Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

heart rate variability Related Abstracts

16 Gender Based Variability Time Series Complexity Analysis

Authors: Ramesh K. Sunkaria, Puneeta Marwaha


Nonlinear methods of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis are becoming more popular. It has been observed that complexity measures quantify the regularity and uncertainty of cardiovascular RR-interval time series. In the present work, SampEn has been evaluated in healthy Normal Sinus Rhythm (NSR) male and female subjects for different data lengths and tolerance level r. It is demonstrated that SampEn is small for higher values of tolerance r. Also SampEn value of healthy female group is higher than that of healthy male group for short data length and with increase in data length both groups overlap each other and it is difficult to distinguish them. The SampEn gives inaccurate results by assigning higher value to female group, because male subject have more complex HRV pattern than that of female subjects. Therefore, this traditional algorithm exhibits higher complexity for healthy female subjects than for healthy male subjects, which is misleading observation. This may be due to the fact that SampEn do not account for multiple time scales inherent in the physiologic time series and the hidden spatial and temporal fluctuations remains unexplored.

Keywords: heart rate variability, normal sinus rhythm group, RR interval time series, sample entropy

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15 Heart Rate Variability as a Measure of Dairy Calf Welfare

Authors: J. B. Clapp, S. Croarkin, C. Dolphin, S. K. Lyons


Chronic pain or stress in farm animals impacts both on their welfare and productivity. Measuring chronic pain or stress can be problematic using hormonal or behavioural changes because hormones are modulated by homeostatic mechanisms and observed behaviour can be highly subjective. We propose that heart rate variability (HRV) can quantify chronic pain or stress in farmed animal and represents a more robust and objective measure of their welfare.

Keywords: welfare, heart rate variability, dairy calf, non-invasive, biomonitor

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14 Poincare Plot for Heart Rate Variability

Authors: Mazhar B. Tayel, Eslam I. AlSaba


The heart is the most important part in any body organisms. It effects and affected by any factor in the body. Therefore, it is a good detector of any matter in the body. When the heart signal is non-stationary signal, therefore, it should be study its variability. So, the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has attracted considerable attention in psychology, medicine and have become important dependent measure in psychophysiology and behavioral medicine. Quantification and interpretation of heart rate variability. However, remain complex issues are fraught with pitfalls. This paper presents one of the non-linear techniques to analyze HRV. It discusses 'What Poincare plot is?', 'How it is work?', 'its usage benefits especially in HRV', 'the limitation of Poincare cause of standard deviation SD1, SD2', and 'How overcome this limitation by using complex correlation measure (CCM)'. The CCM is most sensitive to changes in temporal structure of the Poincaré plot as compared to SD1 and SD2.

Keywords: heart rate variability, chaotic system, standard deviation, variance, poincare, complex correlation measure

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13 Assessment of Five Photoplethysmographic Methods for Estimating Heart Rate Variability

Authors: Akshay B. Pawar, Rohit Y. Parasnis


Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a widely used indicator of the regulation between the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the cardiovascular system. Besides being non-invasive, it also has the potential to predict mortality in cases involving critical injuries. The gold standard method for determining HRV is based on the analysis of RR interval time series extracted from ECG signals. However, because it is much more convenient to obtain photoplethysmogramic (PPG) signals as compared to ECG signals (which require the attachment of several electrodes to the body), many researchers have used pulse cycle intervals instead of RR intervals to estimate HRV. They have also compared this method with the gold standard technique. Though most of their observations indicate a strong correlation between the two methods, recent studies show that in healthy subjects, except for a few parameters, the pulse-based method cannot be a surrogate for the standard RR interval- based method. Moreover, the former tends to overestimate short-term variability in heart rate. This calls for improvements in or alternatives to the pulse-cycle interval method. In this study, besides the systolic peak-peak interval method (PP method) that has been studied several times, four recent PPG-based techniques, namely the first derivative peak-peak interval method (P1D method), the second derivative peak-peak interval method (P2D method), the valley-valley interval method (VV method) and the tangent-intersection interval method (TI method) were compared with the gold standard technique. ECG and PPG signals were obtained from 10 young and healthy adults (consisting of both males and females) seated in the armchair position. In order to de-noise these signals and eliminate baseline drift, they were passed through certain digital filters. After filtering, the following HRV parameters were computed from PPG using each of the five methods and also from ECG using the gold standard method: time domain parameters (SDNN, pNN50 and RMSSD), frequency domain parameters (Very low-frequency power (VLF), Low-frequency power (LF), High-frequency power (HF) and Total power or “TP”). Besides, Poincaré plots were also plotted and their SD1/SD2 ratios determined. The resulting sets of parameters were compared with those yielded by the standard method using measures of statistical correlation (correlation coefficient) as well as statistical agreement (Bland-Altman plots). From the viewpoint of correlation, our results show that the best PPG-based methods for the determination of most parameters and Poincaré plots are the P2D method (shows more than 93% correlation with the standard method) and the PP method (mean correlation: 88%) whereas the TI, VV and P1D methods perform poorly (<70% correlation in most cases). However, our evaluation of statistical agreement using Bland-Altman plots shows that none of the five techniques agrees satisfactorily well with the gold standard method as far as time-domain parameters are concerned. In conclusion, excellent statistical correlation implies that certain PPG-based methods provide a good amount of information on the pattern of heart rate variation, whereas poor statistical agreement implies that PPG cannot completely replace ECG in the determination of HRV.

Keywords: heart rate variability, photoplethysmography, correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman plot

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12 The Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Physiological Stress of Managers

Authors: Mikko Salminen, Simo Järvelä, Niklas Ravaja


One of the central models of emotional intelligence (EI) is that of Mayer and Salovey’s, which includes ability to monitor own feelings and emotions and those of others, ability to discriminate different emotions, and to use this information to guide thinking and actions. There is vast amount of previous research where positive links between EI and, for example, leadership successfulness, work outcomes, work wellbeing and organizational climate have been reported. EI has also a role in the effectiveness of work teams, and the effects of EI are especially prominent in jobs requiring emotional labor. Thus, also the organizational context must be taken into account when considering the effects of EI on work outcomes. Based on previous research, it is suggested that EI can also protect managers from the negative consequences of stress. Stress may have many detrimental effects on the manager’s performance in essential work tasks. Previous studies have highlighted the effects of stress on, not only health, but also, for example, on cognitive tasks such as decision-making, which is important in managerial work. The motivation for the current study came from the notion that, unfortunately, many stressed individuals may not be aware of the circumstance; periods of stress-induced physiological arousal may be prolonged if there is not enough time for recovery. To tackle this problem, physiological stress levels of managers were collected using recording of heart rate variability (HRV). The goal was to use this data to provide the managers with feedback on their stress levels. The managers could access this feedback using a www-based learning environment. In the learning environment, in addition to the feedback on stress level and other collected data, also developmental tasks were provided. For example, those with high stress levels were sent instructions for mindfulness exercises. The current study focuses on the relation between the measured physiological stress levels and EI of the managers. In a pilot study, 33 managers from various fields wore the Firstbeat Bodyguard HRV measurement devices for three consecutive days and nights. From the collected HRV data periods (minutes) of stress and recovery were detected using dedicated software. The effects of EI on HRV-calculated stress indexes were studied using Linear Mixed Models procedure in SPSS. There was a statistically significant effect of total EI, defined as an average score of Schutte’s emotional intelligence test, on the percentage of stress minutes during the whole measurement period (p=.025). More stress minutes were detected on those managers who had lower emotional intelligence. It is suggested, that high EI provided managers with better tools to cope with stress. Managing of own emotions helps the manager in controlling possible negative emotions evoked by, e.g., critical feedback or increasing workload. High EI managers may also be more competent in detecting emotions of others, which would lead to smoother interactions and less conflicts. Given the recent trend to different quantified-self applications, it is suggested that monitoring of bio-signals would prove to be a fruitful direction to further develop new tools for managerial and leadership coaching.

Keywords: Leadership, Personality, stress, Emotional Intelligence, heart rate variability

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11 Heart Rate Variability Analysis for Early Stage Prediction of Sudden Cardiac Death

Authors: Reeta Devi, Hitender Kumar Tyagi, Dinesh Kumar


In present scenario, cardiovascular problems are growing challenge for researchers and physiologists. As heart disease have no geographic, gender or socioeconomic specific reasons; detecting cardiac irregularities at early stage followed by quick and correct treatment is very important. Electrocardiogram is the finest tool for continuous monitoring of heart activity. Heart rate variability (HRV) is used to measure naturally occurring oscillations between consecutive cardiac cycles. Analysis of this variability is carried out using time domain, frequency domain and non-linear parameters. This paper presents HRV analysis of the online dataset for normal sinus rhythm (taken as healthy subject) and sudden cardiac death (SCD subject) using all three methods computing values for parameters like standard deviation of node to node intervals (SDNN), square root of mean of the sequences of difference between adjacent RR intervals (RMSSD), mean of R to R intervals (mean RR) in time domain, very low-frequency (VLF), low-frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and ratio of low to high frequency (LF/HF ratio) in frequency domain and Poincare plot for non linear analysis. To differentiate HRV of healthy subject from subject died with SCD, k –nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier has been used because of its high accuracy. Results show highly reduced values for all stated parameters for SCD subjects as compared to healthy ones. As the dataset used for SCD patients is recording of their ECG signal one hour prior to their death, it is therefore, verified with an accuracy of 95% that proposed algorithm can identify mortality risk of a patient one hour before its death. The identification of a patient’s mortality risk at such an early stage may prevent him/her meeting sudden death if in-time and right treatment is given by the doctor.

Keywords: sudden cardiac death, heart rate variability, early stage prediction, linear and non-linear analysis

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10 Wharton's Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulate Heart Rate Variability and Improve Baroreflex Sensitivity in Septic Rats

Authors: Cóndor C. José, Rodrigues E. Camila, Noronha L. Irene, Dos Santos Fernando, Irigoyen M. Claudia, Andrade Lúcia


Sepsis induces alterations in hemodynamics and autonomic nervous system (ASN). The autonomic activity can be calculated by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) that represents the complex interplay between ASN and cardiac pacemaker cells. Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) are known to express genes and secreted factors involved in neuroprotective and immunological effects, also to improve the survival in experimental septic animals. We hypothesized, that WJ-MSCs present an important role in the autonomic activity and in the hemodynamic effects in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Methods: We used flow cytometry to evaluate WJ-MSCs phenotypes. We divided Wistar rats into groups: sham (shamoperated); CLP; and CLP+MSC (106 WJ-MSCs, i.p., 6 h after CLP). At 24 h post-CLP, we recorded the systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and heart rate (HR) over 20 min. The spectral analysis of HR and SAP; also the spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (measure by bradycardic and tachycardic responses) were evaluated after recording. The one-way ANOVA and the post hoc Student– Newman– Keuls tests (P< 0.05) were used to data comparison Results: WJ-MSCs were negative for CD3, CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR, whereas they were positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105. The CLP group showed a reduction in variance of overall variability and in high-frequency power of HR (heart parasympathetic activity); furthermore, there is a low-frequency reduction of SAP (blood vessels sympathetic activity). The treatment with WJ-MSCs improved the autonomic activity by increasing the high and lowfrequency power; and restore the baroreflex sensitive. Conclusions: WJ-MSCs attenuate the impairment of autonomic control of the heart and vessels and might therefore play a protective role in sepsis. (Supported by FAPESP).

Keywords: sepsis, heart rate variability, baroreflex response, wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells

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9 Cardio Autonomic Response during Mental Stress in the Wards of Normal and Hypertensive Parents

Authors: Sheila R. Pai, Rekha D. Kini, Amrutha Mary


Objective: To assess and compare the cardiac autonomic activity after mental stress among the wards of normal and hypertensive parents. Methods: The study included 67 subjects, 30 of them had a parental history of hypertension and rest 37 had normotensive parents. Subjects were divided into control group (wards of normotensive parents) and Study group (wards of hypertensive parents). The height, weight were noted, and Body Mass Index (BMI) was also calculated. The mental stress test was carried out. Blood pressure (BP) and electro cardiogram (ECG) was recorded during normal breathing and after mental stress test. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis was done by time domain method HRV was recorded and analyzed by the time-domain method. Analysis of HRV in the time-domain was done using the software version 1.1 AIIMS, New Delhi. The data obtained was analyzed using student’s t-test followed by Mann-Whitney U-test and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was no significant difference in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between study group and control group following mental stress. In the time domain analysis, the mean value of pNN50 and RMSSD of the study group was not significantly different from the control group after the mental stress test. Conclusion: The study thus concluded that there was no significant difference in HRV between study group and control group following mental stress.

Keywords: mental stress, heart rate variability, time domain analysis, hypertensive

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8 A Study of Applying the Use of Breathing Training to Palliative Care Patients, Based on the Bio-Psycho-Social Model

Authors: Wenhsuan Lee, Yachi Chang, Yingyih Shih


In clinical practices, it is common that while facing the unknown progress of their disease, palliative care patients may easily feel anxious and depressed. These types of reactions are a cause of psychosomatic diseases and may also influence treatment results. However, the purpose of palliative care is to provide relief from all kinds of pains. Therefore, how to make patients more comfortable is an issue worth studying. This study adopted the “bio-psycho-social model” proposed by Engel and applied spontaneous breathing training, in the hope of seeing patients’ psychological state changes caused by their physiological state changes, improvements in their anxious conditions, corresponding adjustments of their cognitive functions, and further enhancement of their social functions and the social support system. This study will be a one-year study. Palliative care outpatients will be recruited and assigned to the experimental group or the control group for six outpatient visits (once a month), with 80 patients in each group. The patients of both groups agreed that this study can collect their physiological quantitative data using an HRV device before the first outpatient visit. They also agreed to answer the “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)”, the “Taiwanese version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire” before the first outpatient visit, to fill a self-report questionnaire after each outpatient visit, and to answer the “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)”, the “Taiwanese version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire” after the last outpatient visit. The patients of the experimental group agreed to receive the breathing training under HRV monitoring during the first outpatient visit of this study. Before each of the following three outpatient visits, they were required to fill a self-report questionnaire regarding their breathing practices after going home. After the outpatient visits, they were taught how to practice breathing through an HRV device and asked to practice it after going home. Later, based on the results from the HRV data analyses and the pre-tests and post-tests of the “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)”, the “Taiwanese version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire”, the influence of the breathing training in the bio, psycho, and social aspects were evaluated. The data collected through the self-report questionnaires of the patients of both groups were used to explore the possible interfering factors among the bio, psycho, and social changes. It is expected that this study will support the “bio-psycho-social model” proposed by Engel, meaning that bio, psycho, and social supports are closely related, and that breathing training helps to transform palliative care patients’ psychological feelings of anxiety and depression, to facilitate their positive interactions with others, and to improve the quality medical care for them.

Keywords: palliative care, heart rate variability, breathing training, bio-psycho-social model

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7 Adjusting Mind and Heart to Ovarian Cancer: Correlational Study on Italian Women

Authors: Chiara Cosentino, Carlo Pruneti, Carla Merisio, Domenico Sgromo


Introduction – Psychoneuroimmunology as approach clearly showed how psychological features can influence health through specific physiological pathways linked to the stress reaction. This can be true also in cancer, in its latter conceptualization seen as a chronic disease. Therefore, it is still not clear how the psychological features can combine with a physiological specific path, for a better adjustment to cancer. The aim of this study is identifying how in Italian survivors, perceived social support, body image, coping and quality of life correlate with or influence Heart Rate Variability (HRV), the physiological parameter that can mirror a condition of chronic stress or a good relaxing capability. Method - The study had an exploratory transversal design. The final sample was made of 38 ovarian cancer survivors aged from 29 to 80 (M= 56,08; SD=12,76) following a program for Ovarian Cancer at the Oncological Clinic, University Hospital of Parma, Italy. Participants were asked to fill: Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS); Derridford Appearance Scale-59 (DAS-59); Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC); Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC). For each participant was recorded Short-Term HRV (5 minutes) using emWavePro. Results– Data showed many interesting correlations within the psychological features. EORTC scores have a significant correlation with DAS-59 (r =-.327 p <.05), MSPSS (r =.411 p<.05), and MAC scores, in particular with the strategy Fatalism (r =.364 p<.05). A good social support improves HRV (F(1,33)= 4.27 p<.05). Perceiving themselves as effective in their environment, preserving a good role functioning (EORTC), positively affects HRV (F(1,33)=9.810 p<.001). Women admitting concerns towards body image seem prone to emotive disclosure, reducing emotional distress and improving HRV (β=.453); emotional avoidance worsens HRV (β=-.391). Discussion and conclusion - Results showed a strong relationship between body image and Quality of Life. These data suggest that higher concerns on body image, in particular, the negative self-concept linked to appearance, was linked to the worst functioning in everyday life. The relation between the negative self-concept and a reduction in emotional functioning is understandable in terms of possible distress deriving from the perception of body appearance. The relationship between a high perceived social support and a better functioning in everyday life was also confirmed. In this sample fatalism, was associated with a better physical, role and emotional functioning. In these women, the presence of a good support may activate the physiological Social Engagement System improving their HRV. Perceiving themselves effective in their environment, preserving a good role functioning, also positively affects HRV, probably following the same physiological pathway. A higher presence of concerns about appearance contributes to a higher HRV. Probably women admitting more body concerns are prone to a better emotive disclosure. This could reduce emotional distress improving HRV and global health. This study reached preliminary demonstration of an ‘Integrated Model of Defense’ in these cancer survivors. In these model, psychological features interact building a better quality of life and a condition of psychological well-being that is associated and influence HRV, then the physiological condition.

Keywords: Ovarian Cancer, heart rate variability, cancer survivors, psychophysiological adjustment

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6 Deep Graph Embeddings for the Analysis of Short Heartbeat Interval Time Series

Authors: Tamas Madl


Sudden cardiac death (SCD) constitutes a large proportion of cardiovascular mortalities, provides little advance warning, and the risk is difficult to recognize based on ubiquitous, low cost medical equipment such as the standard, 12-lead, ten second ECG. Autonomic abnormalities have been shown to be strongly predictive of SCD risk; yet current methods are not trivially applicable to the brevity and low temporal and electrical resolution of standard ECGs. Here, we build horizontal visibility graph representations of very short inter-beat interval time series, and perform unsuper- vised representation learning in order to convert these variable size objects into fixed-length vectors preserving similarity rela- tions. We show that such representations facilitate classification into healthy vs. at-risk patients on two different datasets, the Mul- tiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II and the PhysioNet Sudden Cardiac Death Holter Database. Our results suggest that graph representation learning of heartbeat interval time series facilitates robust classification even in sequences as short as ten seconds.

Keywords: sudden cardiac death, ECG analysis, heart rate variability, time series classification

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5 The Effect of Heart Rate and Valence of Emotions on Perceived Intensity of Emotion

Authors: Madeleine Nicole G. Bernardo, Katrina T. Feliciano, Marcelo Nonato A. Nacionales III, Diane Frances M. Peralta, Denise Nicole V. Profeta


This study aims to find out if heart rate variability and valence of emotion have an effect on perceived intensity of emotion. Psychology undergraduates (N = 60) from the University of the Philippines Diliman were shown 10 photographs from the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database, along with a corresponding questionnaire with a Likert scale on perceived intensity of emotion. In this 3 x 2 mixed subjects factorial design, each group was either made to do a simple exercise prior to answering the questionnaire in order to increase the heart rate, listen to a heart rate of 120 bpm, or colour a drawing to keep the heart rate stable. After doing the activity, the participants then answered the questionnaire, providing a rating of the faces according to the participants’ perceived emotional intensity on the photographs. The photographs presented were either of positive or negative emotional valence. The results of the experiment showed that neither an induced fast heart rate or perceived fast heart rate had any significant effect on the participants’ perceived intensity of emotion. There was also no interaction effect of heart rate variability and valence of emotion. The insignificance of results was explained by the Philippines’ high context culture, accompanied by the prevalence of both intensely valenced positive and negative emotions in Philippine society. Insignificance in the effects were also attributed to the Cannon-Bard theory, Schachter-Singer theory and various methodological limitations.

Keywords: heart rate variability, Philippines, perceived intensity of emotion, valence of emotion

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4 Erectile Function and Heart Rate Variability in Men under 40 Years Old

Authors: Rui Miguel Costa, Jose Pestana, David Costa, Paula Mangia, Catarina Correia, Mafalda Pinto Coelho


There is lack of studies examining the relation of different heart rate variability (HRV) parameters with the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED) in younger men. Thus, the present study aimed at examining, in a nonclinical sample of men aged 19-39 years old (mean age = 23.98 years, SD = 4.90), the relations of risk of ED with the standard deviation of the heart rate (SD of HR), high and low frequency power of HRV, and low-to-high frequency HRV ratio. Eighty-three heterosexual Portuguese men completed the 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and HRV parameters were calculated from a 5-minute resting period. Risk of ED was determined by IIEF-5 scores of 21 or less. Fifteen men (18.1%) reported symptoms of ED (14 with mild and one with mild to moderate symptoms). Univariate analyses of variance revealed that risk of ED was related to lesser SD of HR and lesser low-frequency power, the two HRV parameters that express a coupling of higher vagal and sympathetic tone. Risk of ED was unrelated to high-frequency power and low-to-high frequency HRV ratio. Further, in a logistic regression, the risk of ED was independently predicted by older age and lower SD of HR, but not by low-frequency power, having a regular sexual partner, and cohabiting. The results provide preliminary evidence that, in younger men, a coupling of higher vagal and sympathetic tone, as indexed by the SD of HR, is important for erections. Greater resting SD of HR might reflect better vascular and interpersonal function via vagal tone coupled with greater motor mobilization to pursue sexual intercourse via sympathetic tone. Many interventions can elevate HRV; future research is warranted on how they can be tailored to treat ED in younger men.

Keywords: heart rate variability, erectile dysfunction, standard deviation of the heart rate, younger men

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3 Human’s Sensitive Reactions during Different Geomagnetic Activity: An Experimental Study in Natural and Simulated Conditions

Authors: Ketevan Janashia, Tamar Tsibadze, Levan Tvildiani, Nikoloz Invia, Elguja Kubaneishvili, Vasili Kukhianidze, George Ramishvili


This study considers the possible effects of geomagnetic activity (GMA) on humans situated on Earth by performing experiments concerning specific sensitive reactions in humans in both: natural conditions during different GMA and by the simulation of different GMA in the lab. The measurements of autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to different GMA via measuring the heart rate variability (HRV) indices and stress index (SI) and their comparison with the K-index of GMA have been presented and discussed. The results of experiments indicate an intensification of the sympathetic part of the ANS as a stress reaction of the human organism when it is exposed to high level of GMA as natural as well as in simulated conditions. Aim: We tested the hypothesis whether the GMF when disturbed can have effects on human ANS causing specific sensitive stress-reactions depending on the initial type of ANS. Methods: The study focuses on the effects of different GMA on ANS by comparing of HRV indices and stress index (SI) of n= 78, 18-24 years old healthy male volunteers. Experiments were performed as natural conditions on days of low (K= 1-3) and high (K= 5-7) GMA as well as in the lab by the simulation of different GMA using the device of geomagnetic storm (GMS) compensation and simulation. Results: In comparison with days of low GMA (K=1-3) the initial values of HRV shifted towards the intensification of the sympathetic part (SP) of the ANS during days of GMSs (K=5-7) with statistical significance p-values: HR (heart rate, p= 0.001), SDNN (Standard deviation of all Normal to Normal intervals, p= 0.0001), RMSSD (The square root of the arithmetical mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals, p= 0.0001). In comparison with conditions during GMSs compensation mode (K= 0, B= 0-5nT), the ANS balance was observed to shift during exposure to simulated GMSs with intensities in the range of natural GMSs (K= 7, B= 200nT). However, the initial values of the ANS resulted in different dynamics in its variation depending of GMA level. In the case of initial balanced regulation type (HR > 80) significant intensification of SP was observed with p-values: HR (p= 0.0001), SDNN (p= 0.047), RMSSD (p= 0.28), LF/HF (p=0.03), SI (p= 0.02); while in the case of initial parasympathetic regulation type (HR < 80), an insignificant shift to the intensification of the parasympathetic part (PP) was observed. Conclusions: The results indicate an intensification of SP as a stress reaction of the human organism when it is exposed to high level of GMA in both natural and simulated conditions.

Keywords: Geomagnetic Storms, heart rate variability, autonomic nervous system, device of magneto compensation/simulation

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2 The Extraction of Sage Essential Oil and the Improvement of Sleeping Quality for Female Menopause by Sage Essential Oil

Authors: Bei Shan Lin, Tzu Yu Huang, Ya Ping Chen, Chun Mel Lu


This research is divided into two parts. The first part is to adopt the method of supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction to extract sage essential oil (Salvia officinalis) and to find out the differences when the procedure is under different pressure conditions. Meanwhile, this research is going to probe into the composition of the extracted sage essential oil. The second part will talk about the effect of the aromatherapy with extracted sage essential oil to improve the sleeping quality for women in menopause. The extracted sage substance is tested by inhibiting DPPH radical to identify its antioxidant capacity, and the extracted component was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Under two different pressure conditions, the extracted experiment gets different results. By 3000 psi, the extracted substance is IC50 180.94mg/L, which is higher than IC50 657.43mg/L by 1800 psi. By 3000 psi, the extracted yield is 1.05%, which is higher than 0.68% by 1800 psi. Through the experimental data, the researcher also can conclude that the extracted substance with 3000psi contains more materials than the one with 1800 psi. The main overlapped materials are the compounds of cyclic ether, flavonoid, and terpenes. Cyclic ether and flavonoids have the function of soothing and calming. They can be applied to relieve cramps and to eliminate menopause disorders. The second part of the research is to apply extracted sage essential oil to aromatherapy for women who are in menopause and to discuss the effect of the improvement for the sleeping quality. This research adopts the approaching of Swedish upper back massage, evaluates the sleeping quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and detects the changes with heart rate variability apparatus. The experimental group intervenes with extracted sage essential oil to the aromatherapy. The average heart beats detected by the apparatus has a better result in SDNN, low frequency, and high frequency. The performance is better than the control group. According to the statistical analysis of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, this research has reached the effect of sleep quality improvement. It proves that extracted sage essential oil has a significant effect on increasing the activities of parasympathetic nerves. It is able to improve the sleeping quality for women in menopause

Keywords: Aromatherapy, Salvia officinalis, heart rate variability, supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction, Swedish massage, Pittsburgh sleep quality index, parasympathetic nerves

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1 A Continuous Real-Time Analytic for Predicting Instability in Acute Care Rapid Response Team Activations

Authors: Ashwin Belle, Bryce Benson, Mark Salamango, Fadi Islim, Rodney Daniels, Kevin Ward


A reliable, real-time, and non-invasive system that can identify patients at risk for hemodynamic instability is needed to aid clinicians in their efforts to anticipate patient deterioration and initiate early interventions. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the clinical capabilities of a real-time analytic from a single lead of an electrocardiograph to correctly distinguish between rapid response team (RRT) activations due to hemodynamic (H-RRT) and non-hemodynamic (NH-RRT) causes, as well as predict H-RRT cases with actionable lead times. The study consisted of a single center, retrospective cohort of 21 patients with RRT activations from step-down and telemetry units. Through electronic health record review and blinded to the analytic’s output, each patient was categorized by clinicians into H-RRT and NH-RRT cases. The analytic output and the categorization were compared. The prediction lead time prior to the RRT call was calculated. The analytic correctly distinguished between H-RRT and NH-RRT cases with 100% accuracy, demonstrating 100% positive and negative predictive values, and 100% sensitivity and specificity. In H-RRT cases, the analytic detected hemodynamic deterioration with a median lead time of 9.5 hours prior to the RRT call (range 14 minutes to 52 hours). The study demonstrates that an electrocardiogram (ECG) based analytic has the potential for providing clinical decision and monitoring support for caregivers to identify at risk patients within a clinically relevant timeframe allowing for increased vigilance and early interventional support to reduce the chances of continued patient deterioration.

Keywords: Emergency Medicine, Critical Care, heart rate variability, early warning systems, hemodynamic instability, rapid response team

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