.653, with sensitivity 87.93% and 84%, specificity 91.38% and 39%, respectively. Therefore, HBcrAg levels varied significantly among four natural phases of HBV infection. It had higher predictive performance than quantitative HBsAg for distinguishing between ENQ-patients and ENH-patients and similar performance with HBsAg for the discrimination between IT and IC phases, which indicated that HBcrAg could be a potential serological marker for CHB.

Keywords: hepatitis B virus, chronic hepatitis B, hepatitis B core-related antigen, hepatitis B surface antigens

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1 Optimization of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Purifications to Improving the Production of Hepatitis B Vaccines on Pichia pastoris

Authors: Rizky Kusuma Cahyani


Hepatitis B is a liver inflammatory disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). This infection can be prevented by vaccination which contains HBV surface protein (sHBsAg). However, vaccine supply is limited. Several attempts have been conducted to produce local sHBsAg. However, the purity degree and protein yield are still inadequate. Therefore optimization of HBsAg purification steps is required to obtain high yield with better purification fold. In this study, optimization of purification was done in 2 steps, precipitation using variation of NaCl concentration (0,3 M; 0,5 M; 0,7 M) and PEG (3%, 5%, 7%); ion exchange chromatography (IEC) using NaCl 300-500 mM elution buffer concentration.To determine HBsAg protein, bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in this study. Visualization of HBsAg protein was done by SDS-PAGE analysis. Based on quantitative analysis, optimal condition at precipitation step was given 0,3 M NaCl and PEG 3%, while in ion exchange chromatography step, the optimum condition when protein eluted with NaCl 500 mM. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis indicates that the presence of protein HBsAg with a molecular weight of 25 kDa (monomer) and 50 kDa (dimer). The optimum condition for purification of sHBsAg produced in Pichia pastoris gave a yield of 47% and purification fold 17x so that it would increase the production of hepatitis B vaccine to be more optimal.

Keywords: Purification, hepatitis B virus, Pichia pastoris, HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen

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