Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Heart Rate Related Abstracts

17 Robust Heart Rate Estimation from Multiple Cardiovascular and Non-Cardiovascular Physiological Signals Using Signal Quality Indices and Kalman Filter

Authors: Shalini Rankawat, Mansi Rankawat, Rahul Dubey, Mazad Zaveri


Physiological signals such as electrocardiogram (ECG) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are often seriously corrupted by noise, artifacts, and missing data, which lead to errors in the estimation of heart rate (HR) and incidences of false alarm from ICU monitors. Clinical support in ICU requires most reliable heart rate estimation. Cardiac activity, because of its relatively high electrical energy, may introduce artifacts in Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrooculogram (EOG), and Electromyogram (EMG) recordings. This paper presents a robust heart rate estimation method by detection of R-peaks of ECG artifacts in EEG, EMG & EOG signals, using energy-based function and a novel Signal Quality Index (SQI) assessment technique. SQIs of physiological signals (EEG, EMG, & EOG) were obtained by correlation of nonlinear energy operator (teager energy) of these signals with either ECG or ABP signal. HR is estimated from ECG, ABP, EEG, EMG, and EOG signals from separate Kalman filter based upon individual SQIs. Data fusion of each HR estimate was then performed by weighing each estimate by the Kalman filters’ SQI modified innovations. The fused signal HR estimate is more accurate and robust than any of the individual HR estimate. This method was evaluated on MIMIC II data base of PhysioNet from bedside monitors of ICU patients. The method provides an accurate HR estimate even in the presence of noise and artifacts.

Keywords: EMG, Data fusion, eeg, Heart Rate, Kalman Filter, ECG, ABP, EOG, ECG artifacts, Teager-Kaiser energy, signal quality index

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16 Effects of the Different Recovery Durations on Some Physiological Parameters during 3 X 3 Small-Sided Games in Soccer

Authors: Nurtekin Erkmen, Halil Taskin, Samet Aktaş, Faruk Guven


This study aimed to determine the effects of 3 versus 3 small-sided games (SSG) with different recovery times on soma physiological parameters in soccer players. Twelve soccer players from Regional Amateur League volunteered for this study (mean±SD age, 20.50±2.43 years; height, 177.73±4.13 cm; weight, 70.83±8.38 kg). Subjects were performing soccer training for five days per week. The protocol of the study was approved by the local ethic committee in School of Physical Education and Sport, Selcuk University. The subjects were divided into teams with 3 players according to Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test. The field dimension was 26 m wide and 34 m in length. Subjects performed two times in a random order a series of 3 bouts of 3-a-side SSGs with 3 min and 5 min recovery durations. In SSGs, each set were performed with 6 min duration. The percent of maximal heart rate (% HRmax), blood lactate concentration (LA) and Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale points were collected before the SSGs and at the end of each set. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Significant differences were found between %HRmax in before SSG and 1st set, 2nd set, and 3rd set in both SSG with 3 min recovery duration and SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). Means of %HRmax in SSG with 3 min recovery duration at both 1st and 2nd sets were significantly higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). No significant difference was found between sets of either SSGs in terms of LA (p>0.05). LA in SSG with 3 min recovery duration was higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration at 2nd sets (p<0.05). RPE in soccer players was not different between SSGs (p>0.05).In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exercise intensity in SSG with 3 min recovery durations is higher than SSG with 5 min recovery durations.

Keywords: Heart Rate, soccer, small-sided games, lactate

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15 Remote Wireless Patient Monitoring System

Authors: Sagar R. Patil, Dinesh R. Gawade, Sudhir N. Divekar


One of the medical devices we found when we visit a hospital care unit such device is ‘patient monitoring system’. This device (patient monitoring system) informs doctors and nurses about the patient’s physiological signals. However, this device (patient monitoring system) does not have a remote monitoring capability, which is necessitates constant onsite attendance by support personnel (doctors and nurses). Thus, we have developed a Remote Wireless Patient Monitoring System using some biomedical sensors and Android OS, which is a portable patient monitoring. This device(Remote Wireless Patient Monitoring System) monitors the biomedical signals of patients in real time and sends them to remote stations (doctors and nurse’s android Smartphone and web) for display and with alerts when necessary. Wireless Patient Monitoring System different from conventional device (Patient Monitoring system) in two aspects: First its wireless communication capability allows physiological signals to be monitored remotely and second, it is portable so patients can move while there biomedical signals are being monitor. Wireless Patient Monitoring is also notable because of its implementation. We are integrated four sensors such as pulse oximeter (SPO2), thermometer, respiration, blood pressure (BP), heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) in this device (Wireless Patient Monitoring System) and Monitoring and communication applications are implemented on the Android OS using threads, which facilitate the stable and timely manipulation of signals and the appropriate sharing of resources. The biomedical data will be display on android smart phone as well as on web Using web server and database system we can share these physiological signals with remote place medical personnel’s or with any where in the world medical personnel’s. We verified that the multitasking implementation used in the system was suitable for patient monitoring and for other Healthcare applications.

Keywords: Healthcare, Embedded system, Heart Rate, Patient Monitoring, Wireless Patient Monitoring, respiration, Android OS, electrocardiogram (ECG), bio-medical signals, physiological signals, pulse oximeter (SPO2), thermometer, blood pressure (BP)

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14 The Intensity of Load Experienced by Female Basketball Players during Competitive Games

Authors: Tomas Vencurik, Jiří Nykodým


This study compares the intensity of game load among player positions and between the 1st and the 2nd half of the games. Two guards, three forwards, and three centers (female basketball players) participated in this study. The heart rate (HR) and its development were monitored during two competitive games. Statistically insignificant differences in the intensity of game load were recorded between guards, forwards, and centers below and above 85% of the maximal heart rate (HRmax) and in the mean HR as % of HRmax (87.81±3.79%, 87.02±4.37%, and 88.76±3.54%, respectively). Moreover, when the 1st and the 2nd half of the games were compared in the mean HR (87.89±4.18% vs. 88.14±3.63% of HRmax), no statistical significance was recorded. This information can be useful for coaching staff, to manage and to precisely plan the training process.

Keywords: Heart Rate, game load, player positions, the 1st, the 2nd half of the games

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13 The Influence of Active Breaks on the Attention/Concentration Performance in Eighth-Graders

Authors: Christian Andrä, Luisa Zimmermann, Christina Müller


Introduction: The positive relation between physical activity and cognition is commonly known. Relevant studies show that in everyday school life active breaks can lead to improvement in certain abilities (e.g. attention and concentration). A beneficial effect is in particular attributed to moderate activity. It is still unclear whether active breaks are beneficial after relatively short phases of cognitive load and whether the postulated effects of activity really have an immediate impact. The objective of this study was to verify whether an active break after 18 minutes of cognitive load leads to enhanced attention/concentration performance, compared to inactive breaks with voluntary mobile phone activity. Methodology: For this quasi-experimental study, 36 students [age: 14.0 (mean value) ± 0.3 (standard deviation); male/female: 21/15] of a secondary school were tested. In week 1, every student’s maximum heart rate (Hfmax) was determined through maximum effort tests conducted during physical education classes. The task was to run 3 laps of 300 m with increasing subjective effort (lap 1: 60%, lap 2: 80%, lap 3: 100% of the maximum performance capacity). Furthermore, first attention/concentration tests (D2-R) took place (pretest). The groups were matched on the basis of the pretest results. During week 2 and 3, crossover testing was conducted, comprising of 18 minutes of cognitive preload (test for concentration performance, KLT-R), a break and an attention/concentration test after a 2-minutes transition. Different 10-minutes breaks (active break: moderate physical activity with 65% Hfmax or inactive break: mobile phone activity) took place between preloading and transition. Major findings: In general, there was no impact of the different break interventions on the concentration test results (symbols processed after physical activity: 185.2 ± 31.3 / after inactive break: 184.4 ± 31.6; errors after physical activity: 5.7 ± 6.3 / after inactive break: 7.0. ± 7.2). There was, however, a noticeable development of the values over the testing periods. Although no difference in the number of processed symbols was detected (active/inactive break: period 1: 49.3 ± 8.8/46.9 ± 9.0; period 2: 47.0 ± 7.7/47.3 ± 8.4; period 3: 45.1 ± 8.3/45.6 ± 8.0; period 4: 43.8 ± 7.8/44.6 ± 8.0), error rates decreased successively after physical activity and increased gradually after an inactive break (active/inactive break: period 1: 1.9 ± 2.4/1.2 ± 1.4; period 2: 1.7 ± 1.8/ 1.5 ± 2.0, period 3: 1.2 ± 1.6/1.8 ± 2.1; period 4: 0.9 ± 1.5/2.5 ± 2.6; p= .012). Conclusion: Taking into consideration only the study’s overall results, the hypothesis must be dismissed. However, more differentiated evaluation shows that the error rates decreased after active breaks and increased after inactive breaks. Obviously, the effects of active intervention occur with a delay. The 2-minutes transition (regeneration time) used for this study seems to be insufficient due to the longer adaptation time of the cardio-vascular system in untrained individuals, which might initially affect the concentration capacity. To use the positive effects of physical activity for teaching and learning processes, physiological characteristics must also be considered. Only this will ensure optimum ability to perform.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Heart Rate, active breaks, attention/concentration test, cognitive performance capacity

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12 Blood Volume Pulse Extraction for Non-Contact Photoplethysmography Measurement from Facial Images

Authors: Ki Moo Lim, Iman R. Tayibnapis


According to WHO estimation, 38 out of 56 million (68%) global deaths in 2012, were due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). To avert NCD, one of the solutions is early detection of diseases. In order to do that, we developed 'U-Healthcare Mirror', which is able to measure vital sign such as heart rate (HR) and respiration rate without any physical contact and consciousness. To measure HR in the mirror, we utilized digital camera. The camera records red, green, and blue (RGB) discoloration from user's facial image sequences. We extracted blood volume pulse (BVP) from the RGB discoloration because the discoloration of the facial skin is accordance with BVP. We used blind source separation (BSS) to extract BVP from the RGB discoloration and adaptive filters for removing noises. We utilized singular value decomposition (SVD) method to implement the BSS and the adaptive filters. HR was estimated from the obtained BVP. We did experiment for HR measurement by using our method and previous method that used independent component analysis (ICA) method. We compared both of them with HR measurement from commercial oximeter. The experiment was conducted under various distance between 30~110 cm and light intensity between 5~2000 lux. For each condition, we did measurement 7 times. The estimated HR showed 2.25 bpm of mean error and 0.73 of pearson correlation coefficient. The accuracy has improved compared to previous work. The optimal distance between the mirror and user for HR measurement was 50 cm with medium light intensity, around 550 lux.

Keywords: Heart Rate, independent component analysis, photoplethysmography, blood volume pulse

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11 Development of Sleep Quality Index Using Heart Rate

Authors: Chang-Sik Son, Dongjoo Kim, Won-Seok Kang


Adequate sleep affects various parts of one’s overall physical and mental life. As one of the methods in determining the appropriate amount of sleep, this research presents a heart rate based sleep quality index. In order to evaluate sleep quality using the heart rate, sleep data from 280 subjects taken over one month are used. Their sleep data are categorized by a three-part heart rate range. After categorizing, some features are extracted, and the statistical significances are verified for these features. The results show that some features of this sleep quality index model have statistical significance. Thus, this heart rate based sleep quality index may be a useful discriminator of sleep.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Sleep, Heart Rate, Sleep Quality

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10 The Accuracy of an 8-Minute Running Field Test to Estimate Lactate Threshold

Authors: Timothy Quinn, Ronald Croce, Aliaksandr Leuchanka, Justin Walker


Many endurance athletes train at or just below an intensity associated with their lactate threshold (LT) and often the heart rate (HR) that these athletes use for their LT are above their true LT-HR measured in a laboratory. Training above their true LT-HR may lead to overtraining and injury. Few athletes have the capability of measuring their LT in a laboratory and rely on perception to guide them, as accurate field tests to determine LT are limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if an 8-minute field test could accurately define the HR associated with LT as measured in the laboratory. On Day 1, fifteen male runners (mean±SD; age, 27.8±4.1 years; height, 177.9±7.1 cm; body mass, 72.3±6.2 kg; body fat, 8.3±3.1%) performed a discontinuous treadmill LT/maximal oxygen consumption (LT/VO2max) test using a portable metabolic gas analyzer (Cosmed K4b2) and a lactate analyzer (Analox GL5). The LT (and associated HR) was determined using the 1/+1 method, where blood lactate increased by 1 mMol•L-1 over baseline followed by an additional 1 mMol•L-1 increase. Days 2 and 3 were randomized, and the athletes performed either an 8-minute run on the treadmill (TM) or on a 160-m indoor track (TR) in an effort to cover as much distance as possible while maintaining a high intensity throughout the entire 8 minutes. VO2, HR, ventilation (VE), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured using the Cosmed system, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE; 6-20 scale) was recorded every minute. All variables were averaged over the 8 minutes. The total distance covered over the 8 minutes was measured in both conditions. At the completion of the 8-minute runs, blood lactate was measured. Paired sample t-tests and pairwise Pearson correlations were computed to determine the relationship between variables measured in the field tests versus those obtained in the laboratory at LT. An alpha level of <0.05 was required for statistical significance. The HR (mean +SD) during the TM (167+9 bpm) and TR (172+9 bpm) tests were strongly correlated to the HR measured during the laboratory LT (169+11 bpm) test (r=0.68; p<0.03 and r=0.88; p<0.001, respectively). Blood lactate values during the TM and TR tests were not different from each other but were strongly correlated with the laboratory LT (r=0.73; p<0.04 and r=0.66; p<0.05, respectively). VE (Lmin-1) was significantly greater during the TR (134.8+11.4 Lmin-1) as compared to the TM (123.3+16.2 Lmin-1) with moderately strong correlations to the laboratory threshold values (r=0.38; p=0.27 and r=0.58; p=0.06, respectively). VO2 was higher during TR (51.4 mlkg-1min-1) compared to TM (47.4 mlkg-1min-1) with correlations of 0.33 (p=0.35) and 0.48 (p=0.13), respectively to threshold values. Total distance run was significantly greater during the TR (2331.6+180.9 m) as compared to the TM (2177.0+232.6 m), but they were strongly correlated with each other (r=0.82; p<0.002). These results suggest that an 8-minute running field test can accurately predict the HR associated with the LT and may be a simple test that athletes and coaches could implement to aid in training techniques.

Keywords: Running, training, Heart Rate, blood lactate

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9 Emotional State and Cognitive Workload during a Flight Simulation: Heart Rate Study

Authors: Damien Mouratille, Antonio R. Hidalgo-Muñoz, Nadine Matton, Yves Rouillard, Mickael Causse, Radouane El Yagoubi


Background: The monitoring of the physiological activity related to mental workload (MW) on pilots will be useful to improve aviation safety by anticipating human performance degradation. The electrocardiogram (ECG) can reveal MW fluctuations due to either cognitive workload or/and emotional state since this measure exhibits autonomic nervous system modulations. Arguably, heart rate (HR) is one of its most intuitive and reliable parameters. It would be particularly interesting to analyze the interaction between cognitive requirements and emotion in ecologic sets such as a flight simulator. This study aims to explore by means of HR the relation between cognitive demands and emotional activation. Presumably, the effects of cognition and emotion overloads are not necessarily cumulative. Methodology: Eight healthy volunteers in possession of the Private Pilot License were recruited (male; 20.8±3.2 years). ECG signal was recorded along the whole experiment by placing two electrodes on the clavicle and left pectoral of the participants. The HR was computed within 4 minutes segments. NASA-TLX and Big Five inventories were used to assess subjective workload and to consider the influence of individual personality differences. The experiment consisted in completing two dual-tasks of approximately 30 minutes of duration into a flight simulator AL50. Each dual-task required the simultaneous accomplishment of both a pre-established flight plan and an additional task based on target stimulus discrimination inserted between Air Traffic Control instructions. This secondary task allowed us to vary the cognitive workload from low (LC) to high (HC) levels, by combining auditory and visual numerical stimuli to respond to meeting specific criteria. Regarding emotional condition, the two dual-tasks were designed to assure analogous difficulty in terms of solicited cognitive demands. The former was realized by the pilot alone, i.e. Low Arousal (LA) condition. In contrast, the latter generates a high arousal (HA), since the pilot was supervised by two evaluators, filmed and involved into a mock competition with the rest of the participants. Results: Performance for the secondary task showed significant faster reaction times (RT) for HA compared to LA condition (p=.003). Moreover, faster RT was found for LC compared to HC (p < .001) condition. No interaction was found. Concerning HR measure, despite the lack of main effects an interaction between emotion and cognition is evidenced (p=.028). Post hoc analysis showed smaller HR for HA compared to LA condition only for LC (p=.049). Conclusion. The control of an aircraft is a very complex task including strong cognitive demands and depends on the emotional state of pilots. According to the behavioral data, the experimental set has permitted to generate satisfactorily different emotional and cognitive levels. As suggested by the interaction found in HR measure, these two factors do not seem to have a cumulative impact on the sympathetic nervous system. Apparently, low cognitive workload makes pilots more sensitive to emotional variations. These results hint the independency between data processing and emotional regulation. Further physiological data are necessary to confirm and disentangle this relation. This procedure may be useful for monitoring objectively pilot’s mental workload.

Keywords: emotion, Mental workload, Heart Rate, cognitive demands, flight simulator

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8 Sunshine Hour as a Factor to Maintain the Circadian Rhythm of Heart Rate: Analysis of Ambulatory ECG and Weather Big Data

Authors: Emi Yuda, Yutaka Yoshida, Junichiro Hayano


Distinct circadian rhythm of activity, i.e., high activity during the day and deep rest at night are a typical feature of a healthy lifestyle. Exposure to the skylight is thought to be an important factor to increase arousal level and maintain normal circadian rhythm. To examine whether sunshine hours influence the day-night contract of activity, we analyzed the relationship between 24-hour heart rate (HR) and weather data of the recording day. We analyzed data in 36,500 males and 49,854 females of Allostatic State Mapping by Ambulatory ECG Repository (ALLSTAR) database in Japan. Median (IQR) sunshine duration was 5.3 (2.8-7.9) hr. While sunshine hours had only modest effects of increasing 24-hour average HR in either gender (P=0.0282 and 0.0248 for male and female) and no significant effects on nighttime HR in either gender, it increased daytime HR (P = 0.0007 and 0.0015) and day-night HF difference in both genders (P < 0.0001 for both) even after adjusting for the effects of average temperature, atmospheric pressure, and humidity. Our observations support for the hypothesis that longer sunshine hours enhance circadian rhythm of activity.

Keywords: Big Data, Heart Rate, Circadian Rhythm, sunshine

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7 Effect of Pole Weight on Nordic Walking

Authors: Takeshi Sato, Mizuki Nakajima, Macky Kato, Shoji Igawa


The purpose of study was to investigate the effect of varying pole weights on energy expenditure, upper limb and lower limb muscle activity as Electromyogram during Nordic walking (NW). Four healthy men [age = 22.5 (±1.0) years, body mass = 61.4 (±3.6) kg, height = 170.3 (±4.3) cm] and three healthy women [age = 22.7 (±2.9) years, body mass = 53.0 (±1.7) kg, height = 156.7 (±4.5) cm] participated in the experiments after informed consent. Seven healthy subjects were tested on the treadmill, walking, walking (W) with Nordic Poles (NW) and walking with 1kg weight Nordic Poles (NW+1). Walking speed was 6 km per hours in all trials. Eight EMG activities were recorded by bipolar surface methods in biceps brachii, triceps brachii, trapezius, deltoideus, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles. And heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. The level of significance was set at a = 0.05, with p < 0.05 regarded as statistically significant. Our results confirmed that use of NW poles increased HR at a given upper arm muscle activity but decreased lower limb EMGs in comparison with W. Moreover NW was able to increase more step lengths with hip joint extension during NW rather than W. Also, EMG revealed higher activation of upper limb for almost all NW and 1kgNW tests plus added masses compared to W (p < 0.05). Therefore, it was thought either of NW and 1kgNW were to have benefit as a physical exercise for safe, feasible, and readily training for a wide range of aged people in the quality of daily life. However, there was no significant effected in leg muscles activity by using 1kgNW except for upper arm muscle activity during Nordic pole walking.

Keywords: Heart Rate, Electromyogram, RPE, Nordic walking

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6 Machine Learning Approach for Stress Detection Using Wireless Physical Activity Tracker

Authors: B. Padmaja, V. V. Rama Prasad, K. V. N. Sunitha, E. Krishna Rao Patro


Stress is a psychological condition that reduces the quality of sleep and affects every facet of life. Constant exposure to stress is detrimental not only for mind but also body. Nevertheless, to cope with stress, one should first identify it. This paper provides an effective method for the cognitive stress level detection by using data provided from a physical activity tracker device Fitbit. This device gathers people’s daily activities of food, weight, sleep, heart rate, and physical activities. In this paper, four major stressors like physical activities, sleep patterns, working hours and change in heart rate are used to assess the stress levels of individuals. The main motive of this system is to use machine learning approach in stress detection with the help of Smartphone sensor technology. Individually, the effect of each stressor is evaluated using logistic regression and then combined model is built and assessed using variants of ordinal logistic regression models like logit, probit and complementary log-log. Then the quality of each model is evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and probit is assessed as the more suitable model for our dataset. This system is experimented and evaluated in a real time environment by taking data from adults working in IT and other sectors in India. The novelty of this work lies in the fact that stress detection system should be less invasive as possible for the users.

Keywords: Working Hours, Heart Rate, physical activity tracker, sleep pattern, smartphone sensor

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5 Development of Soft-Core System for Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation

Authors: Caje F. Pinto, Jivan S. Parab, Gourish M. Naik


This paper is about the development of non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation in human blood using Altera NIOS II soft-core processor system. In today's world, monitoring oxygen saturation and heart rate is very important in hospitals to keep track of low oxygen levels in blood. We have designed an Embedded System On Peripheral Chip (SOPC) reconfigurable system by interfacing two LED’s of different wavelengths (660 nm/940 nm) with a single photo-detector to measure the absorptions of hemoglobin species at different wavelengths. The implementation of the interface with Finger Probe and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) was carried out using NIOS II soft-core system running on Altera NANO DE0 board having target as Cyclone IVE. This designed system is used to monitor oxygen saturation in blood and heart rate for different test subjects. The designed NIOS II processor based non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation was verified with another Operon Pulse oximeter for 50 measurements on 10 different subjects. It was found that the readings taken were very close to the Operon Pulse oximeter.

Keywords: Heart Rate, photoplethysmography, oxygen saturation, NIOS II, soft-core, SOPC

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4 Activity Data Analysis for Status Classification Using Fitness Trackers

Authors: Chang-Sik Son, Won-Seok Kang, Rock-Hyun Choi


Physical activity is important for healthy living. Recently wearable devices which motivate physical activity are quickly developing, and become cheaper and more comfortable. In particular, fitness trackers provide a variety of information and need to provide well-analyzed, and user-friendly results. In this study, frequency analysis was performed to classify various data sets of Fitbit into simple activity status. The data from Fitbit cloud server consists of 263 subjects who were healthy factory and office workers in Korea from March 7th to April 30th, 2016. In the results, we found assumptions of activity state classification seem to be sufficient and reasonable.

Keywords: Heart Rate, steps, activity status, fitness tracker

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3 An Exploratory Research of Human Character Analysis Based on Smart Watch Data: Distinguish the Drinking State from Normal State

Authors: Lu Zhao, Yanrong Kang, Lili Guo, Yuan Long, Guidong Xing


Smart watches, as a handy device with rich functionality, has become one of the most popular wearable devices all over the world. Among the various function, the most basic is health monitoring. The monitoring data can be provided as an effective evidence or a clue for the detection of crime cases. For instance, the step counting data can help to determine whether the watch wearer was quiet or moving during the given time period. There is, however, still quite few research on the analysis of human character based on these data. The purpose of this research is to analyze the health monitoring data to distinguish the drinking state from normal state. The analysis result may play a role in cases involving drinking, such as drunk driving. The experiment mainly focused on finding the figures of smart watch health monitoring data that change with drinking and figuring up the change scope. The chosen subjects are mostly in their 20s, each of whom had been wearing the same smart watch for a week. Each subject drank for several times during the week, and noted down the begin and end time point of the drinking. The researcher, then, extracted and analyzed the health monitoring data from the watch. According to the descriptive statistics analysis, it can be found that the heart rate change when drinking. The average heart rate is about 10% higher than normal, the coefficient of variation is less than about 30% of the normal state. Though more research is needed to be carried out, this experiment and analysis provide a thought of the application of the data from smart watches.

Keywords: Heart Rate, smart watch, character analysis, descriptive statistics analysis, drink state

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2 Assessment of Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Percentage Oxygen Saturation in Young Habitual Shisha Smokers in Kano, Nigeria

Authors: M. A. Yahaya, B. I. Waziri


Background: Practice of shisha smoking involves the use of a multi-stemmed instrument to smoke tobacco or non-tobacco herbal mixture where the smoke is designed to pass through water or other liquid before reaching the smoker. The presence of tobacco content and the use of charcoal when burning the ingredients in this popular practice necessitate for investigation of many physiological parameters of habitual shisha smokers in our environment. Methods: 103 young shisha smokers, regular in the practice for more than three years living in Nasarawa, Kano state, Nigeria, were recruited for the study. The controls were 100 university students (nonsmokers) match for age (18 - 30 years), sex and BMI (20 - 24) with the smokers. Participants with known history of cigarette smoking, cardiovascular or respiratory diseases were excluded. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Kano Nigeria. Hear rate, blood pressure and percentage oxygen saturation (SPO₂) were measured using stethoscope, sphygmomanometer and pulse oximeter respectively. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20 and mean values of the measured parameters were compared between the smokers and controls using independent sample t-test. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The mean Heart rate was found to be significantly higher (p = 0.01) in the shisha smokers (91.32 ± 0.84) compared to controls (79.19 ± 1.18). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also higher (p = 0.00) in the shisha smokers (128.75 ± 1.11 and 85.85 ± 0.78 respectively) compared to controls with the systolic and diastolic pressure of 116.64 ± 0.82 and 80.39 ± 0.83 respectively. SPO₂ was significantly lower (p = 0.00) in the shisha smokers (91.98% ± 0.42%) compared to the controls (97.98 ± 0.18). Conclusion: Habitual Shisha Smoking caused a significant increase in Heart rate, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and a significant decrease in SPO2 among youth in Kano State, Nigeria.

Keywords: Youth, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, shisha

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1 Wearable Heart Rate Sensor Based on Wireless System for Heart Health Monitoring

Authors: Murtadha Kareem, Oliver Faust


Wearable biosensor systems can be designed and developed for health monitoring. There is much interest in both scientific and industrial communities established since 2007. Fundamentally, the cost of healthcare has increased dramatically and the world population is aging. That creates the need to harvest technological improvements with small bio-sensing devices, wireless-communication, microelectronics and smart textiles, that leads to non-stop developments of wearable sensor based systems. There has been a significant demand to monitor patient's health status while the patient leaves the hospital in his/her personal environment. To address this need, there are numerous system prototypes which has been launched in the medical market recently, the aim of that is to provide real time information feedback about patient's health status, either to the patient himself/herself or direct to the supervising medical centre station, while being capable to give a notification for the patient in case of possible imminent health threatening conditions. Furthermore, wearable health monitoring systems comprise new techniques to address the problem of managing and monitoring chronic heart diseases for elderly people. Wearable sensor systems for health monitoring include various types of miniature sensors, either wearable or implantable. To be specific, our proposed system able to measure essential physiological parameter, such as heart rate signal which could be transmitted through Bluetooth to the cloud server in order to store, process, analysis and visualise the data acquisition. The acquired measurements are connected through internet of things to a central node, for instance an android smart phone or tablet used for visualising the collected information on application or transmit it to a medical centre.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Heart Rate, Wearable sensor, Chronic heart disease

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