Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

heavy metal Related Abstracts

46 Heavy Metal of Soil in Wastewater, Irrigated Agricultural Soil in a Surrounding Area of the Nhue River, Vietnam

Authors: Thi Lan Huong Nguyen, Motohei Kanayama, Takahiro Higashi, Van Chinh Le, Thu Ha Doan, Anh Daochu

Abstract:

Waste from industrial sources, serves as sources of water for irrigating farms. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of waste-water irrigation on the level of heavy metals in the soils. Soil samples were collected from the different locations from upstream to downstream of the Nhue River to evaluate heavy metal pollution. The results showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals in the soil samples in the farmland area were much higher than the background level in that area (1.2-2.6 mg/kg for Cd, 42-60 mg/kg for Cr, 22-62mg/kg for Cu, 30-86 mg/kg for Pb, 119-245 mg/kg for Zn, and 26-57 mg/kg for Ni), and exceeded the level of Vietnamese standard for agricultural soil for all heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn except soil samples at upstream and downstream of the Nhue River.

Keywords: Soil, heavy metal, Nhue River, wastewater irrigation

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45 Heavy Metal Concentration in Orchard Area, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: Sivapan Choo-In, Sisuwan Kaseamsawat

Abstract:

A study was conducted in May to July 2013 with the aim of determination of heavy metal concentration in orchard area. 60 samples were collected and analyzed for Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn) by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The heavy metal concentrations in sediment of orchards, that use chemical for Cd (1.13 ± 0.26 mg/l), Cu (8.00 ± 1.05 mg/l), Pb (13.16 ± 2.01) and Zn (37.41 ± 3.20 mg/l). The heavy metal concentrations in sediment of the orchards, that do not use chemical for Cd (1.28 ± 0.50 mg/l), Cu (7.60 ± 1.20 mg/l), Pb (29.87 ± 4.88) and Zn (21.79 ± 2.98 mg/l). Statistical analysis between heavy metal in sediment from the orchard, that use chemical and the orchard, that not use chemical were difference statistic significant of 0.5 level of significant for Cd and Pb while no statistically difference for Cu and Zn.

Keywords: Pollution and monitoring, Sediment, heavy metal, orchard

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44 The Determination of Heavy Metal in Herb Used in Dusit Community to Develop a Sustainable Quality of Life

Authors: Chinnawat Satsananan

Abstract:

This research aimed to find amount of heavy metal in herb used in Dusit community and compare of heavy metal in each part by quantity in herb and standard determination in Thai herb books to develop a sustainable quality of life, the result of study in 14 herbs do not find sample of heavy metal., by quantity of heavy contamination of 4 kinds: Cd, Co, Fe and Pb have lower than standard of 2 organizations: Thai herb standard, and World Health Organization, from the test 14 herbs have Fe in every part of herbs and all 14 kinds has Fe that is necessary for our health.

Keywords: heavy metal, Dusit District, herbs plants, sustainable quality of life

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43 Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater Treatment System of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Pantip Kayee, Yuwadee Yaponha, Jiranit Pongtubthai

Abstract:

This study focused on the determination of heavy metal concentration in wastewater and the investigation of heavy metal removal of wastewater treatment system of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) were found in wastewater of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Wastewater treatment systems of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University showed the performance to remove heavy metals. However, heavy metals were still presented in effluent but these residue heavy metals were not over the standard for industrial wastewater. Wastewater treatment system can remove heavy metal by different process such as bioaccumulation by microorganism and biosorption on activated sludge.

Keywords: wastewater, heavy metal, biosorption, bioaccumulation

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42 The Cadmium Adsorption Study by Using Seyitomer Fly Ash, Diatomite and Molasses in Wastewater

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Baran Acarali, N. Tugrul, E. Cinar

Abstract:

Fly ash is an important waste, produced in thermal power plants which causes very important environmental pollutions. For this reason the usage and evaluation the fly ash in various areas are very important. Nearly, 15 million tons/year of fly ash is produced in Turkey. In this study, usage of fly ash with diatomite and molasses for heavy metal (Cd) adsorption from wastewater is investigated. The samples of Seyitomer region fly ash were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) then diatomite (0 and 1% in terms of fly ash, w/w) and molasses (0-0.75 mL) were pelletized under 30 MPa of pressure for the usage of cadmium (Cd) adsorption in wastewater. After the adsorption process, samples of Seyitomer were analyzed using Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). As a result, it is seen that the usage of Seyitomer fly ash is proper for cadmium (Cd) adsorption and an optimum adsorption yield with 52% is found at a compound with Seyitomer fly ash (10 g), diatomite (0.5 g) and molasses (0.75 mL) at 2.5 h of reaction time, pH:4, 20ºC of reaction temperature and 300 rpm of stirring rate.

Keywords: wastewater, fly ash, Adsorption, heavy metal, molasses, diatomite

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41 Assessment of the Soils Pollution Level of the Open Mine and Tailing Dump of Surrounding Territories of Akhtala Ore Processing Combine by Heavy Metals

Authors: K. A. Ghazaryan, T. H. Derdzyan

Abstract:

For assessment of the soils pollution level of the open mine and tailing dump of surrounding territories of Akhtala ore processing combine by heavy metals in 2013 collected soil samples and analyzed for different heavy metals, such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd. The main soil type in the study sites was the mountain cambisol. To classify soil pollution level contamination indices like Contamination factors (Cf), Degree of contamination (Cd), Pollution load index (PLI) and Geoaccumulation index (I-geo) are calculated. The distribution pattern of trace metals in the soil profile according to I geo, Cf and Cd values shows that the soil is very polluted. And also the PLI values for the 19 sites were >1, which indicates deterioration of site quality.

Keywords: heavy metal, soils pollution, geoaccumulation index, pollution load index, contamination factor

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40 Comparison Study on Characterization of Various Fly Ashes for Heavy Metal Adsorption

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Baran Acarali, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

Fly ash is a waste material of coal firing thermal plants that is released from thermal power plants. It was defined as very fine particles that are drifted upward which are taken up by the flue gases. The emerging amount of fly ash in the world is approximately 600 million tons per year. In our country, it is expected that will be occurred 50 million tons of waste ash per year until 2020. The fly ashes can be evaluated by using as adsorbent material. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of use of various fly ashes (Tuncbilek, Catalagzi, Orhaneli) like low-cost adsorbents for heavy metal adsorption. First of all, fly ashes were characterized. For this purpose; analyses such as XRD, XRF, SEM and FT-IR were performed.

Keywords: Waste, fly ash, heavy metal, adsorbent

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39 The Effect of Additive Acid on the Phytoremediation Efficiency

Authors: M. Rahimnejad, Z. Jamalzadeh, G. Hosseini, A. Sadighzadeh, N. Hosseini

Abstract:

Metal pollutants, especially heavy metals from anthropogenic sources such as metallurgical industries’ waste including mining, smelting, casting or production of nuclear fuel, including mining, concentrate production and uranium processing ends in the environment contamination (water and soil) and risk to human health around the facilities of this type of industrial activity. There are different methods that can be used to remove these contaminants from water and soil. These are very expensive and time-consuming. In this case, the people have been forced to leave the area and the decontamination is not done. For example, in the case of Chernobyl accident, an area of 30 km around the plant was emptied of human life. A very efficient and cost-effective method for decontamination of the soil and the water is phytoremediation. In this method, the plants preferentially native plants which are more adaptive to the regional climate are well used. In this study, three types of plants including Alfalfa, Sunflower and wheat were used to Barium decontamination. Alfalfa and Sunflower were not grown good enough in Saghand mine’s soil sample. This can be due to non-native origin of these plants. But, Wheat rise in Saghand Uranium Mine soil sample was satisfactory. In this study, we have investigated the effect of 4 types of acids inclusive nitric acid, oxalic acid, acetic acid and citric acid on the removal efficiency of Barium by Wheat. Our results indicate the increase of Barium absorption in the presence of citric acid in the soil. In this paper, we will present our research and laboratory results.

Keywords: Soil, Wheat, Phytoremediation, heavy metal

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38 Water Quality Assessment of Deep Wells in Western Misamis Oriental, Philippines

Authors: Romeo M. Del Rosario, Girlie D. Leopoldo, Myrna S. Ceniza, Ronnie L. Besagas, Antonio Y. Asoy, Noel T. Dael

Abstract:

The quality of groundwater from main deep well sources of seven (7) municipalities in Western Misamis Oriental, Philippines was examined. The study looks at the well waters’ physicochemical properties (temperture, pH, turbidity, conductivity, TDS, salinity, chlorides, TOC, and total hardness), the heavy metals and other metals (Pb, Cd, Al, As, Hg, Sb, Zn, Cu, Fe) and their microbiological (total coliform and E. coli) characteristics. The physicochemical properties of groundwater samples were found to be within the Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water (PNSDW)/US-EPA except for the TDS, chlorides, and hardness of some sources. Well waters from both Initao and Gitagum municipalities have TDS values of 643.2 mg/L and 578.4 mg/L, respectively, as compared to PNSDW/US-EPA standard limit of 500 mg/L. These same two municipalities Initao and Gitagum as well as the municipality of Libertad also have chloride levels beyond the 250 mg/L limit of PNSDW/US-EPA/EU with values at 360, 318 and 277 mg/L respectively. The Libertad sample also registered a total hardness of 407.5 mg/L CaCO3 as compared to the 300 mg/L PNSDW limit. These mentioned three (3) municipalities are noticed to have similar geologic structures. Although metal analyses revealed the presence of Zn, Cu and Fe in almost all well water sources, their concentrations are below allowable limit. All well waters from the seven municipalities failed in total coliform count. Escherichia coli were also found in well waters from four (4) municipalities including Laguindingan, Lugait, Gitagum, and Libertad. The presence of these pathogens in the well waters needs to be addressed to make the waters suitable for human consumption.

Keywords: Groundwater, Microbiological, heavy metal, deep well, physico-chemical

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37 Synthesis of NiO and ZnO Nanoparticles and Charactiration for the Eradication of Lead (Pb) from Wastewater

Authors: Sadia Ata, Anila Tabassum, Samina ghafoor, Ijaz ul Mohsin, Azam Muktar

Abstract:

Heavy metal ions such as Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Hg2+, in wastewater are considered as the serious environmental problem. Among these heavy metals, Lead or Pb (II) is the most toxic heavy metal. Exposure to lead causes damage of nervous system, mental retardation, renal kidney disease, anemia and cancer in human beings. Adsorption is the most widely used method to remove metal ions based on the physical interaction between metal ions and sorbents. With the development of nanotechnology, nano-sized materials are proved to be effective sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater due to their unique structural properties. The present work mainly focuses on the synthesis of NiO and ZnO nanoparticles for the removal of Lead ions, their preparation, characterization by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM, adsorption characteristics and mechanism, along with adsorption isotherm model and adsorption kinetics to understand the adsorption procedure.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, wastewater, heavy metal, adsorption isotherms

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36 Expression of Metallothionein Gen and Protein on Hepatopancreas, Gill and Muscle of Perna viridis Caused by Biotoxicity Hg, Pb and Cd

Authors: Yulia Irnidayanti, J. J. Josua, A. Sugianto

Abstract:

Jakarta Bay with 13 rivers that flow into, the environment has deteriorated and is the most polluted bays in Asia. The entry of waste into the waters of the Bay of Jakarta has caused pollution. Heavy metal contamination has led to pollution levels and may cause toxicity to organisms that live in the sea, down to the cellular level and may affect the ecological balance. Various ways have been conducted to measure the impact of environmental degradation, such as by measuring the levels of contaminants in the environment, including measuring the accumulation of toxic compounds in the tissues of organisms. Biological responses or biomarkers known as a sensitive indicator but need relevant predictions. In heavy metal pollution monitoring, analysis of aquatic biota is very important from the analysis of the water itself. The content of metals in aquatic biota will usually always be increased from time to time due to the nature of metal bioaccumulation, so the aquatic biota is best used as an indicator of metal pollution in aquatic environments. The results of the content analysis results of sea water in coastal estuaries Angke, Kaliadem and Panimbang detected heavy metals cadmium, mercury, lead, but did not find zinc metal. Based on the results of protein electrophoresis methallotionein found heavy metals in the tissues hepatopancreas, gills and muscles, and also the mRNA expression of has detected.

Keywords: Muscle, heavy metal, gills, hepatopancreas, metallothionein

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35 Detection of Selected Heavy Metals in Raw Milk: Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Huma Naeem, Saif-Ur-Rehman Kashif, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry

Abstract:

Milk plays a significant role in the dietary requirements of human beings as it is a single source that provides various essential nutrients. A study was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal concentration in the raw milk marketed in Data Gunj Baksh Town of Lahore. A total of 180 samples of raw milk were collected in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon season from five colonies of Data Gunj Baksh Town, Lahore. The milk samples were subjected to heavy metal analysis (Cr, Cu) by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results indicated high levels of Cr and Cu in post-monsoon seasons. Heavy metals were detected in milk in all samples under study and exceeded the standards given by FAO.

Keywords: Chromium, Copper, heavy metal, atomic absorption spectrophotometer

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34 Assessment of Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation by Tissues of Ipomoea Batatas and Manihot Esculenta Irrigated with Water from Muhammad Ayuba Dam, Kazaure, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: S. A., A. U. Adamu, Hamisu Abdu, Sa’idu A. Abdullah, Jafar Lawan, Fowotade

Abstract:

Scarcity of quality water in many communities compels inhabitants to use any available water resources for domestic, recreational, industrial and agricultural purposes. Global concern on the potential health hazards of anthropogenic inputs into our ecosystems imposes the need for constant monitoring of levels of pollutants in order to ensure compliance with internationally acceptable criteria. In this research, assessment of bioaccumulation of Cd, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn was carried out using tissues of Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) and Manihot esculenta (cassava) irrigated with water from Muhammad Ayuba Dam in Kazaure, Jigawa State. The metal concentrations were determined using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). The result of the analysis revealed the presence of the metals in varying concentrations. Cd and Co showed higher concentrations in the tubers of Manihot esculenta but all the other investigated metals were more concentrated in the leaves of the plant. Cd and Cu on the other hand showed higher concentration in the root of Ipomoea batatas while the remaining investigated metals were concentrated more in the leaves of the plant. The result of analysis of water samples from five sampling stations in the Dam showed the presence of the metals as follows: Cd, (0.063±0.02 mg/L), Co (0.086±0.03 mg/L), Cu (0.167±0.08 mg/L), Pb (0.22±0.01 mg/L) and Zn (0.047±0.01 mg/L) respectively. The results of bioaccumulation studies using the Bioaccumulation Factors (BAF) index indicated Ipomoea batatas to have higher bioaccumulation potential for Cd, Co and Cu while Pb and Zn were more accumulated in Manihot esculenta. The levels of the metals in both the water samples and plant tissues were all below the WHO permissible limit. This is indicative that the inhabitants of the community under investigation are not at any health risk.

Keywords: Agriculture, heavy metal, bioaccumulation, plant tissues

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33 Biosorption of Ni (II) Using Alkaline-Treated Rice Husk

Authors: Khanom Simarani

Abstract:

Rice husk has been widely reported as a good sorbent for heavy metals. Pre treatment of rice husk minimizes cellulose crystallinity and increases the surface area thus ensuring better adsorption capacity. Commercial base and natural base-treated rice husk were used to investigate the potential of Ni(II) adsorption from synthetic solutions and waste water in batch systems. Effects of process variables such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, initial Ni (II) concentration were studied. Optimum Ni (II) adsorption was observed at pH 6 within 60 min of contact time. Experimental data showed increased amount of adsorbed Ni(II) with increasing adsorbent dose and decreased percent of adsorption with increasing initial Ni(II) concentration. Kinetic isotherms (Langmuir, Freundlich) were also applied. Biosorption mechanism of rice husk was analyzed using SEM/EDS, FT-IR, and XRD. The results revealed that natural base produced from agroindustrial waste could be used as efficient as commercial bases during pre treatment rice husk in removing Ni(II) from waste waters within 15 min.

Keywords: biomass, heavy metal, adsorbent, Nickel removal

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32 Absorption Capability Examination of Heavy Metals by Spirogyra Alga in Ahvaz Water Treatment Plant

Authors: F. Fakheri Raof, F. Zobeidizadeh

Abstract:

The present study examined the potential capability of Spirogyra algae remove heavy metals Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cr from the water. For this purpose, the water treatment No. 3 of Ahvaz County in Khuzestan Province of Iran was selected as a case study. From 8 sampling stations, 4 stations were dedicated to the water samples and 4 stations to the algae samples. According to the obtained results, the concentration of the heavy metals Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in water samples were within the ranges of 1.98-19.53, 0.67-13.45, 1-23.18, and 2.12-83.04 µg/L. Besides, the concentration of heavy metal Cr, Pb, Cu, and Zn in spirogyra algae samples varied between the ranges 2.30-3.61, 2.06-3.43, 2.29-2.56, and 9.88-10.84 µg/L. The highest amount of metal absorption in spirogyra algae samples was related to the zinc. The obtained results also indicated that the last spirogyra algae sample which was at the inlet of Tank 4 absorbed the lowest concentration of metals. This would be due to the treatment process along the course of ponds resulted in completely pure water at the outlet without the existence of algae on the sides. The paper also provides some useful recommendations on this issue.

Keywords: Absorption, heavy metal, water treatment plants, Ahvaz, spirogyra algae

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31 Spatio-temporal Variations in Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sediment of Qua Iboe River Estuary, Nigeria

Authors: Ime R. Udotong, Justina I. R. Udotong, Offiong U. Eka

Abstract:

The concentrations of heavy metals in sediments of Qua Iboe River Estuary (QIRE) were monitored at four different sampling locations in wet and dry seasons. A preliminary survey to determine the four sampling stations along the river continuum showed that the area spanned between < 0.1% salinity at the control station and 21.5‰ at the fourth station along the river continuum. A preliminary survey to determine the four sampling locations along the river estuary showed variations in salinity and other physicochemical parameters. The estuary was found to be polluted with heavy metals from point and nonpoint sources at varying degrees. Mean values of 7.80 mg/kg, 4.97 mg/kg and 2.80 mg/kg of nickel were obtained for sediment samples from Douglas creek, Qua Iboe and Atlantic sampling locations, respectively in the dry season. The wet season nickel concentrations were however lower. The entire study area was grossly contaminated by iron. At Douglas creek, the concentration of iron in sediment was 9274 ± 9.54 mg/kg while copper, nickel, lead and vanadium were <0.5 mg/kg each as compared to iron. Bioaccumulation was therefore suspected within the study area as values of 31.00 ± 0.79, 36.00 ± 0.10 and 55.00 ± 0.05 mg/kg of zinc were recorded in sediment at Douglas creek, Atlantic and the control sampling locations. The results from this study showed that the source of these heavy metals were from point sources like the corrosion of metal steel pipes from old bridges as well as oily sludge wastes from the Qua Iboe Terminal / tank farm located within the vicinity of the study area.

Keywords: Sediment, heavy metal, Qua Iboe River estuary, seasonal variations

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30 Histopathological Changes in Liver and Muscle of Tilapia Fish from QIRE Exposed to Concentrations of Heavy Metals

Authors: Ofonime U. M. John, Justina I. R. Udotong

Abstract:

Toxicity of copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and iron (Fe) to Tilapia guinensis was carried out for 4 days with a view to determining their effects on the liver and muscle tissues. Tilapia guinensis samples of about 10 - 14cm length and 0.2 – 0.4kg weight each were obtained from University of Calabar fish ponds and acclimated for three (3) days before the experimental set up. Survivors after the 96-hr LC50 test period were selected from test solutions of the heavy metals for the histopathological studies. Histological preparations of liver and muscle tissues were randomly examined for histopathological lesions. Results of the histological examinations showed gross abnormalities in the liver tissues due to pathological and degenerative changes compared to liver and muscle tissues from control samples (tilapia fishes from aquaria without heavy metals). Extensive hepatocyte necrosis with chronic inflammatory changes was observed in the liver of fishes exposed to Cu solution. Similar but less damaging effects were observed in the liver of fishes exposed to Pb and Fe. The extent of lesion observed was therefore heavy metal-related. However, no pathologic changes occurred in the muscle tissues.

Keywords: Toxicity, Histopathology, heavy metal, degenerative changes, hepatocyte necrosis

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29 Determination of Heavy Metal Concentration in Soil from Flood Affected Area

Authors: Siti Hajar Ya’acob, Nor Sayzwani Sukri, Farah Khaliz Kedri, Musfiroh Jani, Noor Syuhadah Subki, Zulhazman Hamzah

Abstract:

In mid-December 2014, the biggest flood event occurred in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia especially at Dabong area, Kelantan. As a consequent of flood disaster, the heavy metals concentration in soil may changes and become harmful to the environment due to the pollution that deposited in soil. This study was carried out to determine the heavy metal concentration from flood affected area. Sample have been collected and analysed by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), and Arsenic (As) were chosen for the heavy metals concentration. The result indicated that the heavy metal concentration did not exceed the limit. In-situ parameters also were carried out, were the results showed the range of soil pH (6.5-6.8), temperature (25°C – 26.5°C), and moisture content (1-2), respectively. The results from this study can be used as a base data to improve the soil quality and for consideration of future land use activities.

Keywords: Flood, Soil, heavy metal, AAS

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28 Assessment of Proximate Composition and Heavy Metal in Vigna unguculata (White Beans) Sold in Kazaure Market, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Hamisu Abdu, Abdu Umar Adamu, Saidu Akun Abdullahi, Al-Hassan Muhammed

Abstract:

Leguminous plants such as beans have been considered as a source of protein in this present work. The proximate analysis on beans (Vigna unguiculata) were determined in order to identify the nutritional content as well as presence of some heavy metals accumulation in washed and unwashed beans (white Beans) sold in Kazaure market Jigawa State Nigeria. On the average comparative analysis, the result has indicated that, the Vigna unguiculata had protein content of 61.1%, fibre 4.5%, ash 10.4%, moisture 5%, carbohydrate 15.8% and total lipid 4.9%, therefore it could be suggested that beans has enough nutritional content that helps the people health. The heavy metal analysis of unwashed white beans showed that Fe (17.37 ± 6.71)mg/kg had the highest concentration followed by Zn (6.41 ± 3.09), Cu (5.69 ± 2.42), Cd (0.46 ± 0.65) and Pb (0.57 ± 0.94)mg/kg , while the washed beans shows that Zn (0.11 ± 0.17), Fe (0.01 ± 0.006), Cd (0.02 ± 0.01), Cu (0.03 ± 0.021), Pb (0.01 ± 0.006)mg/kg. The washed white beans are safe for consumption and also the concentration of heavy metal are negligible and of nontoxic effect to human health.

Keywords: Protein, proximate composition, heavy metal, white beans

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27 Impact of Two Xenobiotics in Mosquitofish: Gambusia affinis: Several Approaches

Authors: Chouahda Salima, Soltani Noureddine

Abstract:

The present study is a part of biological control against mosquitoes. It aims to assess the impact of two xenobiotics (a selective insect growth regulator: halofenozide and heavy metals: cadmium, more toxic and widespread in the region) in mosquitofish: Gambusia affinis. Several approaches were examined: Acute toxicity of cadmium and halofenozide: The acute toxicity of cadmium and halofenozide was examined in juvenile and adult males and females of G. affinis at different concentrations, cadmium causes mortality of the species studied with a relation dose-response. In laboratory conditions, the impact of cadmium was determined on two biomarkers of environmental stress: glutathione and acetylcholinesterase. The results show that the juvenile followed by adult males are more susceptible than adult females, while the halofenozide does not have any effect on the mortality of juvenile and adult males and females of G.affinis. Chronic toxicity of cadmium and halofenozide: both xenobiotics were added to the water fish raising at different doses tested in juveniles and adults males and females during two months of experience. Growth and metric indices; results show that halofenozide added to the water juveniles of G. affinis has no effect on their growth (length and weight). On the other side, the cadmium at the dose 5 µg/L shows a higher toxicity against juvenile, where he appears to reduce significantly their linear growth and weight. In females, the both xenobiotics have significant effects on metric indices, but these effects are more important on the hepatosomatic index that the gonadosomatic index and the coefficient of condition. Biomarkers; acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) used in assessing of environmental stress were measured in juveniles and adults males and females. The response of these biomarkers reveals an inhibition of AChE specific activity, an induction of GST activity, and decrease of GSH rates in juveniles in the end of experiment and during chronic treatment adult males and females. The effect of these biomarkers is more pronounced in females compared to males and juveniles. These different biomarkers have a similar profile for the duration of exposure.

Keywords: Biomarkers, Morphology, Pollution, acute toxicity, heavy metal, insecticide, Gambusia affinis, chronic toxicity

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26 Use of Carica papaya as a Bio-Sorbent for Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater

Authors: W. E. Igwegbe, B. C. Okoro, J. C. Osuagwu

Abstract:

The study was aimed at assessing the effectiveness of reducing the concentrations of heavy metals in waste water using Pawpaw (Carica papaya) wood as a bio-sorbent. The heavy metals considered include; zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, iron, selenium, nickel, and manganese. The physiochemical properties of carica papaya stem were studied. The experimental sample was obtained from a felled trunk of matured pawpaw tree. Waste water for experimental use was prepared by dissolving soil samples collected from a dump site at Owerri, Imo state in water. The concentration of each metal remaining in solution as residual metal after bio-sorption was determined using Atomic absorption Spectrometer. The effects of ph, contact time and initial heavy metal concentration were studied in a batch reactor. The results of Spectrometer test showed that there were different functional groups detected in the carica papaya stem biomass. Optimum bio-sorption occurred at pH 5.9 with 5g/100ml solution of bio-sorbent. The results of the study showed that the treated wastewater is fit for irrigation purpose based on Canada wastewater quality guideline for the protection of Agricultural standard. This approach thus provides a cost effective and environmentally friendly option for treating waste water.

Keywords: biomass, wastewater, carica papaya, heavy metal, bio-sorption

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25 Effect of Cadmium on Oxidative Enzymes Activity in Persian Clover (Trifolium resupinatum L.)

Authors: Homayun Ghasemi, Mojtaba Yousefirad, Mozhgan Farzamisepehr

Abstract:

Heavy metals are among soil pollutant resources that in case of accumulation in the soil and absorption by the plant, enter into the food chain and poison the plants or the people who consume those plants. This research was performed in order to examine the role of cadmium as a heavy metal in the activity of catalase and peroxidase as well as protein concentration in Trifolium resupinatum L. based on a randomized block design with three repetitions. The used treatments included consumption of Cd (NO3)2 at four levels, namely, 0, 100, 200, and 300 ppm. The plants under study were treated for 10 days. The results of the study showed that catalase activity decreased by the increase of cadmium. Moreover, peroxidase activity increased by an increase inthe consumption of cadmium. The analysis of protein level showed that plantlet protein decreased in high cadmium concentrations. The findings also demonstrated that cadmium concentration in roots was higher than in shoots.

Keywords: Protein, heavy metal, catalase, peroxidase

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24 Concentrations and History of Heavy Metals in Sediment Cores: Geochemistry and Geochronology Using 210Pb

Authors: F. Fernandes, C. Poleto

Abstract:

This paper aims at assessing the concentrations of heavy metals and the isotopic composition of lead 210Pb in different fractions of sediment produced in the watershed that makes up the Mãe d'água dam and thus characterizing the distribution of metals along the sedimentary column and inferencing in the urbanization of the same process. Sample collection was carried out in June 2014; eight sediment cores were sampled in the lake of the dam. For extraction of the sediments core, a core sampler “Piston Core” was used. The trace metal concentrations were determined by conventional atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. The samples were subjected to radiochemical analysis of 210Po. 210Pb activity was obtained by measuring 210Po activity. The chronology was calculated using the constant rate of supply (CRS). 210Pb is used to estimate the sedimentation rate.

Keywords: heavy metal, ²¹⁰Pb dating method, lakes urban, pollution history

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23 Antioxidant Capacity of Maize Corn under Drought Stress from the Different Zones of Growing

Authors: Astghik R. Sukiasyan

Abstract:

The semidental sweet maize of Armenian population under drought stress and pollution by some heavy metals (HMs) in sites along the river Debet was studied. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to investigate the antioxidant status of maize plant in order to identify simple and reliable criteria for assessing the degree of adaptation of plants to abiotic stress of drought and HMs. It was found that in the case of removal from the mainstream of the river, the antioxidant status of the plant varies. As parameters, the antioxidant status of the plant has been determined by the activity of malondialdehyde (MDA) and Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), taking into account the characteristics of natural drought of this region. The possibility of using some indicators which characterized the antioxidant status of the plant was concluded. The criteria for assessing the extent of environmental pollution could be HMs. This fact can be used for the early diagnosis of diseases in the population who lives in these areas and uses corn as the main food.

Keywords: heavy metal, drought stress, antioxidant status, maize corn

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22 Competitive Adsorption of Heavy Metals onto Natural and Activated Clay: Equilibrium, Kinetics and Modeling

Authors: M. Bagane, L. Khalfa, M. L. Cervera, S. Najjar

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to present a low cost adsorbent for removing toxic heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Therefore, we are interested to investigate the efficiency of natural clay minerals collected from south Tunisia and their modified form using sulfuric acid in the removal of toxic metal ions: Zn(II) and Pb(II) from synthetic waste water solutions. The obtained results indicate that metal uptake is pH-dependent and maximum removal was detected to occur at pH 6. Adsorption equilibrium is very rapid and it was achieved after 90 min for both metal ions studied. The kinetics results show that the pseudo-second-order model describes the adsorption and the intraparticle diffusion models are the limiting step. The treatment of natural clay with sulfuric acid creates more active sites and increases the surface area, so it showed an increase of the adsorbed quantities of lead and zinc in single and binary systems. The competitive adsorption study showed that the uptake of lead was inhibited in the presence of 10 mg/L of zinc. An antagonistic binary adsorption mechanism was observed. These results revealed that clay is an effective natural material for removing lead and zinc in single and binary systems from aqueous solution.

Keywords: Modeling, heavy metal, kinetic study, competitive adsorption, activated clay

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21 Impact of Long Term Application of Municipal Solid Waste on Physicochemical and Microbial Parameters and Heavy Metal Distribution in Soils in Accordance to Its Agricultural Uses

Authors: Rinku Dhanker, Suman Chaudhary, Tanvi Bhatia, Sneh Goyal

Abstract:

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), being a rich source of organic materials, can be used for agricultural applications as an important source of nutrients for soil and plants. This is also an alternative beneficial management practice for MSW generated in developing countries. In the present study, MSW treated soil samples from last four to six years at farmer’s field in Rohtak and Gurgaon states (Haryana, India) were collected. The samples were analyzed for all-important agricultural parameters and compared with the control untreated soil samples. The treated soil at farmer’s field showed increase in total N by 48 to 68%, P by 45.7 to 51.3%, and K by 60 to 67% compared to untreated soil samples. Application of sewage sludge at different sites led to increase in microbial biomass C by 60 to 68% compared to untreated soil. There was significant increase in total Cu, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb, and Zn in all sewage sludge amended soil samples; however, concentration of all the metals were still below the current permitted (EU) limits. To study the adverse effect of heavy metals accumulation on various soil microbial activities, the sewage sludge samples (from wastewater treatment plant at Gurgaon) were artificially contaminated with heavy metal concentration above the EU limits. They were then applied to soil samples with different rates (0.5 to 4.0%) and incubated for 90 days under laboratory conditions. The samples were drawn at different intervals and analyzed for various parameters like pH, EC, total N, P, K, microbial biomass C, carbon mineralization, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) exactable heavy metals. The results were compared to the uncontaminated sewage sludge. The increasing level of sewage sludge from 0.5 to 4% led to build of organic C and total N, P and K content at the early stages of incubation. But, organic C was decreased after 90 days because of decomposition of organic matter. Biomass production was significantly increased in both contaminated and uncontaminated sewage soil samples, but also led to slight increases in metal accumulation and their bioavailability in soil. The maximum metal concentrations were found in treatment with 4% of contaminated sewage sludge amendment.

Keywords: Sustainable Agriculture, heavy metal, municipal sewage sludge, soil fertility and quality

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20 Heavy Metal Contamination and Environmental Risk in Surface Sediments along the Coasts of Suez and Aqaba Gulfs, Egypt

Authors: Alaa M. Younis, Ismail S. Ismail, Lamiaa I. Mohamedein, Shimaa F. Ahmed

Abstract:

Sandy surface sediments collected from fourteen sites along the gulfs of Suez and Aqaba coasts, Egypt were analyzed for heavy metals including Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Chromium, Nickel, Lead, Copper and Cadmium in order to evaluate the pollution status and environmental risk assessment of the study area. The obtained results showed that the concentrations of investigated metals are represented in the following sequence; For Gulf of Aqaba sediments Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Cu > Cd. While for Gulf of Suez Sediments Fe > Mn > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd. The degree of surface sediment contamination using Geo-accumulation index (I geo) and Metal Pollution Index (MPI) was computed. Higher MPI values were observed at the sites III (Nama Bay) and VIII (Rex Beach). According to Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) approach, Pb and Cu in the gulf of Suez at station IX (Kabanon Beach) had probably adverse ecological effects to marine organisms.

Keywords: Environmental Risk, heavy metal, Suez gulf, Aqaba gulf

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19 Effect of Vesicular Arbuscular mycorrhiza on Phytoremedial Potential and Physiological Changes in Solanum melongena Plants Grown under Heavy Metal Stress

Authors: Ritu Chaturvedi, Mayank Varun, M. S. Paul

Abstract:

Heavy metal contamination of soil is a growing area of concern since the soil is the matrix that supports flora and impacts humans directly. Phytoremediation of contaminated sites is gaining popularity due to its cost effectiveness and solar driven nature. Some hyperaccumulators have been identified for their potential. Metal-accumulating plants have various mechanisms to cope up with stress and one of them is increasing antioxidative capacity. The aim of this research is to assess the effect of Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) application on the phytoremedial potential of Solanum melongena (Eggplant) and level of photosynthetic pigments along with antioxidative enzymes. Results showed that VAM application increased shoot length, root proliferation pattern of plants. The level of photosynthetic pigments, proline, SOD, CAT, APX altered significantly in response to heavy metal treatment. In conclusion, VAM increased the uptake of heavy metals which lead to the activation of the defense system in plants for scavenging free radicals.

Keywords: Phytostabilization, heavy metal, reactive oxygen species, phytoextraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
18 Manganese Contamination Exacerbates Reproductive Stress in a Suicidally-Breeding Marsupial

Authors: Ami Fadhillah Amir Abdul Nasir, Amanda C. Niehaus, Skye F. Cameron, Frank A. Von Hippel, John Postlethwait​, Robbie S. Wilson

Abstract:

For suicidal breeders, the physiological stresses and energetic costs of breeding are fatal. Environmental stressors such as pollution should compound these costs, yet suicidal breeding is so rare among mammals that this is unknown. Here, we explored the consequences of metal contamination to the health, aging and performance of endangered, suicidally-breeding northern quolls (Dasyurus hallucatus) living near an active manganese mine on Groote Eylandt, Northern Territory, Australia. We found respirable manganese dust at levels exceeding international recommendations even 20km from mining sites and substantial accumulation of manganese within quolls’ hair, testes, and in two brain regions—the neocortex and cerebellum, responsible for sensory perception and motor function, respectively. Though quolls did not differ in sprint speeds, motor skill, or manoeuvrability, those with higher accumulation of manganese crashed at lower speeds during manoeuvrability tests, indicating a potential effect on sight or cognition. Immune function and telomere length declined over the breeding season, as expected with ageing, but manganese contamination exacerbated immune declines and suppressed cortisol. Unexpectedly, male quolls with higher levels of manganese had longer telomeres, supporting evidence of unusual telomere dynamics among Dasyurids—though whether this affects their lifespan is unknown. We posit that sublethal contamination via pollution, mining, or urbanisation imposes physiological costs on wildlife that may diminish reproductive success or survival.

Keywords: Ecotoxicology, cortisol, heavy metal, manganese, telomere length, locomotor

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17 Categorization of Biosolids, a Vital Biological Resource for Sustainable Agriculture

Authors: Pankaj Pathak, Susmita Sharma

Abstract:

Biosolids are by-products of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment process. The generation of the biosolids is increasing at an alarming rate due to the implementation of strict environmental legislation to improve the quality of discharges from wastewater treatment plant. As such, proper management and safe disposal of sewage sludge have become a worldwide topic of research. Biosolids, rich in organic matter and essential micro and macronutrients; can be used as a soil conditioner, to cut fertilizer costs and create favorable conditions for vegetation. However, it also contains pathogens and heavy metals which are undesirable as they are harmful to both humans and the environment. Therefore, for safe utilization of biosolids for land application purposes, categorization of the contaminant and pathogen is mandatory. In this context, biosolids collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Maharashtra are utilized to determine its physical, chemical and microbiological attributes. This study would ascertain, if the use of these materials from the specific site, are suitable for agriculture. Further, efforts have also been made to present the internationally acceptable legal standards and guidelines for biosolids management or application.

Keywords: Sustainable Agriculture, Biosolids, Sewage, heavy metal

Procedia PDF Downloads 194