Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Health Disparities Related Abstracts

4 Health Ramifications of Workplace Bullying: Gender, Race and Sexual Orientation as Risk Factors

Authors: Kathleen Canul

Abstract:

Bullying is on the rise according to several recent studies. Workplace bullying has garnered less attention than other forms yet incidence rates range from 35-45%. The consequences of being bullied at work are broad, ranging from physiological to psychological to occupational. As the bullying progresses, employees begin to exhibit physical and psychological symptoms. Blood pressure rises, along with other cardiac related concerns. For men, covert coping with job unfairness was associated with a four-fold risk of heart attack and death. Gastrointestinal distress, headaches, muscle tension, sleep disorders and exhaustion are also common. Workplace bullying appears to contribute to the risk of subsequent psychotropic medication, as well. Emotionally, anxiety and depression increase along with lowered self-esteem and problems concentrating on the duties of the job. In an attempt to cope, individuals may succumb to unhealthy practices involving food, alcohol and other drugs. Patterns of bullying vary by gender, race, and ethnicity, as well as sexual orientation, with women, ethnic minorities and LGBTQ employees reporting higher rates of bullying in the workplace. Not only is this an issue of inequity on the job, but also a problem of health disparities as there are few mental health professionals confident and competent in dealing with workplace bullying issues, and the lack of culturally competent clinicians exacerbates this inequality in receiving adequate care. Alone, the topic of workplace bullying is not unique; however, the diverse experiences of underrepresented groups who disproportionately are affected on the job and suffer untreated, health related concerns represent a significant and emerging problem requiring attention. Conference participants who have experienced, witnessed or help those bullied on the job would benefit most from this review of the literature on the consequences of bullying experienced by diverse and underrepresented groups in the workplace.

Keywords: Health Disparities, Bullying, ethnic minorities, workplace conflict

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
3 Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities: An Investigation of the Relationship between Race, Ethnicity, Health Care Access, and Health Status

Authors: Dorcas Matowe

Abstract:

Inequality in health care for racial and ethnic minorities continues to be a growing concern for many Americans. Some of the barriers hindering the elimination of health disparities include lack of insurance, socioeconomic status (SES), and racism. This study will specifically focus on the association between some of these factors- health care access, which includes insurance coverage and frequency of doctor visits, race, ethnicity, and health status. The purpose of this study will be to address the following questions: is having health insurance associated with increased doctor visits? Are racial and ethnic minorities with health insurance more or less likely to see a doctor? Is the association between having health insurance moderated by being an ethnic minority? Given the current implications of the 2010 Affordable Care Act, this study will highlight the need to prioritize health care access for minorities and confront institutional racism. Critical Race Theory (CRT) will demonstrate how racism has reinforced these health disparities. This quantitative study design will analyze secondary data from the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) questionnaire, a telephone survey conducted annually in all 50 states and three US territories by state health departments in conjunction with the Center for Disease Control (CDC). Non-identifying health-related data is gathered annually from over 400,000 adults 18 years and above about their health status and use of preventative services. Through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), the relationship between the predictor variables of health care access, race, and ethnicity, the criterion variable of health status, and the latent variables of emotional support and life satisfaction will be examined. It is hypothesized that there will be an interaction between certain racial and ethnic minorities who went to see a doctor, had insurance coverage, experienced racism, and the quality of their health status, emotional support, and life satisfaction.

Keywords: Racism, Health Disparities, ethnic minorities, health access

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
2 Postpartum Depression Screening and Referrals for Lower-Income Women in North Carolina, USA

Authors: Maren J. Coffman, Victoria C. Scott, J. Claire Schuch, Ashley N. Kelley, Jeri L. Ryan

Abstract:

Postpartum Depression (PPD) is a leading cause of postpartum morbidity. PPD affects 7.1% of postpartum women and 19.2% of postpartum women when including minor depression. Lower-income women and ethnic minorities are more at risk for developing PPD and face multiple attitudinal and institutional barriers to receiving care. This study aims to identify PPD among low-income women and connect them to appropriate services in order to reduce the illness burden and enhance access to care. Screenings were conducted in two Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in the city of Charlotte, North Carolina, USA, from April 2017 to April 2018. WIC is a supplemental nutrition program that provides healthcare and nutrition to low-income pregnant women, breastfeeding women, and children under the age of 5. Additionally, a qualitative study was conducted to better understand the PPD continuum of care in order to identify opportunities for improvement. Mothers with infants were screened for depression risk using the PHQ-2. Mothers who scored ≥ 2 completed two additional standardized screening tools (PHQ-7, to complete the PHQ-9, and the Edinburgh) to assess depressive symptomatology. If indicated they may be suffering from depression, women were referred for case management services. Open-ended questions were used to understand treatment barriers. Four weeks after the initial survey, a follow-up telephone call was made to see if women had received care. Seven focus groups with WIC staff and managers, referral agency staff, local behavioral health professionals, and students examining the screenings, are being conducted March - April, 2018 to gather information related to current screening practices, referrals, follow up and treatment. Mothers (n = 231 as of February, 2018) were screened in English (65%) or Spanish (35%). According to preliminary results, 29% of mothers screened were at risk for postpartum depression (PHQ-2 ≥ 2). There were significant differences in preliminary screening results based on survey language (

Keywords: Mental Health, Health Disparities, Maternal Health, Postpartum Depression

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
1 Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Obesity in Adults with Diabetes in Israel

Authors: Vered Kaufman Shriqui, Yael Wolff Sagy, Yiska Loewenberg Weisband, Michal Krieger, Arie Ben Yehuda, Ronit Calderon Margalit

Abstract:

Background: Obesity is both a risk factor and common comorbidity of diabetes. Obesity impedes the achievement of glycemic control, and enhances damage caused by hyperglycemia to blood vessels; thus it increases diabetes-related complications. This study assessed the prevalence of obesity and morbid obesity among Israeli adults with diabetes, and estimated disparities associated with sex and socioeconomic position (SEP). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the setting of the Israeli National Program for Quality Indicators in Community Healthcare. Data on all the Israeli population is retrieved from electronic medical records of the four health maintenance organizations (HMOs). The study population included all Israeli patients with diabetes aged 20-64 with documented body mass index (BMI) in 2016 (N=180,451). Diabetes was defined as the existence of one or more of the following criteria: (a) Plasma glucose level >200 mg% in at least two tests conducted at least one month apart in the previous year; (b) HbA1c>6.5% at least once in the previous year (c) at least three prescriptions of diabetes medications were dispensed during the previous year. Two measures were included: the prevalence of obesity (defined as last BMI≥ 30 kg/m2 and <35 kg/m2) and the prevalence of morbid obesity (defined as last BMI≥ 35 kg/m2) in individuals aged 20-64 with diabetes. The cut-off value for morbid obesity was set in accordance with the eligibility criteria for bariatric surgery in diabetics. Data were collected by the HMOs and aggregated by age, sex and SEP. SEP was based on statistical areas ranking by the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics and divided into 4 categories, ranking from 1 (lowest) to 4 (highest). Results: BMI documentation among adults with diabetes was 84.9% in 2016. The prevalence of obesity in the study population was 30.5%. Although the overall rate was similar in both sexes (30.8% in females, 30.3% in males), SEP disparities were stronger in females (32.7% in SEP level 1 vs. 27.7% in SEP level 4; 18.1% relative difference) compared to males (30.6% in SEP level 1 vs. 29.3% in SEP level 4; 4.4% relative difference). The overall prevalence of morbid obesity in this population was 20.8% in 2016. The rate among females was almost double compared to the rate in males (28.1% and 14.6%, respectively). In both sexes, the prevalence of morbid obesity was strongly associated with lower SEP. However, in females, disparities between SEP levels were much stronger (34.3% in SEP level 1 vs. 18.7% in SEP level 4; 83.4% relative difference) compared to SEP-disparities in males (15.7% in SEP level 1 vs. 12.3% in SEP level 4; 27.6% relative difference). Conclusions: The overall prevalence of BMI≥ 30 kg/m2 among adults with diabetes in Israel exceeds 50%; and the prevalence of morbid obesity suggests that 20% meet the BMI-criteria for bariatric surgery. Prevalence rates show major SEP- and sex-disparities; especially strong SEP disparities in morbid obesity among females. These findings highlight the need for greater consideration of different population groups when implementing interventions.

Keywords: Diabetes, Obesity, Health Policy, Health Disparities, socio-economic position

Procedia PDF Downloads 40