Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Health Behavior Related Abstracts

3 Oral Hygiene Behaviors among Pregnant Women with Diabetes Who Attend Primary Health Care Centers at Baghdad City

Authors: Zena F. Mushtaq, Iqbal M. Abbas


Background: Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy is one of the major medical and social problems with increasing prevalence in last decades and may lead to more vulnerable to dental problems and increased risk for periodontal diseases. Objectives: To assess oral hygiene behaviors among pregnant women with diabetes who attended primary health care centers and find out the relationship between oral hygiene behaviors and studied variables. Methodology: A cross sectional design was conducted from 7 July to 30 September 2014 on non probability (convenient sample) of 150 pregnant women with diabetes was selected from twelve Primary Health Care Centers at Baghdad city. Questionnaire format is tool for data collection which had designed and consisted of three main parts including: socio demographic, reproductive characteristics and items of oral hygiene behaviors among pregnant women with diabetes. Reliability of the questionnaire was determined through internal consistency of correlation coefficient (R= 0.940) and validity of content was determined through reviewing it by (12) experts in different specialties and was determined through pilot study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze collected data. Result: Result of study revealed that (35.3%) of study sample was (35-39) years old with mean and SD is (X & SD = 33.57 ± 5.54) years, and (34.7%) of the study sample was graduated from primary school and less, half of the study sample was government employment and self employed, (42.7%) of the study sample had moderate socioeconomic status, the highest percentage (70.0%) of the study sample was nonsmokers, The result indicates that oral hygiene behaviors have moderate mean score in all items. There are no statistical significant association between oral hygiene domain and studied variables. Conclusions: All items related to health behavior concerning oral hygiene is in moderate mean of score, which may expose pregnant women with diabetes to high risk of periodontal diseases. Recommendations: Dental care provider should perform a dental examination at least every three months for each pregnant woman with diabetes, explanation of the effect of DM on periodontal health, oral hygiene instruction, oral prophylaxis, professional cleaning and treatment of periodontal diseases(scaling and root planing) when needed.

Keywords: Diabetes, Health Behavior, Oral Hygiene, Pregnant Women

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2 Biosocial Determinants of Maternal and Child Health in Northeast India: A Case Study

Authors: Benrithung Murry


This paper highlights the biosocial determinants of health-seeking behavior in tribal population groups of northeast India, focusing on maternal and child health. The northeastern region of India is a conglomeration of several ethnic groups, most of which are scheduled as tribal groups. A total of 750 ever-married women in reproductive ages (15-49 years) were interviewed from three tribal groups of Nagaland, India using pre-tested and modified maternal health schedule. Data pertaining to reproductive performance of the mothers and their children health status were collected from 12 villages of Dimapur district, Nagaland, India. The sample for study comprises 212 Angami women, 267 Ao women, and 271 Sumi women, all of which belonging to tribal populations of Northeast India. Sex ratios of 15-49 years in these three populations are 1018.18, 1086.69, and 1106.92, respectively. 90% of the populations in the study are nuclear families, with about 10% of households falling below the poverty line as per the cutoffs for India. Female literacy level in these population groups is higher than the national average of 65.46%; however, about 30% of all married women are not engaged in any sort of earnings. Total fertility rates of these populations are alarming (Total Fertility Rate ≥ 6) and far from replacement fertility level, while infant mortality rates are found to be much lower than the national average of 34 per 1000. The perception and practice of maternal health in this region is unimpressive despite the availability of medical amenities. Only 3 % of mothers in the study have reported 4 times antenatal checkups during last two pregnancies. Other mothers have reported 1 to 3 times of antenatal checkups, but about 25% of them never visited a doctor during the entire pregnancy period. About 15% of mothers never took tetanus injection, while 40% of mothers never took iron folic supplements during pregnancy. Almost half of all women and their husbands do not use birth control measures even for the spacing of children, which has an immense impact on prenatal mortality mainly due to deliberate abortions: the percentage of prenatal mortality among Angami, Ao and Sumi populations is 44.88, 31.88 and 54.98, respectively per 1000 live births. The steep decline in fertility levels in most countries is a consequence of the increasing use of modern methods of contraception. However, among users of birth control measures in these populations, it is seen that most couples use it only after they have the desired number of children, thus its use having no substantial influence in reducing fertility. It is also seen that the majority of the children were only partially vaccinated. With many child deliveries being done at home, many newborns are not administered with polio at birth. Two-third of all children do not have complete basic immunization against polio, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, bacillus, and hepatitis besides others. Certain adherence to traditional beliefs and customs apart from the socio-economic factors is believed to have been operating in these populations, which determines their health-seeking behavior. While a more in-depth study combining biological, socio-cultural, economic, and genetic factors is suggested, there is an urgent need for intervention in these populations to combat with the poor maternal and child health status.

Keywords: Health Behavior, Case study, Northeast India, mother and child

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1 Development of Sports Nation on the Way of Health Management

Authors: Beatrix Farago, Zsolt Szakaly, Csaba Konczos, Norbert Kovacs, Zsofia Papai, Tamas Kertesz, Ágnes Kovácsné Tóth


The future of the nation is the embodiment of a healthy society. A key segment of government policy is the development of health and a health-oriented environment. As a result, sport as an activator of health is an important area for development. In Hungary, sport is a strategic sector with the aim of developing a sports nation. The function of sport in the global society is multifaceted, which is manifested in both social and economic terms. The economic importance of sport is gaining ground in the world, with implications for Central and Eastern Europe. Smaller states, such as Hungary, cannot ignore the economic effects of exploiting the effects of sport. The relationship between physical activity and health is driven by the health economy towards the nation's economic factor. In our research, we analyzed sport as a national strategy sector and its impact on age groups. By presenting the current state of health behavior, we get an idea of the directions where development opportunities require even more intervention. The foundation of the health of a nation is the young age group, whose shaping of health will shape the future generation. Our research was attended by university students from the Faculty of Health and Sports Sciences who will be experts in the field of health in the future. The other group is the elderly, who are a growing social group due to demographic change and are a key segment of the labor market and consumer society. Our study presents the health behavior of the two age groups, their differences, and similarities. The survey also identifies gaps in the development of a health management strategy that national strategies should take into account.

Keywords: Health Management, Health Behavior, Competitiveness, health economy, sports nation

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