Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Heating Related Abstracts

9 Exergetic and Sustainability Evaluation of a Building Heating System in Izmir, Turkey

Authors: Nurdan Yildirim, Arif Hepbasli


Heating, cooling and lighting appliances in buildings account for more than one third of the world’s primary energy demand. Therefore, main components of the building heating systems play an essential role in terms of energy consumption. In this context, efficient energy and exergy utilization in HVAC-R systems has been very essential, especially in developing energy policies towards increasing efficiencies. The main objective of the present study is to assess the performance of a family house with a volume of 326.7 m3 and a net floor area of 121 m2, located in the city of Izmir, Turkey in terms of energetic, exergetic and sustainability aspects. The indoor and exterior air temperatures are taken as 20°C and 1°C, respectively. In the analysis and assessment, various metrics (indices or indicators) such as exergetic efficiency, exergy flexibility ratio and sustainability index are utilized. Two heating options (Case 1: condensing boiler and Case 2: air heat pump) are considered for comparison purposes. The total heat loss rate of the family house is determined to be 3770.72 W. The overall energy efficiencies of the studied cases are calculated to be 49.4% for Case 1 and 54.7% for Case 2. The overall exergy efficiencies, the flexibility factor and the sustainability index of Cases 1 and 2 are computed to be around 3.3%, 0.17 and 1.034, respectively.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Sustainability, Buildings, Exergy, Efficiency, Heating, low exergy

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8 Heating and Cooling Scenario of Blended Concrete Subjected to 780 Degrees Celsius

Authors: J. E. Oti, J. M. Kinuthia, R. Robinson, P. Davies


In this study, The Compressive strength of concretes made with Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS), pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Waste Glass Powder (WGP) after they were exposed 7800C (exposure duration of around 60 minutes) and then allowed to cool down gradually in the furnace for about 280 minutes at water binder ratio of 0.50 was investigated. GGBS, PFA, RHA and WGP were used to replace up to 20% Portland cement in the control concrete. Test for the determination of workability, compressive strength and tensile splitting strength of the concretes were carried out and the results were compared with control concrete. The test results showed that the compressive strength decreased by an average of around 30% after the concretes were exposed to the heating and cooling scenario.

Keywords: Concrete, Heating, Cooling, workability, GGBS, rice husk ash, pulverised fuel ash, waste glass powder

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7 The Plasma Additional Heating Systems by Electron Cyclotron Waves

Authors: Ghoutia Naima Sabri, Tayeb Benouaz


The interaction between wave and electron cyclotron movement when the electron passes through a layer of resonance at a fixed frequency results an Electron Cyclotron (EC) absorption in Tokamak plasma and dependent magnetic field. This technique is the principle of additional heating (ECRH) and the generation of non-inductive current drive (ECCD) in modern fusion devices. In this paper we are interested by the problem of EC absorption which used a microscopic description of kinetic theory treatment versus the propagation which used the cold plasma description. The power absorbed depends on the optical depth which in turn depends on coefficient of absorption and the order of the excited harmonic for O-mode or X-mode. There is another possibility of heating by dissipation of Alfven waves, based on resonance of cold plasma waves, the shear Alfven wave (SW) and the compressional Alfven wave (FW). Once the (FW) power is coupled to (SW), it stays on the magnetic surface and dissipates there, which cause the heating of bulk plasmas.

Keywords: plasma, Heating, tokamak, electron cyclotron

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6 Rheological Modeling for Shape-Memory Thermoplastic Polymers

Authors: H. Hosseini, B. V. Berdyshev, I. Iskopintsev


This paper presents a rheological model for producing shape-memory thermoplastic polymers. Shape-memory occurs as a result of internal rearrangement of the structural elements of a polymer. A non-linear viscoelastic model was developed that allows qualitative and quantitative prediction of the stress-strain behavior of shape-memory polymers during heating. This research was done to develop a technique to determine the maximum possible change in size of heat-shrinkable products during heating. The rheological model used in this work was particularly suitable for defining process parameters and constructive parameters of the processing equipment.

Keywords: Heating, Stress-Strain Behavior, elastic deformation, shape-memory polymers, viscoelastic model

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5 PWM Harmonic Injection and Frequency-Modulated Triangular Carrier to Improve the Lives of the Transformers

Authors: Mario J. Meco-Gutierrez, Francisco Perez-Hidalgo, Juan R. Heredia-Larrubia, Antonio Ruiz-Gonzalez, Francisco Vargas-Merino


More and more applications power inverters connected to transformers, for example, the connection facilities to the power grid renewable generation. It is well known that the quality of signal power inverters it is not a pure sine. The harmonic content produced negative effects, one of which is the heating of electrical machines and therefore, affects the life of the machines. The decrease of life of transformers can be calculated by Arrhenius or Montsinger equation. Analyzing this expression any (long-term) decrease of a transformer temperature for 6º C - 7º C means doubles its life-expectancy. Methodologies: This work presents the technique of pulse width modulation (PWM) with an injection of harmonic and triangular frequency carrier modulated in frequency. This technique is used to improve the quality of the output voltage signal of the power inverters controlled PWM. The proposed technique increases in the fundamental term and a significant reduction in low order harmonics with the same commutations per time that control sine PWM. To achieve this, the modulating wave is compared to a triangular carrier with variable frequency over the period of the modulator. Therefore, it is, advantageous for the modulating signal to have a large amount of sinusoidal “information” in the areas of greater sampling. A triangular signal with a frequency that varies over the modulator’s period is used as a carrier, for obtaining more samples in the area with the greatest slope. A power inverter controlled by PWM proposed technique is connected to a transformer. Results: In order to verify the derived thermal parameters under different operation conditions, another ambient and loading scenario is involved for a further verification, which was sampled from the same power transformer. Temperatures of different parts of the transformer will be exposed for each PWM control technique analyzed. An assessment of the temperature be done with different techniques PWM control and hence the life of the transformer is calculated for each technique. Conclusion: This paper analyzes such as transformer heating produced by this technique and compared with other forms of PWM control. In it can be seen as a reduction the harmonic content produces less heat transformer and therefore, an increase in the life of the transformer.

Keywords: Heating, PWM, transformer, power-inverter

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4 Passive Solar Techniques to Improve Thermal Comfort and Reduce Energy Consumption of Domestic Use

Authors: Naci Kalkan, Ihsan Dagtekin


Passive design responds to improve indoor thermal comfort and minimize the energy consumption. The present research analyzed the how efficiently passive solar technologies generate heating and cooling and provide the system integration for domestic applications. In addition to this, the aim of this study is to increase the efficiency of solar systems system with integration some innovation and optimization. As a result, outputs of the project might start a new sector to provide environmentally friendly and cheap cooling for domestic use.

Keywords: Heating, Thermal comfort, Cooling, Ventilation Systems, passive solar systems

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3 Hybrid Adaptive Modeling to Enhance Robustness of Real-Time Optimization

Authors: Hussain Syed Asad, Richard Kwok Kit Yuen, Gongsheng Huang


Real-time optimization has been considered an effective approach for improving energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. In model-based real-time optimization, model mismatches cannot be avoided. When model mismatches are significant, the performance of the real-time optimization will be impaired and hence the expected energy saving will be reduced. In this paper, the model mismatches for chiller plant on real-time optimization are considered. In the real-time optimization of the chiller plant, simplified semi-physical or grey box model of chiller is always used, which should be identified using available operation data. To overcome the model mismatches associated with the chiller model, hybrid Genetic Algorithms (HGAs) method is used for online real-time training of the chiller model. HGAs combines Genetic Algorithms (GAs) method (for global search) and traditional optimization method (i.e. faster and more efficient for local search) to avoid conventional hit and trial process of GAs. The identification of model parameters is synthesized as an optimization problem; and the objective function is the Least Square Error between the output from the model and the actual output from the chiller plant. A case study is used to illustrate the implementation of the proposed method. It has been shown that the proposed approach is able to provide reliability in decision making, enhance the robustness of the real-time optimization strategy and improve on energy performance.

Keywords: Heating, ventilation, Real-Time Optimization, Energy Performance, hybrid adaptive modeling, hybrid genetic algorithms, and air-conditioning

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2 Indoor Emissions Produced by Kerosene Heating, Determining Its Formation Potential of Secondary Particulate Matter and Transport

Authors: J. M. Muñoz, Y. Vasquez, P. Oyola, M. Rubio


All emissions of contaminants inside of homes, offices, school and another enclosure closer that affect the health of those who inhabit or use them are cataloged how indoor pollution. The importance of this study is because individuals spend most of their time in indoors ambient. The main indoor pollutants are oxides of nitrogen (NOₓ), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). Combustion heaters are an important source of pollution indoors. It will be measured: NOₓ, SO₂, CO, PM₂,₅ y PM₁₀ continuous and discreet form at indoor and outdoor of two households with different heating energy; kerosene and electricity (control home) respectively, in addition to environmental parameters such as temperature. With the values obtained in the 'control home' it will be possible estimate the contaminants transport from outside to inside of the household and later the contribution generated by kerosene heating. Transporting the emissions from burning kerosene to a photochemical chamber coupled to a continuous and discreet measuring system of contaminants it will be evaluated the oxidation of the emissions and formation of secondary particulate matter. It will be expected watch a contaminants transport from outside to inside of the household and the kerosene emissions present a high potential of formation secondary particulate matter.

Keywords: Heating, indoor pollution, kerosene, secondary particulate matter

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1 Analysis of the Feasibility of Using a Solar Spiral Type Water Heater for Swimming Pool Application in Physiotherapy and Sports Centers

Authors: V. A. C. Vale, E. T. L. Cöuras Ford, G. B. M. Carvalho


A heated pool makes it possible to use it during all hours of the day and in the seasons, especially in physiotherapies and sports centers. However, the cost of installation, operation and maintenance often makes it difficult to deploy. In addition, the current global policy for the use of natural resources from energy sources contradicts the most common means of heating swimming pools, such as the use of gas (Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas), the use of firewood or oil and the use of electricity (heat pumps and electrical resistances). In this sense, this work focuses on the use of solar water heaters to be used in swimming pools of physiotherapy centers, in order to analyze their viability for this purpose in view of the costs linked to the medium and/or long term heating. For this, materials of low cost, low weight, easy commercial acquisition were used besides easy manufacture. Parameters such as flow, temperature distribution, efficiency and technical-economic feasibility were evaluated.

Keywords: Solar energy, Water, Efficiency, Heating, Solar Collectors, Pool, temperature

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