Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Health Outcomes Related Abstracts

6 Urban Slum Communities Engage in the Fight Against TB in Karnataka, South India

Authors: N. Rambabu, H. Gururaj, Reynold Washington, Oommen George


Motivation: Under the USAID Strengthening Health Outcomes through Private Sector (SHOPS-TB) initiative, Karnataka Health Promotion Trust (KHPT) with technical support of Abt associates is implementing a TB prevention and care model in Karnataka State, South India. KHPT is the interface agency between the public and private sectors, and providers and the target community facilitating early TB case detection and enhancing treatment compliance through private health care providers (pHCP) engagement in RNTCP. The project coverage is 0.84 million urban poor from 663 slums in 12 districts of Karnataka. Problem Statement: India with the highest burden of global TB (26%) and two million cases annually, accounts for approximately one fifth of the global incidence. WHO estimates 300,000 people die from TB annually in India. India expanded the coverage of Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course chemotherapy (DOTS) to the entire country as early as 2006. However, the performance of RNTCP has not been uniform across states. While the national annual new smear-positive (NSP) case notification rate is 53, it is much lower at 47 in Karnataka. A third of TB patients in India reside in urban slums. Approach: Under SHOPS, KHPT actively engages with communities through key opinion leaders and community structures. Interpersonal communication, by Outreach workers through house-to-house visits and at aggregation points, is the primary method used for communication about TB and its management and to increase demand for sputum examination and DOTS. pHCP are mapped, trained and mentored by KHPT. ORWs also provide patient and family counseling on TB treatment, side effects and adherence, screen close contacts of index patients especially children under 6 years of age and screen co-morbidities including HIV, diabetes and malnutrition and risk factors including alcoholism, tobacco use, occupational hazards making appropriate accompanied or documented referrals. A treatment ‘buddy’ system for the patients involving close friends or family members, ICT-based support, DOTS Prerana (inspiration) groups of TB patients, family members and community, DOTS Mitra (friend) helpline services are also used for care and support services. Results: The intervention educated 39988 slum dwellers, referred 1731 chest symptomatics, tested 1061 patients and initiated 248 patients on anti-TB treatment within three months of intervention through continuous community engagement. Conclusions: The intervention’s potential to increase access to preferred health care providers, reduce patient and health system delays in diagnosis and initiation of treatment, improve health seeking behaviour and enhance compliance of pHCPs to standard treatment protocols is being monitored. Initial results are promising.

Keywords: Health Outcomes, DOTS, KHPT, public and private sector

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5 Nurse Practitioner Led Pediatric Primary Care Clinic in a Tertiary Care Setting: Improving Access and Health Outcomes

Authors: Minna K. Miller, Chantel. E. Canessa, Suzanna V. McRae, Susan Shumay, Alissa Collingridge


Primary care provides the first point of contact and access to health care services. For the pediatric population, the goal is to help healthy children stay healthy and to help those that are sick get better. Primary care facilitates regular well baby/child visits; health promotion and disease prevention; investigation, diagnosis and management of acute and chronic illnesses; health education; both consultation and collaboration with, and referral to other health care professionals. There is a protective association between regular well-child visit care and preventable hospitalization. Further, low adherence to well-child care and poor continuity of care are independently associated with increased risk of hospitalization. With a declining number of family physicians caring for children, and only a portion of pediatricians providing primary care services, it is becoming increasingly difficult for children and their families to access primary care. Nurse practitioners are in a unique position to improve access to primary care and improve health outcomes for children. Limited literature is available on the nurse practitioner role in primary care pediatrics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, implementation and evaluation of a Nurse Practitioner-led pediatric primary care clinic in a tertiary care setting. Utilizing the participatory, evidence-based, patient-focused process for advanced practice nursing (PEPPA framework), this paper highlights the results of the initial needs assessment/gap analysis, the new service delivery model, populations served, and outcome measures.

Keywords: Access, Health Outcomes, Pediatric Primary Care, nurse practitioner, PEPPA framework

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4 Health Outcomes and Economic Growth Nexus: Testing for Long-run Relationships and Causal Links in Nigeria

Authors: Haruna Modibbo Usman, Mustapha Muktar, Nasiru Inuwa


This paper examined the long run relationship between health outcomes and economic growth in Nigeria from 1961 to 2012. Using annual time series data, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test is conducted to check the stochastic properties of the variables. Also, the long run relationship among the variables is confirmed based on Johansen Multivariate Cointegration approach whereas the long run and short run dynamics are observed using Vector Error Correction Mechanism (VECM). In addition, VEC Granger causality test is employed to examine the direction of causality among the variables. On the whole, the results obtained revealed the existence of a long run relationship between health outcomes and economic growth in Nigeria and that both life expectancy and crude death rate as measures of health are found to have a long run negative and statistically significant impact on the economic growth over the study period. This is further buttressed by the results of Granger causality test which indicated the existence of unidirectional causality running from life expectancy and crude death rate to economic growth. The study therefore, calls for governments at various levels to create preconditions for health improvements in Nigeria in order to boost the level of health outcomes.

Keywords: Economic growth, Health Outcomes, granger causality, cointegration, VECM

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3 Health Outcomes from Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella in High-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Andrea Parisi, Samantha Vilkins, Luis Furuya-Kanamori, John A. Crump, Benjamin P. Howden, Darren Gray, Kathryn Glass, Martyn Kirk


Objectives: Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne enterocolitis worldwide. Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections that are Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) (non-susceptible to ≥1 agent in ≥3 antimicrobial categories) may result in more severe outcomes, although these effects have not been systematically examined. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine impacts of MDR NTS on health in high-income settings. Methods: We systematically reviewed the literature from scientific databases, including PubMed, Scopus and grey literature sources, using PRISMA guidelines. We searched for data from case-control studies, cohorts, outbreaks, reports and theses, imposing no language restriction. We included only publications from January 1990 to September 2016 from high income countries as classified by World Bank. We extracted data from papers on duration of illness, hospitalisation rates, morbidity and mortality for MDR and non-MDR NTS strains. Results: After removing duplicates, the initial search revealed 4258 articles. After further screening, we identified 16 eligible studies for the systematic review, and 9 of these were included in meta-analysis. NTS serotypes differed among the reported studies but serotype Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport and Heidelberg were among the most often reported as MDR pathogens. Salmonella infections that were MDR were associated with excess bloodstream infections (OR 1.63; 95%CI 1.18-2.26), excess hospitalisations (OR 2.77; 95%CI 1.47-5.21) and higher mortality (OR 3.54; 95%CI 1.10-11.40). Conclusions: MDR NTS infections are a serious public health concern. With the emergence of MDR Salmonella strains in the high-income countries, it is crucial to restrict the use of antimicrobials both in animals and humans, and intervene to prevent foodborne infections.

Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, Health Outcomes, Mortality, Bloodstream Infection, Hospitalisation, Invasive Disease, Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR), Nontyphoidal Salmonella

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2 The Preliminary Study of the Possible Relationship between Urban Open Space System and Residents' Health Outcome

Authors: Jia-Jin He, Tzu-Yuan Stessa Chao


It is generally accepted that community residents with abundant open space have better health status on average, and thus more and more cities around the world began their pursuit of the greatest possible amount of green space within urban areas through urban planning approach. Nevertheless, only a few studies managed to provide empirical evidence regarding the actual relationship between 'providing' green space and 'improving' human health at city level. There is also lack of evidence of direct positive improvement of health by increasing the amount of green space. For urban planning professional, it is important to understand citizens’ usage behaviour towards green space as a critical evidence for future planning and design strategies. There is a research need to further investigate the amount of green space, user behaviour of green spaces and the health outcome of urban dwellers. To this end, we would like to find out other important factors for urban dwellers’ usage behaviours of green spaces. 'Average green spaces per person' is one of the National well-being Indicators in Taiwan as in many other countries. Through our preliminary research, we collected and analyzed the official data of planned open space coverages, average life expectancy, exercise frequency and obesity ratio in all cities of Taiwan. The study result indicates an interesting finding that Kaohsiung city, the second largest city in Taiwan, tells a completely different story. Citizens in Kaosiung city have more open spaces than any other city through urban planning, yet have relatively unhealthy condition in contrary. Whether it pointed out that the amount of the open spaces per person has would not direct to the health outcome. Therefore, the pre-established view which states that open spaces must have positive effects on human health should be examined more prudently. Hence, this paper intends to explore the relationship between user behaviour of open spaces and citizens’ health conditions by critically analyzing past related literature and collecting selective data from government health database in 2015. We also take Kaohsiung city, as a case study area to conduct statistical analysis first followed by questionnaire survey to gain a better understanding. Finally, we aim to feedback our findings to the current planning system in Taiwan for better health promotion urbanized areas.

Keywords: open spaces, Health Outcomes, healthy cities, urban planning systems

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1 Applying an Automatic Speech Intelligent System to the Health Care of Patients Undergoing Long-Term Hemodialysis

Authors: Kuo-Kai Lin, Po-Lun Chang


Research Background and Purpose: Following the development of the Internet and multimedia, the Internet and information technology have become crucial avenues of modern communication and knowledge acquisition. The advantages of using mobile devices for learning include making learning borderless and accessible. Mobile learning has become a trend in disease management and health promotion in recent years. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an irreversible chronic disease, and patients who do not receive kidney transplants can only rely on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis to survive. Due to the complexities in caregiving for patients with ESRD that stem from their advanced age and other comorbidities, the patients’ incapacity of self-care leads to an increase in the need to rely on their families or primary caregivers, although whether the primary caregivers adequately understand and implement patient care is a topic of concern. Therefore, this study explored whether primary caregivers’ health care provisions can be improved through the intervention of an automatic speech intelligent system, thereby improving the objective health outcomes of patients undergoing long-term dialysis. Method: This study developed an automatic speech intelligent system with healthcare functions such as health information voice prompt, two-way feedback, real-time push notification, and health information delivery. Convenience sampling was adopted to recruit eligible patients from a hemodialysis center at a regional teaching hospital as research participants. A one-group pretest-posttest design was adopted. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated from the demographic information collected from questionnaires answered by patients and primary caregivers, and from a medical record review, a health care scale (recorded six months before and after the implementation of intervention measures), a subjective health assessment, and a report of objective physiological indicators. The changes in health care behaviors, subjective health status, and physiological indicators before and after the intervention of the proposed automatic speech intelligent system were then compared. Conclusion and Discussion: The preliminary automatic speech intelligent system developed in this study was tested with 20 pretest patients at the recruitment location, and their health care capacity scores improved from 59.1 to 72.8; comparisons through a nonparametric test indicated a significant difference (p < .01). The average score for their subjective health assessment rose from 2.8 to 3.3. A survey of their objective physiological indicators discovered that the compliance rate for the blood potassium level was the most significant indicator; its average compliance rate increased from 81% to 94%. The results demonstrated that this automatic speech intelligent system yielded a higher efficacy for chronic disease care than did conventional health education delivered by nurses. Therefore, future efforts will continue to increase the number of recruited patients and to refine the intelligent system. Future improvements to the intelligent system can be expected to enhance its effectiveness even further.

Keywords: Health Outcomes, primary caregiver, automatic speech intelligent system for health care, long-term hemodialysis, health care capabilities

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