Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Heat Treatment Related Abstracts

45 RBS Characteristic of Cd1−xZnxS Thin Film Fabricated by Vacuum Deposition Method

Authors: N. Dahbi, D. E. Arafah


Cd1−xZnxS thins films have been fabricated from ZnS/CdS/ZnS multilayer thin film systems, by using the vacuum deposition method; the Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) technique have been applied in order to determine the: structure, composition, depth profile, and stoichiometric of these films. The influence of the chemical and heat treatments on the produced films also have been investigated; the RBS spectra of the films showed that homogenous Cd1−xZnxS can be synthesized with x=0.45.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Chemical Treatment, thin film, Cd1−xZnxS, depth profile, RBS, RUMP simulation, vacuum deposition, ZnS/CdS/ZnS

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44 Chromium Adsorption by Modified Wood

Authors: Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, I. Domingos, B. Esteves, A. Figueirinha, J. Ferreira, H. Pereira


Chromium is one of the most common heavy metals which exist in very high concentrations in wastewater. The removal is very expensive due to the high cost of normal adsorbents. Lignocellulosic materials and mainly treated materials have proven to be a good solution for this problem. Adsorption tests were performed at different pH, different times and with varying concentrations. Results show that is at pH 3 that treated wood absorbs more chromium ranging from 70% (2h treatment) to almost 100% (12 h treatment) much more than untreated wood with less than 40%. Most of the adsorption is made in the first 2-3 hours for untreated and heat treated wood. Modified wood adsorbs more chromium throughout the time. For all the samples, adsorption fitted relatively well the Langmuir model with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.85 to 0.97. The results show that heat treated wood is a good adsorbent ant that this might be a good utilization for sawdust from treating companies.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Adsorption, Chromium, wood modification

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43 Effect of the Alloying Elements on Mechanical Properties of TWIP Steel

Authors: Yuksel Akinay, Fatih Hayat


The influence of the alloying element on mechanical properties and micro structures of the Fe-22Mn-0.6C-0,6Si twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel were investigated at different temperatures. This composition was fabricated by a vacuum induction melting method. This steel was homogenized at 1200◦C for 8h. After heat treatment it was hot-rolled at 1100◦C to 6 mm thickness. The hot rolled plates were cold rolled to 3 mm and annealed at 700 800 and 900 °C for 60 and 150 minute and then air-cooled. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), optic microscope and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), hardness and tensile tests were used to analyse the relationship between mechanical properties and micro structure after annealing process. The results show that, the excellent mechanical properties were obtained after heat treatment process. The tensile strength of material was decreased and the ductility of material was improved with increasing annealing temperature. Ni element were increased the mechanical resistance of specimens and because of carbide precipitation the hardness of specimen annealed at 700 C is higher than others.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, SEM, XRD, high manganese, cold-rolling

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42 Annealing Process Study at Galvanizing Line: Characterization and Implication Inherent to Lead Entrainment

Authors: Marcelo Franzkowiak Stahlschmidt


This paper discusses the experiments carried out based on the wire drawing process analysis and later annealing on lead furnace on a galvanizing line. Using Design of Experiments methodology, the aim of this work is to understand the occurrence of lead entrainment originating from the annealed wires in order to decrease this problem. Wire samples were collected from wire drawing machines and galvanizing line and submitted to surface roughness analysis and its implications on lead drag out based on wire speed, wire diameter, lead bath temperature, thermal capacity of the lead kettle, wire surface condition, wire roughness and wire superficial cleanliness. Proposals to decrease lead drag out were made in order to increase wire drawing machines and galvanizing line performance.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Galvanizing, lead, wire drawing process

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41 Investigation the Effect of Quenching Media on Abrasive Wear in Grade Medium Carbon Steel

Authors: Abbas S. Alwan, Waleed K. Hussan


In this paper, a general verification of possible heat treatment of steel has been done with the view of conditions of real abrasive wear of rotivater with soil texture. This technique is found promising to improve the quality of agriculture components working with the soil in dry condition. Abrasive wear resistance is very important in many applications and in most cases it is directly correlated with the hardness of materials surface. Responded of heat treatments were carried out in various media (Still air, Cottonseed oil, and Brine water 10 %) and follow by low-temperature tempering (250°C) was applied on steel type (AISI 1030). After heat treatment was applied wear with soil texture by using tillage process to determine the (actual wear rate) of the specimens depending on weight loss method. It was found; the wear resistance Increases with increase hardness with varying quenching media as follows; 30 HRC, 45 HRC, 52 HRC, and 60 HRC for nontreated (as received) cooling media as still air, cottonseed oil, and Brine water 10 %, respectively. Martensitic structure with retained austenite can be obtained depending on the quenching medium. Wear was presented on the worn surfaces of the steels which were used in this work.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Microstructures, Hardness, Abrasive Wear, soil texture

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40 The Mechanical Behavior of a Cement-Fiber Composite Material

Authors: K. Harrat, M. Hidjeb, M. T’kint


The aim of the present research work is to characterize a cement palm date fiber composite in order to be used in isolation and in the manufacture of new structural materials. This technique may possibly participate seriously in the preservation of the environment and develop a growing need for plant products. On one hand, It has been shown that the presence of natural fiber in the composite materials manufacture, based on hydraulic binder, has improved the mechanical behaviour of the material. On the Other hand, It has been proven that the durability of composite materials reinforced with untreated fibers was largely affected by the presence of organic matter. In order to extract the organic material, the fibers were treated with boiling water and then coated with different types of products. A considerable improvement in the sensitivity to water of the fibers, as well as in the mechanical strength and in the ductility of the composite material was observed. The fiber being sensitive to water, the study put the emphasis on its dimensional stability.

Keywords: Durability, Heat Treatment, mechanical behaviour, cement composite, vegetal fiber

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39 Effect of Alloying Elements and Hot Forging/Rolling Reduction Ratio on Hardness and Impact Toughness of Heat Treated Low Alloy Steels

Authors: Mahmoud M. Tash


The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of alloying elements and thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT) i.e. hot rolling and forging with different reduction ratios on the hardness (HV) and impact toughness (J) of heat-treated low alloy steels. An understanding of the combined effect of TMT and alloying elements and by measuring hardness, impact toughness, resulting from different heat treatment following TMT of the low alloy steels, it is possible to determine which conditions yielded optimum mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio. Experimental Correlations between hot work reduction ratio, hardness and impact toughness for thermo-mechanically heat treated low alloy steels are analyzed quantitatively, and both regression and mathematical hardness and impact toughness models are developed.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Microstructure, hot forging, hot rolling, hardness (HV), impact toughness (J), low alloy steels

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38 Structural Evolution of Electrodeposited Ni Coating on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy during Heat Treatment

Authors: M. Adabi, A. Amadeh, M. Abdoos


In recent decades, the use of titanium and its alloys due to their high mechanical properties, light weight and their corrosion resistance has increased in military and industry applications. However, the poor surface properties can limit their widely usage. Many researches were carried out to improve their surface properties. The most effective technique is based on solid-state diffusion of elements that can form intermetallic compounds with the substrate. In the present work, inter-diffusion of nickel and titanium and formation of Ni-Ti intermetallic compounds in nickel-coated Ti-6Al-4V alloy have been studied. Initially, nickel was electrodeposited on the alloy using Watts bath at a current density of 20 mA/cm2 for 1 hour. The coated specimens were then heat treated in a tubular furnace under argon atmosphere at different temperatures near Ti β-transus to maximize the diffusion rate for various durations in order to improve the surface properties of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The effect of temperature and time on the thickness of diffusion layer and characteristics of intermetallic phases was studied by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and microhardness test. The results showed that a multilayer structure was formed after heat treatment: an outer layer of remaining nickel, an area of intermetallic layers with different compositions and solid solution of Ni-Ti. Three intermetallic layers was detected by EDS analysis, namely an outer layer with about 75 at.% Ni (Ni3Ti), an intermediate layer with 50 at.% Ni (NiTi) and finally an inner layer with 36 at.% Ni (NiTi2). It was also observed that the increase in time or temperature led to the formation of thicker intermetallic layers. Meanwhile, the microhardness of heat treated samples increased with formation of Ni-Ti intermetallics; however, its value depended on heat treatment parameters.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Microhardness, Ni coating, Ti-6Al-4V

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37 Characterization Study of Aluminium 6061 Hybrid Composite

Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. S. Sharma, U. Achutha Kini, K. Jagannath, M. C. Gowri Shankar


Aluminium matrix composites with alumina reinforcements give superior mechanical & physical properties. Their applications in several fields like automobile, aerospace, defense, sports, electronics, bio-medical and other industrial purposes are becoming essential for the last several decades. In the present work, fabrication of hybrid composite was done by Stir casting technique using Al 6061 as a matrix with alumina and silicon carbide (SiC) as reinforcement materials. The weight percentage of alumina is varied from 2 to 4% and the silicon carbide weight percentage is maintained constant at 2%. Hardness and wear tests are performed in the as cast and heat treated conditions. Age hardening treatment was performed on the specimen with solutionizing at 550°C, aging at two temperatures (150 and 200°C) for different time durations. Hardness distribution curves are drawn and peak hardness values are recorded. Hardness increase was very sensitive with respect to the decrease in aging temperature. There was an improvement in wear resistance of the peak aged material when aged at lower temperature. Also increase in weight percent of alumina, increases wear resistance at lower temperature but opposite behavior was seen when aged at higher temperature.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, hybrid composite, hardness test, wear test, pin on disc wear testing machine

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36 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Low Alloy Steel with Double Austenitizing Tempering Heat Treatment

Authors: Jae-Ho Jang, Jung-Soo Kim, Byung-Jun Kim, Dae-Geun Nam, Uoo-Chang Jung, Yoon-Suk Choi


Low alloy steels are widely used for pressure vessels, spent fuel storage, and steam generators required to withstand the internal pressure and prevent unexpected failure in nuclear power plants, which these may suffer embrittlement by high levels of radiation and heat for a long period. Therefore, it is important to improve mechanical properties of low alloy steels for the integrity of structure materials at an early stage of fabrication. Recently, it showed that a double austenitizing and tempering (DTA) process resulted in a significant improvement of strength and toughness by refinement of prior austenite grains. In this study, it was investigated that the mechanism of improving mechanical properties according to the change of microstructure by the second fully austenitizing temperature of the DAT process for low alloy steel required the structural integrity. Compared to conventional single austenitizing and tempering (SAT) process, the tensile elongation properties have improved about 5%, DBTTs have obtained result in reduction of about -65℃, and grain size has decreased by about 50% in the DAT process conditions. Grain refinement has crack propagation interference effect due to an increase of the grain boundaries and amount of energy absorption at low temperatures. The higher first austenitizing temperature in the DAT process, the more increase the spheroidized carbides and strengthening the effect of fine precipitates in the ferrite grain. The area ratio of the dimple in the transition area has increased by proportion to the effect of spheroidized carbides. This may the primary mechanisms that can improve low-temperature toughness and elongation while maintaining a similar hardness and strength.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, grain refinement, double austenitizing, Ductile Brittle transition temperature, low alloy steel, low-temperature toughness

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35 Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Analysis of Rapidly Heat Treated M-42 High Speed Steel

Authors: R. N. Karthik Babu, R. Sarvesh, A. Rajendra Prasad, G. Swaminathan


M42 is a molybdenum-series high-speed alloy steel widely used because of its better hot-hardness and wear resistance. These steels are conventionally heat treated in a salt bath furnace with up to three stages of preheating with predetermined soaking and holding periods. Such methods often involve long periods of processing with a large amount of energy consumed. In this study, the M42 steel samples were heat-treated by rapidly heating the specimens to the austenising temperature of 1260 °C and cooled conventionally by quenching in a neutral salt bath at a temperature of 550 °C with the aid of a hybrid microwave furnace. As metals reflect microwaves, they cannot directly be heated up when placed in a microwave furnace. The technology used herein requires the specimens to be placed in a crucible lined with SiC which is a good absorber of microwaves and the SiC lining heats the metal through radiation which facilitates the volumetric heating of the metal. A sample of similar dimensions was heat treated conventionally and cooled in the same manner. Conventional tempering process was then carried out on both these samples and analysed for various parameters such as micro-hardness, processing time, etc. Microstructure analysis and scanning electron microscopy was also carried out. The objective of the study being that similar or better properties, with substantial time and energy saving and cost cutting are achievable by rapid heat treatment through hybrid microwave furnaces. It is observed that the heat treatment is done with substantial time and energy savings, and also with minute improvement in mechanical properties of the tool steel heat treated.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Metal Processing, Microwave Heating, rapid heating

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34 Separation of Hazardous Brominated Plastics from Waste Plastics by Froth Flotation after Surface Modification with Mild Heat-Treatment

Authors: Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Nguyen Thi Thanh Truc, Byeong-Kyu Lee


This study evaluated to facilitate separation of ABS plastics from other waste plastics by froth flotation after surface hydrophilization of ABS with heat treatment. The mild heat treatment at 100oC for 60s could selectively increase the hydrophilicity of the ABS plastics surface (i.e., ABS contact angle decreased from 79o to 65.8o) among other plastics mixture. The SEM and XPS results of plastic samples sufficiently supported the increase in hydrophilic functional groups and decrease contact angle on ABS surface, after heat treatment. As a result of the froth flotation (at mixing speed 150 rpm and airflow rate 0.3 L/min) after heat treatment, about 85% of ABS was selectively separated from other heavy plastics with 100% of purity. The effect of optimum treatment condition and detailed mechanism onto separation efficiency in the froth floatation was also investigated. This research is successful in giving a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for ABS separation from waste plastics.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Contact angle, froth flotation, Hydrophilic, ABS

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33 2D and 3D Unsteady Simulation of the Heat Transfer in the Sample during Heat Treatment by Moving Heat Source

Authors: Zdeněk Veselý, Milan Honner, Jiří Mach


The aim of the performed work is to establish the 2D and 3D model of direct unsteady task of sample heat treatment by moving source employing computer model on the basis of finite element method. The complex boundary condition on heat loaded sample surface is the essential feature of the task. Computer model describes heat treatment of the sample during heat source movement over the sample surface. It is started from the 2D task of sample cross section as a basic model. Possibilities of extension from 2D to 3D task are discussed. The effect of the addition of third model dimension on the temperature distribution in the sample is showed. Comparison of various model parameters on the sample temperatures is observed. Influence of heat source motion on the depth of material heat treatment is shown for several velocities of the movement. Presented computer model is prepared for the utilization in laser treatment of machine parts.

Keywords: Computer Simulation, Heat Treatment, unsteady model, complex boundary condition, moving heat source

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32 Kinetics of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity during Thermal Treatment of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L)

Authors: Mary-Luz Olivares-Tenorio, Ruud Verkerk, Matthijs Dekker, Martinus A. J. S. van Boekel


Cape gooseberry, the fruit of the plant Physalis peruviana L. has gained interest in research given its contents of promising health-promoting compounds like contents. The presence of carotenoids, ascorbic acid, minerals, polyphenols, vitamins and antioxidants. This project aims to study thermal stability of β-carotene, ascorbic acid, catechin and epicatechin and antioxidant activity in the matrix of the Cape Gooseberry. Fruits were obtained from a Colombian field in Cundinamarca. Ripeness stage was 4 (According to NTC 4580, corresponding to mature stage) at the moment of the experiment. The fruits have been subjected to temperatures of 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120°C for several times. β-Carotene, ascorbic acid, catechin and epicatechin content were assessed with HPLC and antioxidant activity with the DPPH method. β-Carotene was stable upon 100°C, and showed some degradation at 120°C. The same behavior was observed for epicatechin. Catechin increased during treatment at 40°C, at 60°C it remained stable and it showed degradation at 80°C, 100°C and 120°C that could be described by a second order kinetic model. Ascorbic acid was the most heat-sensitive of the analyzed compounds. It showed degradation at all studied temperatures, and could be described by a first order model. The activation energy for ascorbic acid degradation in cape gooseberry was 46.0 kJ/mol and its degradation rate coefficient at 100 °C was 6.53 x 10-3 s-1. The antioxidant activity declined for all studied temperatures. Results from this study showed that cape gooseberry is an important source of different health-promoting compounds and some of them are stable to heat. That makes this fruit a suitable raw material for processed products such as jam, juices and dehydrated fruit, giving the consumer a good intake of these compounds.

Keywords: Processing, Heat Treatment, phytochemical, goldenberry, health-promoting compounds

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31 Effect of T6 and Re-Aging Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of 7055 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: M. Esmailian, M. Shakouri, A. Mottahedi, S. G. Shabestari


Heat treatable aluminium alloys such as 7075 and 7055, because of high strength and low density, are used widely in aircraft industry. For best mechanical properties, T6 heat treatment has recommended for this regards, but this temper treatment is sensitive to corrosion induced and Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) damage. For improving this property, the over-aging treatment (T7) applies to this alloy, but it decreases the mechanical properties up to 30 percent. Hence, to increase the mechanical properties, without any remarkable decrease in SCC resistant, Retrogression and Re-Aging (RRA) heat treatment is used. This treatment performs in a relatively short time. In this paper, the RRA heat treatment was applied to 7055 aluminum alloy and then effect of RRA time on the mechanical properties of 7055 has been investigated. The results show that the 40 minute time is suitable time for retrogression of 7055 aluminum alloy and ultimate strength increases up to 625MPa.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Mechanical Properties, SCC resistance

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30 Effects of Applied Pressure and Heat Treatment on the Microstructure of Squeeze Cast Al-Si Alloy Were Examined

Authors: Mohamed Ben Amar, Henda Barhoumi, Hokia Siala, Foued Elhalouani


The present contribution consists of a purely experimental investigation on the effect of Squeeze casting on the micro structural and mechanical propriety of Al-Si alloys destined to automotive industry. Accordingly, we have proceeding, by ourselves, to all the thermal treatment consisting of solution treatment at 540°C for 8h and aging at 160°C for 4h. The various thermal treatment, have been carried out in order to monitor the processes of formation and dissolution accompanying the solid state phase transformations as well as the resulting changes in the mechanical proprieties. The examination of the micrographs of the aluminum alloys reveals the dominant presence of dendrite. Concerning the mechanical characteristic the Vickers micro-hardness curve an increase as a function of the pressure. As well as the heat treatment increase mechanical propriety such that pressure and micro hardness. The curves have been explained in terms of structural hardening resulting from the various compounds formation.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Microstructure, process parameters, Ductility, squeeze casting

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29 Effect of Heat Treatment on the Hardness and Abrasiveness of Almandine and Pyrope Garnet for Water-Cutting of Marble

Authors: Mahmoud Rabh


Garnet has been used for decades as an abrasive in water jet cutting and sand blasting because of its superior physical properties. When added to use in water-cutting process of marble. A standard commercial sample of the mineral was tested in terms of the hardness and abrasiveness properties. The sample was sized to 4 fractions having the size of < 60 um, > 60 < 100 um, > 100 < 180 um > 1280 < 250 and 250 um designated the symbols, FF, MF, MC and C respectively. Each sample was separately heated in controlled conditions at temperatures up to 1000 °C at a heating rate of 10°C/min in an electrically heated chamber furnace. Soaking time at the maximum temperature was up to 6 h. Hardness and abrasiveness properties of the heat treated samples were tested to cut marble having a thickness of 25 mm. Results revealed that H/A of the natural garnet mineral increased by heating at temperatures up to 600°C and exhibited pronounced decrease with higher temperatures up to 1000 °C. Results were explained in the light of a structural irreversible dislocation (SD) of the crystals of garnet almandine Fe2+3Al2Si3O12 and pyrope Mg3Al2Si3O12. Characterization of the mineral was carried out with the help of XRD, SEM and FT-IR measurements.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Garnet abrasive, water jet cutting, hardness abrasiveness

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28 Thermal Transformation and Structural on Se90Te7Cu3 Chalcogenide Glass

Authors: Farid M. Abdel-Rahim


In this study, Se90Te7Cu3 chalcogenide glass was prepared using the melt quenching technique. The amorphous nature of the as prepared samples was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Result of differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) under nonisothermal condition on composition bulk materials are reported and discussed. It shows that these glasses exhibit a single-stage glass transition and a single-stage crystallization on heating rates. The glass transition temperature (Tg), the onset crystallization (Tc), the crystallization temperature (Tp), were found by dependent on the composition and heating rates. Activation energy for glass transition (Et), activation energy of the amorphous –crystalline transformation (Ec), crystallization reaction rate constant (Kp), (n) and (m) are constants related to crystallization mechanism of the bulk samples have been determined by different formulations.

Keywords: Glass Transition, Heat Treatment, Thermal analysis, SEM, DSC, chalcogenides

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27 The Influence of Ni Elements on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP)

Authors: Yuksel Akinay, Fatih Hayat


The influence of Ni elements on mechanical properties and microstructure of twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steels were investigated in this study. TWIP 1 (0,6C, 24Mn) and TWIP 2 (0,6C, 24Mn, 1Ni) high Mn TWIP (Twinning Induced Plasticity) steels were fabricated, and were annealed at 700°C, 800°C and 900°C for 150 minute and then air-cooled. The microstructures and mechanical properties of specimens were analysed to investigate influence of Ni element on TWIP steel. The carbide precipitations have seen in microstructure of TWIP 1 and TWIP 2 specimen annealed at 700 °C. However, the microstructures of TWIP 1 annealed at 800°C and 900°C are fully austenite and some grains are including annealing twins. However twining did not occur at TWIP 2 specimens annealed at 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C. TWIP 2 steel contains also Ni element differently from TWIP 1 steel. It can conclude that, Nickel (Ni) was restrained formation of twinning. The reversion of the tensile strength occurred between 700°C and 800°C because of the carbide precipitation hardening. Beside that, hardness value has decreased between 800 °C and 900 °C, which show a good agreement with the equilibrium dissolution temperature of M3C carbides. However, the results show that, carbide precipitations also are as strong barriers for the formation of twining. For this reason, twinning was not obtained at 700 °C.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Nickel, SEM, high manganese, cold rolling, TWIP steel

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26 Effects of Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Kenaf Fiber

Authors: Kazuya Okubo, Toru Fujii, Paulo Teodoro De Luna Carada


Natural fibers have wide variety of uses (e.g., rope, paper, and building materials). One specific application of it is in the field of composite materials (i.e., green composites). Huge amount of research are being done in this field due to rising concerns in the harmful effects of synthetic materials to the environment. There are several natural fibers used in this field, one of which can be extracted from a plant called kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Kenaf fiber is regarded as a good alternative because the plant is easy to grow and the fiber is easy to extract. Additionally, it has good properties. Treatments, which are classified as mechanical or chemical in nature, can be done in order to improve the properties of the fiber. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of heat treatment in kenaf fiber. It specifically aims to observe the effect in the tensile strength and modulus of the fiber. Kenaf fiber bundles with an average diameter of at most 100μm was used for this purpose. Heat treatment was done using a constant temperature oven with the following heating temperatures: (1) 160̊C, (2) 180̊C, and (3) 200̊C for a duration of one hour. As a basis for comparison, tensile test was first done to kenaf fibers without any heat treatment. For every heating temperature, three groups of samples were prepared. Two groups of which were for doing tensile test (one group was tested right after heat treatment while the remaining group was kept inside a closed container with relative humidity of at least 95% for two days). The third group was used to observe how much moisture the treated fiber will absorb when it is enclosed in a high moisture environment for two days. The results showed that kenaf fiber can retain its tensile strength when heated up to a temperature of 160̊C. However, when heated at a temperature of about 180̊C or higher, the tensile strength decreases significantly. The same behavior was observed for the tensile modulus of the fiber. Additionally, the fibers which were stored for two days absorbed nearly the same amount of moisture (about 20% of the dried weight) regardless of the heating temperature. Heat treatment might have damaged the fiber in some way. Additional test was done in order to see if the damage due to heat treatment is attributed to changes in the viscoelastic property of the fiber. The findings showed that kenaf fibers can be heated for at most 160̊C to attain good tensile strength and modulus. Additionally, heating the fiber at high temperature (>180̊C) causes changes in its viscoelastic property. The results of this study is significant for processes which requires heat treatment not only in kenaf fiber but might also be helpful for natural fibers in general.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Natural Fiber, Mechanical Properties, kenaf fiber

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25 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg-Zn Alloys

Authors: Tae Kwon Ha, Young Sik Kim


Effect of Zn addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-Zn alloys with Zn contents from 6 to 10 weight percent was investigated in this study. Through calculation of phase equilibria of Mg-Zn alloys, carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, solution treatment temperature was decided as temperatures from 300 to 400oC, where supersaturated solid solution can be obtained. Solid solution treatment of Mg-Zn alloys was successfully conducted at 380oC and supersaturated microstructure with all beta phase resolved into matrix was obtained. After solution treatment, hot rolling was successfully conducted by reduction of 60%. Compression and tension tests were carried out at room temperature on the samples as-cast, solution treated, hot-rolled and recrystallized after rolling. After solid solution treatment, each alloy was annealed at temperatures of 180 and 200oC for time intervals from 1 min to 48 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak aging conditions were deduced as at the temperature of 200oC for 10 hrs. By addition of Zn by 10 weight percent, hardness and strength were enhanced.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Microstructure, Hardness, Mechanical Properties, Mg-Zn alloy

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24 Fabricating Sheets of Mg-Zn Alloys by Thermomechanical Process

Authors: Tae Kwon Ha, Seok Hong Min


In the present study, hot-rolled sheets of Mg-xZn alloy s(x=6, 8, and 10 weight percent) were produced by employing casting, homogenization heat treatment, hot rolling, and annealing processes subsequently. Effect of Zn addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-Zn alloys were also investigated in each process. Through calculation of phase equilibria of Mg-Zn alloys, solution treatment temperature was decided as temperatures from 350 oC, where supersaturated solid solution can be obtained. After solution treatment, hot rolling was successfully conducted by reduction of 60%. Compression and tension tests were carried out at room temperature on the samples as-cast, solution treated, hot-rolled and recrystallized after rolling.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, hot rolling, Mg-Zn alloy

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23 Cyclic Heating Effect on Hardness of Copper

Authors: Tahany W. Sadak


Presented work discusses research results concerning the effect of the heat treatment process. Thermal fatigue which expresses repeated heating and cooling processes affect the ductility or the brittleness of the material. In this research, 70 specimens of copper (1.5 mm thickness, 85 mm length, 32 mm width) are subjected to thermal fatigue at different conditions. Heating temperatures Th are 100, 300 and 500 °C. Number of repeated cycles N is from 1 to 100. Heating time th =600 Sec, and Cooling time; tC= 900 Sec.  Results are evaluated and then compared to each other and to that of specimens without subjected to thermal fatigue.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Thermal analysis, Hardness, Copper, thermal fatigue

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22 Cold Spray Deposition of SS316L Powders on Al5052 Substrates and Their Potential Using for Biomedical Applications

Authors: B. Dikici, I. Ozdemir, M. Topuz


The corrosion behaviour of 316L stainless steel coatings obtained by cold spray method was investigated in this study. 316L powders were deposited onto Al5052 aluminum substrates. The coatings were produced using nitrogen (N2) process gas. In order to further improve the corrosion and mechanical properties of the coatings, heat treatment was applied at 250 and 750 °C. The corrosion performances of the coatings were compared using the potentiodynamic scanning (PDS) technique under in-vitro conditions (in Ringer’s solution at 37 °C). In addition, the hardness and porosity tests were carried out on the coatings. Microstructural characterization of the coatings was carried out by using scanning electron microscopy attached with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. It was found that clean surfaces and a good adhesion were achieved for particle/substrate bonding. The heat treatment process provided both elimination of the anisotropy in the coating and resulting in healing-up of the incomplete interfaces between the deposited particles. It was found that the corrosion potential of the annealed coatings at 750 °C was higher than that of commercially 316 L stainless steel. Moreover, the microstructural investigations after the corrosion tests revealed that corrosion preferentially starts at inter-splat boundaries.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Corrosion, Heat Treatment, Cold Spray

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21 Heat Transfer Modeling of 'Carabao' Mango (Mangifera indica L.) during Postharvest Hot Water Treatments

Authors: Arnold R. Elepaño, Hazel James P. Agngarayngay


Mango is the third most important export fruit in the Philippines. Despite the expanding mango trade in world market, problems on postharvest losses caused by pests and diseases are still prevalent. Many disease control and pest disinfestation methods have been studied and adopted. Heat treatment is necessary to eliminate pests and diseases to be able to pass the quarantine requirements of importing countries. During heat treatments, temperature and time are critical because fruits can easily be damaged by over-exposure to heat. Modeling the process enables researchers and engineers to study the behaviour of temperature distribution within the fruit over time. Understanding physical processes through modeling and simulation also saves time and resources because of reduced experimentation. This research aimed to simulate the heat transfer mechanism and predict the temperature distribution in ‘Carabao' mangoes during hot water treatment (HWT) and extended hot water treatment (EHWT). The simulation was performed in ANSYS CFD Software, using ANSYS CFX Solver. The simulation process involved model creation, mesh generation, defining the physics of the model, solving the problem, and visualizing the results. Boundary conditions consisted of the convective heat transfer coefficient and a constant free stream temperature. The three-dimensional energy equation for transient conditions was numerically solved to obtain heat flux and transient temperature values. The solver utilized finite volume method of discretization. To validate the simulation, actual data were obtained through experiment. The goodness of fit was evaluated using mean temperature difference (MTD). Also, t-test was used to detect significant differences between the data sets. Results showed that the simulations were able to estimate temperatures accurately with MTD of 0.50 and 0.69 °C for the HWT and EHWT, respectively. This indicates good agreement between the simulated and actual temperature values. The data included in the analysis were taken at different locations of probe punctures within the fruit. Moreover, t-tests showed no significant differences between the two data sets. Maximum heat fluxes obtained at the beginning of the treatments were 394.15 and 262.77 J.s-1 for HWT and EHWT, respectively. These values decreased abruptly at the first 10 seconds and gradual decrease was observed thereafter. Data on heat flux is necessary in the design of heaters. If underestimated, the heating component of a certain machine will not be able to provide enough heat required by certain operations. Otherwise, over-estimation will result in wasting of energy and resources. This study demonstrated that the simulation was able to estimate temperatures accurately. Thus, it can be used to evaluate the influence of various treatment conditions on the temperature-time history in mangoes. When combined with information on insect mortality and quality degradation kinetics, it could predict the efficacy of a particular treatment and guide appropriate selection of treatment conditions. The effect of various parameters on heat transfer rates, such as the boundary and initial conditions as well as the thermal properties of the material, can be systematically studied without performing experiments. Furthermore, the use of ANSYS software in modeling and simulation can be explored in modeling various systems and processes.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Modeling and simulation, Heat Treatment, mango

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20 Effects of Heat Treatment on the Elastic Constants of Cedar Wood

Authors: Murat Aydin, Ergun Guntekin, Tugba Yilmaz Aydin


Effects of heat treatment on the elastic constants of cedar wood (Cedrus libani) were investigated. Specimens were exposed to heat under atmospheric pressure at four different temperatures (120, 150, 180, 210 °C) and three different time levels (2, 5, 8 hours). Three Young’s modulus (EL, ER, ET) and six Poisson ratios (μLR, μLT, μRL, μRT, μTL, μTR) were determined from compression test using bi-axial extensometer at constant moisture content (12 %). Three shear modulus were determined using ultrasound. Six shear wave velocities propagating along the principal axes of anisotropy were measured using EPOCH 650 ultrasonic flaw detector with 1 MHz transverse transducers. The properties of the samples tested were significantly affected by heat treatment by different degree. As a result, softer treatments yielded some amount of increase in Young modulus and shear modulus values, but increase of time and temperature resulted in significant decrease for both values. Poisson ratios seemed insensitive to heat treatment.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Heat Treatment, elastic constants, cedar wood

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19 Analysis of Various Factors Affecting Hardness and Content of Phases Resulting from 1030 Carbon Steel Heat Treatment Using AC3 Software

Authors: Saeid Shahraki, Mohammad Mahdi Kaekha


1030 steel, a kind of carbon steel used in homogenization, cold-forming, quenching, and tempering conditions, is generally utilized in small parts resisting medium stress, such as connection foundations, hydraulic cylinders, tiny gears, pins, clamps, automotive normal forging parts, camshafts, levers, pundits, and nuts. In this study, AC3 software was used to measure the effect of carbon and manganese percentage, dimensions and geometry of pieces, the type of the cooling fluid, temperature, and time on hardness and the content of 1030 steel phases. Next, the results are compared with the analytical values obtained from the Lumped Capacity Method.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, AC3software, lumped capacity method

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18 Characterization of A390 Aluminum Alloy Produced at Different Slow Shot Speeds Using Assisted Vacuum High-Pressure Die Casting

Authors: Wenbo Yu, Zihao Yuan, Zhipeng Guo, Shoumei Xiong


Under different slow shot speeds in vacuum assisted high pressure die casting (VHPDC) process, plate-shaped specimens of hypereutectic A390 aluminum alloy were produced. According to the results, the vacuum pressure inside the die cavity increased linearly with the increasing slow shot speed at the beginning of mold filling. Meanwhile, it was found that the tensile properties of vacuum die castings were deteriorated by the porosity content. In addition, the average primary Si size varies between 14µm to 23µm, which has a binary functional relationship with the slow shot speeds. Due to the vacuum effect, the castings were treated by T6 heat treatment. After heat treatment, microstructural morphologies revealed that needle-shaped and thin-flaked eutectic Si particles became rounded while Al2Cu dissolved into α-Al matrix. For the as-received sample in-situ tensile test, microcracks firstly initiate at the primary Si particles and propagated along Al matrix with a transgranular fracture mode. In contrast, for the treated sample, the crack initiated at the Al2Cu particles and propagated along Al grain boundaries with an intergranular fracture mode. In-situ three bending test, microcracks firstly formed in the primary Si particles for both samples. Subsequently, the cracks between primary Si linked along Al grain boundaries in as received sample. In contrast, the cracks in primary Si linked through the solid lines in Al matrix. Furthermore, the fractography revealed that the fracture mechanism has evolved from brittle transgranular fracture to a fracture mode with many dimples after heat treatment.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Mechanical Properties, A390 aluminum, vacuum assisted high pressure die casting

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17 Modeling of in 738 LC Alloy Mechanical Properties Based on Microstructural Evolution Simulations for Different Heat Treatment Conditions

Authors: M. Tarik Boyraz, M. Bilge Imer


Conventionally cast nickel-based super alloys, such as commercial alloy IN 738 LC, are widely used in manufacturing of industrial gas turbine blades. With carefully designed microstructure and the existence of alloying elements, the blades show improved mechanical properties at high operating temperatures and corrosive environment. The aim of this work is to model and estimate these mechanical properties of IN 738 LC alloy solely based on simulations for projected heat treatment conditions or service conditions. The microstructure (size, fraction and frequency of gamma prime- γ′ and carbide phases in gamma- γ matrix, and grain size) of IN 738 LC needs to be optimized to improve the high temperature mechanical properties by heat treatment process. This process can be performed at different soaking temperature, time and cooling rates. In this work, micro-structural evolution studies were performed experimentally at various heat treatment process conditions, and these findings were used as input for further simulation studies. The operation time, soaking temperature and cooling rate provided by experimental heat treatment procedures were used as micro-structural simulation input. The results of this simulation were compared with the size, fraction and frequency of γ′ and carbide phases, and grain size provided by SEM (EDS module and mapping), EPMA (WDS module) and optical microscope for before and after heat treatment. After iterative comparison of experimental findings and simulations, an offset was determined to fit the real time and theoretical findings. Thereby, it was possible to estimate the final micro-structure without any necessity to carry out the heat treatment experiment. The output of this microstructure simulation based on heat treatment was used as input to estimate yield stress and creep properties. Yield stress was calculated mainly as a function of precipitation, solid solution and grain boundary strengthening contributors in microstructure. Creep rate was calculated as a function of stress, temperature and microstructural factors such as dislocation density, precipitate size, inter-particle spacing of precipitates. The estimated yield stress values were compared with the corresponding experimental hardness and tensile test values. The ability to determine best heat treatment conditions that achieve the desired microstructural and mechanical properties were developed for IN 738 LC based completely on simulations.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Simulations, IN738LC, super-alloys

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16 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Boron-Containing AZ91D Mg Alloys

Authors: Tae Kwon Ha, Seok Hong Min, Ji Chan Kim


Effect of boron addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91D Mg alloy was investigated in this study. Through calculation of phase equilibria, carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, solution treatment temperature was decided as 420 °C where supersaturated solid solution can be obtained. Solid solution treatment was conducted at 420 °C for 24 hrs followed by hot rolling at 420 °C and the total reduction was about 60%. Recrystallization heat treatment was followed at 420 °C for 6 hrs to obtain equiaxed microstructure. After recrystallization treatment, aging heat treatment was conducted at temperature of 200 °C for time intervals from 1 min to 200 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak hardness was observed after 20 hrs. Tensile tests were also conducted on the specimens aged for various time intervals and the results were compared with hardness.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Microstructure, Hardness, Mechanical Properties, Boron, AZ91D Mg alloy

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