Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

heat exchanger Related Abstracts

30 The Convection Heater Numerical Simulation

Authors: Cristian Patrascioiu, Loredana Negoita


This paper is focused on modeling and simulation of the tubular heaters. The paper is structured in four parts: the structure of the tubular convection section, the heat transfer model, the adaptation of the mathematical model and the solving model. The main hypothesis of the heat transfer modeling is that the heat exchanger of the convective tubular heater is a lumped system. In the same time, the model uses the heat balance relations, Newton’s law and criteria relations. The numerical program achieved allows for the estimation of the burn gases outlet temperature and the heated flow outlet temperature.

Keywords: Mathematical Modelling, heat exchanger, nonlinear equation system, Newton-Raphson algorithm

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29 Numerical Studies on the Performance of the Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: S. P. Praveen Kumar, Bong-Su Sin, Kwon-Hee Lee


Finned-tube heat exchangers are predominantly used in space conditioning systems, as well as other applications requiring heat exchange between two fluids. The design of finned-tube heat exchangers requires the selection of over a dozen design parameters by the designer such as tube pitch, tube diameter, tube thickness, etc. Finned-tube heat exchangers are common devices; however, their performance characteristics are complicated. In this paper, numerical studies have been carried out to analyze the performances of finned tube heat exchanger (without fins considered for experimental purpose) by predicting the characteristics of temperature difference and pressure drop. In this study, a design considering 5 design variables, maximizing the temperature difference and minimizing the pressure drop was suggested by applying DOE. In this process, L18 orthogonal array was adopted. Parametric analytical studies have been carried out using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine the relative importance of each variable with respect to the temperature difference and the pressure drop. Following the results, the final design was suggested by predicting the optimum design therefore confirming the optimized condition.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, heat exchanger, fluid analysis, design of experiment, analysis of variance

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28 Reduction of Energy Consumption of Distillation Process by Recovering the Heat from Exit Streams

Authors: Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul, Thanapat Chaireongsirikul, Pawit Tangviroon


Distillation consumes enormous quantity of energy. This work proposed a process to recover the energy from exit streams during the distillation process of three consecutive columns. There are several novel techniques to recover the heat with the distillation system; however, a complex control system is required. This work proposed a simpler technique by exchanging the heat between streams without interrupting the internal distillation process that might cause a serious control problem. The proposed process is executed by using heat exchanger network with pinch analysis to maximize the process heat recovery. The test model is the distillation of butane, pentane, hexane, and heptanes, which is a common mixture in the petroleum refinery. This proposed process saved the energy consumption for hot and cold utilities of 29 and 27%, which is considered significant. Therefore, the recovery of heat from exit streams from distillation process is proved to be effective for energy saving.

Keywords: Chemical Engineering, Distillation, heat exchanger, network pinch analysis

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27 Entropy Generation Analysis of Heat Recovery Vapor Generator for Ammonia-Water Mixture

Authors: Chul Ho Han, Kyoung Hoon Kim


This paper carries out a performance analysis based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for heat recovery vapor generator (HRVG) of ammonia-water mixture when the heat source is low-temperature energy in the form of sensible heat. In the analysis, effects of the ammonia mass concentration and mass flow ratio of the binary mixture are investigated on the system performance including the effectiveness of heat transfer, entropy generation, and exergy efficiency. The results show that the ammonia concentration and the mass flow ratio of the mixture have significant effects on the system performance of HRVG.

Keywords: Exergy, Entropy, heat exchanger, ammonia-water mixture

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26 Numerical Investigation of Nanofluid Based Thermosyphon System

Authors: Kiran Kumar K., Ramesh Babu Bejjam, Atul Najan


A thermosyphon system is a heat transfer loop which operates on the basis of gravity and buoyancy forces. It guarantees a good reliability and low maintenance cost as it does not involve any mechanical pump. Therefore it can be used in many industrial applications such as refrigeration and air conditioning, electronic cooling, nuclear reactors, geothermal heat extraction, etc. But flow instabilities and loop configuration are the major problems in this system. Several previous researchers studied that stabilities can be suppressed by using nanofluids as loop fluid. In the present study a rectangular thermosyphon loop with end heat exchangers are considered for the study. This configuration is more appropriate for many practical applications such as solar water heater, geothermal heat extraction, etc. In the present work, steady-state analysis is carried out on thermosyphon loop with parallel flow coaxial heat exchangers at heat source and heat sink. In this loop nano fluid is considered as the loop fluid and water is considered as the external fluid in both hot and cold heat exchangers. For this analysis one-dimensional homogeneous model is developed. In this model, conservation equations like conservation of mass, momentum, energy are discretized using finite difference method. A computer code is written in MATLAB to simulate the flow in thermosyphon loop. A comparison in terms of heat transfer is made between water and nano fluid as working fluids in the loop.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanofluid, heat exchanger, thermosyphon loop

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25 Numerical Investigation of Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of a Flat Tube in Cross-Flow of Air

Authors: Hamidreza Bayat, Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Meysam Bolhasani, Sajad Moosavi


Heat transfer from flat tube is studied numerically. Reynolds number is defined base on equivalent circular tube which is varied in range of 100 to 300. In these range of Reynolds number flow is considered to be laminar, unsteady, and incompressible. Equations are solved by using finite volume method. Results show that increasing l/D from 1 to 2 has insignificant effect on heat transfer and Nusselt number of flat tube is slightly lower than circular tube. However, thermal-hydraulic performance of flat tube is up to 2.7 times greater than circular tube.

Keywords: heat exchanger, laminar flow, flat tube, convective heat transfer

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24 Numerical Study of Flow around Flat Tube between Parallel Walls

Authors: Hamidreza Bayat, Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Meysam Bolhasani, Sajad Moosavi


Flow around a flat tube is studied numerically. Reynolds number is defined base on equivalent circular tube and it is varied in range of 100 to 300. Equations are solved by using finite volume method and results are presented in form of drag and lift coefficient. Results show that drag coefficient of flat tube is up to 66% lower than circular tube with equivalent diameter. In addition, by increasing l/D from 1 to 2, the drag coefficient of flat tube is decreased about 14-27%.

Keywords: Drag Coefficient, cross-flow, heat exchanger, laminar flow, flat-tube

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23 A Weighted Sum Particle Swarm Approach (WPSO) Combined with a Novel Feasibility-Based Ranking Strategy for Constrained Multi-Objective Optimization of Compact Heat Exchangers

Authors: Milad Yousefi, Moslem Yousefi, Ricarpo Poley, Amer Nordin Darus


Design optimization of heat exchangers is a very complicated task that has been traditionally carried out based on a trial-and-error procedure. To overcome the difficulties of the conventional design approaches especially when a large number of variables, constraints and objectives are involved, a new method based on a well-stablished evolutionary algorithm, particle swarm optimization (PSO), weighted sum approach and a novel constraint handling strategy is presented in this study. Since, the conventional constraint handling strategies are not effective and easy-to-implement in multi-objective algorithms, a novel feasibility-based ranking strategy is introduced which is both extremely user-friendly and effective. A case study from industry has been investigated to illustrate the performance of the presented approach. The results show that the proposed algorithm can find the near pareto-optimal with higher accuracy when it is compared to conventional non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II). Moreover, the difficulties of a trial-and-error process for setting the penalty parameters is solved in this algorithm.

Keywords: Multi-objective optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization, heat exchanger, NSGA-II Constraints handling

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22 Water Heating System with Solar Energy from Solar Panel as Absorber to Reduce the Reduction of Efficiency Solar Panel Use

Authors: Mas Aji Rizki Widjayanto, Rizka Yunita


The building which has an efficient and low-energy today followed by the developers. It’s not because trends on the building nowaday, but rather because of its positive effects in the long term, where the cost of energy per month to be much cheaper, along with the high price of electricity. The use of solar power (Photovoltaic System) becomes one source of electrical energy for the apartment so that will efficiently use energy, water, and other resources in the operations of the apartment. However, more than 80% of the solar radiation is not converted into electrical energy, but reflected and converted into heat energy. This causes an increase on the working temperature of solar panels and consequently decrease the efficiency of conversion to electrical energy. The high temperature solar panels work caused by solar radiation can be used as medium heat exchanger or heating water for the apartments, so that the working temperature of the solar panel can be lowered to reduce the reduction on the efficiency of conversion to electrical energy.

Keywords: Heat Energy, Photovoltaic System, heat exchanger, efficient, efficiency of conversion

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21 Numerical Calculation of Heat Transfer in Water Heater

Authors: Michal Spilacek, Martin Lisy, Marek Balas, Zdenek Skala


This article is trying to determine the status of flue gas that is entering the KWH heat exchanger from combustion chamber in order to calculate the heat transfer ratio of the heat exchanger. Combination of measurement, calculation, and computer simulation was used to create a useful way to approximate the heat transfer rate. The measurements were taken by a number of sensors that are mounted on the experimental device and by a thermal imaging camera. The results of the numerical calculation are in a good correspondence with the real power output of the experimental device. Results show that the research has a good direction and can be used to propose changes in the construction of the heat exchanger, but still needs enhancements.

Keywords: heat exchanger, heat transfer rate, numerical calculation, thermal images

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20 Model Organic Ranikin Cycle Power Plant for Waste Heat Recovery in Olkaria-I Geothermal Power Plant

Authors: Haile Araya Nigusse, Hiram M. Ndiritu, Robert Kiplimo


Energy consumption is an indispensable component for the continued development of the human population. The global energy demand increases with development and population rise. The increase in energy demand, high cost of fossil fuels and the link between energy utilization and environmental impacts have resulted in the need for a sustainable approach to the utilization of the low grade energy resources. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plant is an advantageous technology that can be applied in generation of power from low temperature brine of geothermal reservoirs. The power plant utilizes a low boiling organic working fluid such as a refrigerant or a hydrocarbon. Researches indicated that the performance of ORC power plant is highly dependent upon factors such as proper organic working fluid selection, types of heat exchangers (condenser and evaporator) and turbine used. Despite a high pressure drop, shell-tube heat exchangers have satisfactory performance for ORC power plants. This study involved the design, fabrication and performance assessment of the components of a model Organic Rankine Cycle power plant to utilize the low grade geothermal brine. Two shell and tube heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser) and a single stage impulse turbine have been designed, fabricated and the performance assessment of each component has been conducted. Pentane was used as a working fluid and hot water simulating the geothermal brine. The results of the experiment indicated that the increase in mass flow rate of hot water by 0.08 kg/s caused a rise in overall heat transfer coefficient of the evaporator by 17.33% and the heat transferred was increased by 6.74%. In the condenser, the increase of cooling water flow rate from 0.15 kg/s to 0.35 kg/s increased the overall heat transfer coefficient by 1.21% and heat transferred was increased by 4.26%. The shaft speed varied from 1585 to 4590 rpm as inlet pressure was varied from 0.5 to 5.0 bar and power generated was varying from 4.34 to 14.46W. The results of the experiments indicated that the performance of each component of the model Organic Rankine Cycle power plant operating at low temperature heat resources was satisfactory.

Keywords: Turbine, heat exchanger, brine, ORC

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19 Designing an Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery Module Following Measurements Performed under Real Operating Conditions

Authors: Jerzy Merkisz, Pawel Fuc, Piotr Lijewski, Andrzej Ziolkowski, Pawel Czarkowski


The paper presents preliminary results of the development of an automotive exhaust gas energy recovery module. The aim of the performed analyses was to select the geometry of the heat exchanger that would ensure the highest possible transfer of heat at minimum heat flow losses. The starting point for the analyses was a straight portion of a pipe, from which the exhaust system of the tested vehicle was made. The design of the heat exchanger had a cylindrical cross-section, was 300 mm long and was fitted with a diffuser and a confusor. The model works were performed for the mentioned geometry utilizing the finite volume method based on the Ansys CFX v12.1 and v14 software. This method consisted in dividing of the system into small control volumes for which the exhaust gas velocity and pressure calculations were performed using the Navier-Stockes equations. The heat exchange in the system was modeled based on the enthalpy balance. The temperature growth resulting from the acting viscosity was not taken into account. The heat transfer on the fluid/solid boundary in the wall layer with the turbulent flow was done based on an arbitrarily adopted dimensionless temperature. The boundary conditions adopted in the analyses included the convective condition of heat transfer on the outer surface of the heat exchanger and the mass flow and temperature of the exhaust gas at the inlet. The mass flow and temperature of the exhaust gas were assumed based on the measurements performed in actual traffic using portable PEMS analyzers. The research object was a passenger vehicle fitted with a 1.9 dm3 85 kW diesel engine. The tests were performed in city traffic conditions.

Keywords: Waste Heat Recovery, heat exchanger, CFD simulation, PEMS

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18 Simulation of Improving the Efficiency of a Fire-Tube Steam Boiler

Authors: Roudane Mohamed


In this study we are interested in improving the efficiency of a steam boiler to 4.5T/h and minimize fume discharge temperature by the addition of a heat exchanger against the current in the energy system, the output of the boiler. The mathematical approach to the problem is based on the use of heat transfer by convection and conduction equations. These equations have been chosen because of their extensive use in a wide range of application. A software and developed for solving the equations governing these phenomena and the estimation of the thermal characteristics of boiler through the study of the thermal characteristics of the heat exchanger by both LMTD and NUT methods. Subsequently, an analysis of the thermal performance of the steam boiler by studying the influence of different operating parameters on heat flux densities, temperatures, exchanged power and performance was carried out. The study showed that the behavior of the boiler is largely influenced. In the first regime (P = 3.5 bar), the boiler efficiency has improved significantly from 93.03 to 99.43 at the rate of 6.47% and 4.5%. For maximum speed, the change is less important, it is of the order of 1.06%. The results obtained in this study of great interest to industrial utilities equipped with smoke tube boilers for the preheating air temperature intervene to calculate the actual temperature of the gas so the heat exchanged will be increased and minimize temperature smoke discharge. On the other hand, this work could be used as a model of computation in the design process.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Efficiency, heat exchanger, fire tube, convection and conduction

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17 Optimization Analysis of a Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger with Field Synergy Principle

Authors: M. C. Lin, C. W. Su


The paper investigates the optimization analysis to the heat exchanger design, mainly with response surface method and genetic algorithm to explore the relationship between optimal fluid flow velocity and temperature of the heat exchanger using field synergy principle. First, finite volume method is proposed to calculate the flow temperature and flow rate distribution for numerical analysis. We identify the most suitable simulation equations by response surface methodology. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm approach is applied to optimize the relationship between fluid flow velocity and flow temperature of the heat exchanger. The results show that the field synergy angle plays vital role in the performance of a true heat exchanger.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, heat exchanger, optimization analysis, field synergy

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16 Investigations of the Crude Oil Distillation Preheat Section in Unit 100 of Abadan Refinery and Its Recommendation

Authors: Mahdi GoharRokhi, Mohammad H. Ruhipour, Mohammad R. ZamaniZadeh, Mohsen Maleki, Yusef Shamsayi, Mahdi FarhaniNejad, Farzad FarrokhZadeh


Possessing massive resources of natural gas and petroleum, Iran has a special place among all other oil producing countries, according to international institutions of energy. In order to use these resources, development and functioning optimization of refineries and industrial units is mandatory. Heat exchanger is one of the most important and strategic equipment which its key role in the process of production is clear to everyone. For instance, if the temperature of a processing fluid is not set as needed by heat exchangers, the specifications of desired product can change profoundly. Crude oil enters a network of heat exchangers in atmospheric distillation section before getting into the distillation tower; in this case, well-functioning of heat exchangers can significantly affect the operation of distillation tower. In this paper, different scenarios for pre-heating of oil are studied using oil and gas simulation software, and the results are discussed. As we reviewed various scenarios, adding a heat exchanger to pre-heating network is proposed as the most efficient factor in improving all governing parameters of the tower i.e. temperature, pressure, and reflux rate. This exchanger is embedded in crude oil’s path. Crude oil enters the exchanger after E-101 and exchanges heat with discharging kerosene pump around from E-136. As depicted in the results, it will efficiently assist the improvement of process operation and side expenses.

Keywords: Simulation, heat exchanger, atmospheric distillation unit, preheat

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15 Determination of Flow Arrangement for Optimum Performance in Heat Exchangers

Authors: Ahmed Salisu Atiku


This task involves the determination of the flow arrangement for optimum performance and the calculation of total heat transfer of two identical double pipe heat exchangers in series. The inner pipe contains the cold water stream at 27°C, whilst the outer pipe contains the two hot stream of water at 50°C and 90 °C which can be mixed in any way desired. The analysis was carried out using counter flow arrangement due to its good heat transfer ability. The best way of heating this cold stream was found out to be passing the 90°C hot stream through the two heat exchangers. The outlet temperature of the cold stream was found to be 39.6°C and overall heat transfer of 131.3 kW. Though starting with 50°C hot stream in the first heat exchanger followed by 90°C hot stream in the second heat exchanger gives an outlet temperature almost the same as 90°C hot stream alone, but the heat transfer is low. The reason for the low heat transfer was that only the heat transfer in the second heat exchanger is considered. Whilst the reason behind high outlet temperature was that the cold stream was already preheated by the first stream.

Keywords: heat exchanger, cold stream, flow arrangement, hot stream

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14 Thermal Performance Analysis of Nanofluids in a Concetric Heat Exchanger Equipped with Turbulators

Authors: Feyza Eda Akyurek, Bayram Sahin, Kadir Gelis, Eyuphan Manay, Murat Ceylan


Turbulent forced convection heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of Al2O3–water nanofluid flowing through a concentric tube heat exchanger with and without coiled wire turbulators were studied experimentally. The experiments were conducted in the Reynolds number ranging from 4000 to 20000, particle volume concentrations of 0.8 vol.% and 1.6 vol.%. Two turbulators with the pitches of 25 mm and 39 mm were used. The results of nanofluids indicated that average Nusselt number increased much more with increasing Reynolds number compared to that of pure water. Thermal conductivity enhancement by the nanofluids resulted in heat transfer enhancement. Once the pressure drop of the alumina/water nanofluid was analyzed, it was nearly equal to that of pure water at the same Reynolds number range. It was concluded that nanofluids with the volume fractions of 0.8 and 1.6 did not have a significant effect on pressure drop change. However, the use of wire coils in heat exchanger enhanced heat transfer as well as the pressure drop.

Keywords: Heat Transfer Enhancement, Nanofluids, heat exchanger, turbulators

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13 Design of Tube Expanders with Groove Shapes to Reduce Deformation of Tube Inner Grooves in Copper Tube Expansion

Authors: I. Sin, H. Kim, S. Park


Fin-tube heat exchangers have grooves inside tubes to improve heat exchange performance. However, during the tube expansion process, heat exchange efficiency is decreased due to large deformation of tube inner grooves. Therefore, the objective of this study is to design a tube expander with groove shapes on its outer surface to minimize deformation of the inner grooves in copper tube expansion for fin-tube heat exchangers. In order to achieve this goal, first, we have tried to calculate tube inner groove deformation by the currently used tube expander without groove shapes on its surface. The tube inner groove deformation was acquired by elastoplastic finite element analysis from the boundary conditions with one tube end fixed and friction between the tube and tube expander (friction coefficient: 0.15). The tube expansion process was simulated by inserting the tube expander into the tube with a speed of 90 mm/s. The analysis results showed that tube inner groove heights were decreased by approximately 8 % from 0.15 mm to 0.138 mm with stress concentrations observed at the groove end, consistent with experimental results. Based on the current results, we are trying to design a novel shape of the tube expander with grooves to further reduce deformation tube inner grooves in copper tube expansion. For this, we will select major design variables of tube expander groove shapes by conducting sensitivity analysis and then optimize the design variables using the Taguchi method.

Keywords: finite element, heat exchanger, tube expansion, tube expander

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12 Topology Optimization of Heat Exchanger Manifolds for Aircraft

Authors: Hanjong Kim, Changwan Han, Seonghun Park


Heat exchanger manifolds in aircraft play an important role in evenly distributing the fluid entering through the inlet to the heat transfer unit. In order to achieve this requirement, the manifold should be designed to have a light weight by withstanding high internal pressure. Therefore, this study aims at minimizing the weight of the heat exchanger manifold through topology optimization. For topology optimization, the initial design space was created with the inner surface extracted from the currently used manifold model and with the outer surface having a dimension of 243.42 mm of X 74.09 mm X 65 mm. This design space solid model was transformed into a finite element model with a maximum tetrahedron mesh size of 2 mm using ANSYS Workbench. Then, topology optimization was performed under the boundary conditions of an internal pressure of 5.5 MPa and the fixed support for rectangular inlet boundaries by SIMULIA TOSCA. This topology optimization produced the minimized finial volume of the manifold (i.e., 7.3% of the initial volume) based on the given constraints (i.e., 6% of the initial volume) and the objective function (i.e., maximizing manifold stiffness). Weight of the optimized model was 6.7% lighter than the currently used manifold, but after smoothing the topology optimized model, this difference would be bigger. The current optimized model has uneven thickness and skeleton-shaped outer surface to reduce stress concentration. We are currently simplifying the optimized model shape with spline interpolations by reflecting the design characteristics in thickness and skeletal structures from the optimized model. This simplified model will be validated again by calculating both stress distributions and weight reduction and then the validated model will be manufactured using 3D printing processes.

Keywords: heat exchanger, topology optimization, manifold

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11 Numerical Simulation and Analysis on Liquid Nitrogen Spray Heat Exchanger

Authors: Wenjing Ding, Weiwei Shan, Zijuan, Wang, Chao He


Liquid spray heat exchanger is the critical equipment of temperature regulating system by gaseous nitrogen which realizes the environment temperature in the range of -180 ℃~+180 ℃. Liquid nitrogen is atomized into smaller liquid drops through liquid nitrogen sprayer and then contacts with gaseous nitrogen to be cooled. By adjusting the pressure of liquid nitrogen and gaseous nitrogen, the flowrate of liquid nitrogen is changed to realize the required outlet temperature of heat exchanger. The temperature accuracy of shrouds is ±1 ℃. Liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger is simulated by CATIA, and the numerical simulation is performed by FLUENT. The comparison between the tests and numerical simulation is conducted. Moreover, the results help to improve the design of liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, heat exchanger, liquid nitrogen spray, temperature regulating system

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10 Analyzing the Effect of Design of Pipe in Shell and Tube Type Heat Exchanger by Measuring Its Heat Transfer Rate by Computation Fluid Dynamics and Thermal Approach

Authors: Dhawal Ladani


Shell and tube type heat exchangers are predominantly used in heat exchange between two fluids and other applications. This paper projects the optimal design of the pipe used in the heat exchanger in such a way to minimize the vibration occurring in the pipe. Paper also consists of the comparison of the different design of the pipe to get the maximize the heat transfer rate by converting laminar flow into the turbulent flow. By the updated design the vibration in the pipe due to the flow is also decreased. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Thermal Heat Transfer analysis are done to justifying the result. Currently, the straight pipe is used in the shell and tube type of heat exchanger where as per the paper the pipe consists of the curvature along with the pipe. Hence, the heat transfer area is also increased and result in the increasing in heat transfer rate. Curvature type design is useful to create turbulence and minimizing the vibration, also. The result will give the output comparison of the effect of laminar flow and the turbulent flow in the heat exchange mechanism, as well as, inverse effect of the boundary layer in heat exchanger is also justified.

Keywords: heat exchanger, heat transfer rate, laminar and turbulent effect, shell and tube

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9 Performance Analysis of a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger in the Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plant

Authors: Yogi Sirodz Gaos, Irvan Wiradinata


In the 500 kW Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plant in Indonesia, an AFT (according to the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association – TEMA) type shell and tube heat exchanger device is used as a pre-heating system for the ORC’s hot water circulation system. The pre-heating source is a waste heat recovery of the brine water, which is tapped from a geothermal power plant. The brine water itself has 5 MWₜₕ capacities, with average temperature of 170ᵒC, and 7 barg working pressure. The aim of this research is to examine the performance of the heat exchanger in the ORC system in a 500 kW ORC power plant. The data for this research were collected during the commissioning on the middle of December 2016. During the commissioning, the inlet temperature and working pressure of the brine water to the shell and tube type heat exchanger was 149ᵒC, and 4.4 barg respectively. Furthermore, the ΔT for the hot water circulation of the ORC system to the heat exchanger was 27ᵒC, with the inlet temperature of 140ᵒC. The pressure in the hot circulation system was dropped slightly from 7.4ᵒC to 7.1ᵒC. The flow rate of the hot water circulation was 80.5 m³/h. The presentation and discussion of a case study on the performance of the heat exchanger on the 500 kW ORC system is presented as follows: (1) the heat exchange duty is 2,572 kW; (2) log mean temperature of the heat exchanger is 13.2ᵒC; (3) the actual overall thermal conductivity is 1,020.6 W/m².K (4) the required overall thermal conductivity is 316.76 W/m².K; and (5) the over design for this heat exchange performance is 222.2%. An analysis of the heat exchanger detailed engineering design (DED) is briefly discussed. To sum up, this research concludes that the shell and tube heat exchangers technology demonstrated a good performance as pre-heating system for the ORC’s hot water circulation system. Further research need to be conducted to examine the performance of heat exchanger system on the ORC’s hot water circulation system.

Keywords: Performance, Organic Rankine Cycle, heat exchanger, shell and tube, commissioning

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8 Quantitative Changes in Biofilms of a Seawater Tubular Heat Exchanger Subjected to Electromagnetic Fields Treatment

Authors: Sergio Garcia, Alfredo Trueba, Luis M. Vega, Ernesto Madariaga


Biofilms adhesion is one of the more important cost of industries plants on wide world, which use to water for cooling heat exchangers or are in contact with water. This study evaluated the effect of Electromagnetic Fields on biofilms in tubular heat exchangers using seawater cooling. The results showed an up to 40% reduction of the biofilm thickness compared to the untreated control tubes. The presence of organic matter was reduced by 75%, the inorganic mater was reduced by 87%, and 53% of the dissolved solids were eliminated. The biofilm thermal conductivity in the treated tube was reduced by 53% as compared to the control tube. The hardness in the effluent during the experimental period was decreased by 18% in the treated tubes compared with control tubes. Our results show that the electromagnetic fields treatment has a great potential in the process of removing biofilms in heat exchanger.

Keywords: Biofilm, Electromagnetic Fields, Seawater, heat exchanger

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7 Topology Enhancement of a Straight Fin Using a Porous Media Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Approach

Authors: S. Wakim, M. Nemer, B. Zeghondy, B. Ghannam, C. Bouallou


Designing the optimal heat exchanger is still an essential objective to be achieved. Parametrical optimization involves the evaluation of the heat exchanger dimensions to find those that best satisfy certain objectives. This method contributes to an enhanced design rather than an optimized one. On the contrary, topology optimization finds the optimal structure that satisfies the design objectives. The huge development in metal additive manufacturing allowed topology optimization to find its way into engineering applications especially in the aerospace field to optimize metal structures. Using topology optimization in 3d heat and mass transfer problems requires huge computational time, therefore coupling it with CFD simulations can reduce this it. However, existed CFD models cannot be coupled with topology optimization. The CFD model must allow creating a uniform mesh despite the initial geometry complexity and also to swap the cells from fluid to solid and vice versa. In this paper, a porous media approach compatible with topology optimization criteria is developed. It consists of modeling the fluid region of the heat exchanger as porous media having high porosity and similarly the solid region is modeled as porous media having low porosity. The switching from fluid to solid cells required by topology optimization is simply done by changing each cell porosity using a user defined function. This model is tested on a plate and fin heat exchanger and validated by comparing its results to experimental data and simulations results. Furthermore, this model is used to perform a material reallocation based on local criteria to optimize a plate and fin heat exchanger under a constant heat duty constraint. The optimized fin uses 20% fewer materials than the first while the pressure drop is reduced by about 13%.

Keywords: Computational Methods, Porous Media, Finite Element Method, heat exchanger, topology optimization

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6 Numerical Simulation of the Heat Transfer Process in a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger

Authors: J. I. Corcoles, J. D. Moya-Rico, A. Molina, J. F. Belmonte, J. A. Almendros-Ibanez


One of the most common heat exchangers technology in engineering processes is the use of double-pipe heat exchangers (DPHx), mainly in the food industry. To improve the heat transfer performance, several passive geometrical devices can be used, such as the wall corrugation of tubes, which increases the wet perimeter maintaining a constant cross-section area, increasing consequently the convective surface area. It contributes to enhance heat transfer in forced convection, promoting secondary recirculating flows. One of the most extended tools to analyse heat exchangers' efficiency is the use of computational fluid dynamic techniques (CFD), a complementary activity to the experimental studies as well as a previous step for the design of heat exchangers. In this study, a double pipe heat exchanger behaviour with two different inner tubes, smooth and spirally corrugated tube, have been analysed. Hence, experimental analysis and steady 3-D numerical simulations using the commercial code ANSYS Workbench v. 17.0 are carried out to analyse the influence of geometrical parameters for spirally corrugated tubes at turbulent flow. To validate the numerical results, an experimental setup has been used. To heat up or cool down the cold fluid as it passes through the heat exchanger, the installation includes heating and cooling loops served by an electric boiler with a heating capacity of 72 kW and a chiller, with a cooling capacity of 48 kW. Two tests have been carried out for the smooth tube and for the corrugated one. In all the tests, the hot fluid has a constant flowrate of 50 l/min and inlet temperature of 59.5°C. For the cold fluid, the flowrate range from 25 l/min (Test 1) and 30 l/min (Test 2) with an inlet temperature of 22.1°C. The heat exchanger is made of stainless steel, with an external diameter of 35 mm and wall thickness of 1.5 mm. Both inner tubes have an external diameter of 24 mm and 1 mm thickness of stainless steel with a length of 2.8 m. The corrugated tube has a corrugation height (H) of 1.1 mm and helical pitch (P) of 25 mm. It is characterized using three non-dimensional parameters, the ratio of the corrugation shape and the diameter (H/D), the helical pitch (P/D) and the severity index (SI = H²/P x D). The results showed good agreement between the numerical and the experimental results. Hence, the lowest differences were shown for the fluid temperatures. In all the analysed tests and for both analysed tubes, the temperature obtained numerically was slightly higher than the experimental results, with values ranged between 0.1% and 0.7%. Regarding the pressure drop, the maximum differences between the values obtained numerically, and the experimental values were close to 16%. Based on the experimental and the numerical results, for the corrugated tube, it can be highlighted that the temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet of the cold fluid is 42%, higher than the smooth tube.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Numerical Simulation, heat exchanger, corrugated tube

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5 Experimental Analysis of the Plate-on-Tube Evaporator on a Domestic Refrigerator’s Performance

Authors: Mert Tosun, Tuğba Tosun


The evaporator is the utmost important component in the refrigeration system, since it enables the refrigerant to draw heat from the desired environment, i.e. the refrigerated space. Studies are being conducted on this component which generally affects the performance of the system, where energy efficient products are important. This study was designed to enhance the effectiveness of the evaporator in the refrigeration cycle of a domestic refrigerator by adjusting the capillary tube length, refrigerant amount, and the evaporator pipe diameter to reduce energy consumption. The experiments were conducted under identical thermal and ambient conditions. Experiment data were analysed using the Design of Experiment (DOE) technique which is a six-sigma method to determine effects of parameters. As a result, it has been determined that the most important parameters affecting the evaporator performance among the selected parameters are found to be the refrigerant amount and pipe diameter. It has been determined that the minimum energy consumption is 6-mm pipe diameter and 16-g refrigerant. It has also been noted that the overall consumption of the experiment sample decreased by 16.6% with respect to the reference system, which has 7-mm pipe diameter and 18-g refrigerant.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, heat exchanger, design of experiment, refrigerator

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4 Heat Exchanger Optimization of a Domestic Refrigerator with Separate Cooling Circuits

Authors: Tugba Tosun, Mert Tosun


Cooling system performance and energy consumption in the bypass two-circuit cycle have been studied experimentally to find optimum evaporator type and geometry, capillary tube diameter and capillary length. Two types of evaporators, such as wire on the tube and finned tube evaporators were used for the experiments in the fresh food compartment. As capillary tube inner diameter and total length; 0.66 mm and 0.8mm, and 3000 mm and 3500 mm were selected as parameters, respectively. Experiments were performed at the 25⁰C ambient temperature while the average temperature of the fresh food compartment is kept at 5⁰C and the highest package temperature of the freezer compartment is kept at -18⁰C, which are defined in IEC 62552 European standard. The Design of Experiments (DOE) technique which is six sigma method has been used to indicate of effective parameters in the bypass two-circuit cycle. The experimental results revealed that the most effective parameter of the system is the evaporator type. Finned tube evaporator with 12 tube passes was found as the best option for the bypass two-circuit refrigeration cycle among the 8 different opportunities. The optimum cooling performance and the lowest energy consumption were provided with 0.66 mm capillary tube inner diameter and 3500 mm capillary tube length.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, heat exchanger, refrigerator, capillary tube, separate cooling circuits

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3 Crystallization Fouling from Potable Water in Heat Exchangers and Evaporators

Authors: Amthal Al-Gailani, Olujide Sanni, Thibaut Charpentier, Anne Neville


Formation of inorganic scale on heat transfer surfaces is a serious problem encountered in industrial, commercial, and domestic heat exchangers and systems. Several industries use potable/groundwater sources such as rivers, lakes, and oceans to use water as a working fluid in heat exchangers and steamers. As potable/surface water contains diverse salt ionic species, the scaling kinetics and deposit morphology are expected to be different from those found in artificially hardened solutions. In this work, scale formation on the heat transfer surfaces from potable water has been studied using a once-through open flow cell under atmospheric pressure. The surface scaling mechanism and deposit morphology are investigated at high surface temperature. Thus the water evaporation process has to be considered. The effect of surface temperature, flow rate, and inhibitor deployment on the thermal resistance and morphology of the scale have been investigated. The study findings show how an increase in surface temperature enhances the crystallization reaction kinetics on the surface. There is an increase in the amount of scale and the resistance to heat transfer. The fluid flow rate also increases the fouling resistance and the thickness of the scale layer.

Keywords: Crystallization, Fouling, Potable water, Thermal Resistance, heat exchanger

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2 Development of a CFD Model for PCM Based Energy Storage in a Vertical Triplex Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: Pratibha Biswal, Suyash Morchhale, Anshuman Singh Yadav, Shubham Sanjay Chobe


Energy demands are increasing whereas energy sources, especially non-renewable sources are limited. Due to the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, it has become the need of the hour to find new ways to store energy. Out of various energy storage methods, latent heat thermal storage devices are becoming popular due to their high energy density per unit mass and volume at nearly constant temperature. This work presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model using ANSYS FLUENT 19.0 for energy storage characteristics of a phase change material (PCM) filled in a vertical triplex tube thermal energy storage system. A vertical triplex tube heat exchanger, just like its name consists of three concentric tubes (pipe sections) for parting the device into three fluid domains. The PCM is filled in the middle domain with heat transfer fluids flowing in the outer and innermost domains. To enhance the heat transfer inside the PCM, eight fins have been incorporated between the internal and external tubes. These fins run radially outwards from the outer-wall of innermost tube to the inner-wall of the middle tube dividing the middle domain (between innermost and middle tube) into eight sections. These eight sections are then filled with a PCM. The validation is carried with earlier work and a grid independence test is also presented. Further studies on freezing and melting process were carried out. The results are presented in terms of pictorial representation of isotherms and liquid fraction

Keywords: CFD, Thermal Energy Storage, heat exchanger, phase change material, latent heat

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1 Heat Recovery System from Air-Cooled Chillers in Iranian Hospitals

Authors: Saeed Vahidifar, Mohammad Nakhaee Sharif, Mohammad Ghaffari


Few people would dispute the fact that one of the most common applications of energy is creating comfort in buildings, so it is probably true to say that management of energy consumption is required due to the environmental issues and increasing the efficiency of mechanical systems. From the geographical point of view, Iran is located in a warm and semi-arid region; therefore, air-cooled chillers are usually used for cooling residential buildings, commercial buildings, medical buildings, etc. In this study, a heat exchanger was designed for providing laundry hot water by utilizing condenser heat lost base on analytical results of a 540-bed hospital in the city of Mashhad in Iran. In this paper, by using the analytical method, energy consumption reduces about 13%, and coefficient of performance increases a bit. Results show that this method can help in the management of energy consumption a lot.

Keywords: Energy Management, Environmental Issues, heat exchanger, air cooled chiller, hospital laundry system

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