Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 62

Hardness Related Abstracts

62 Thermo-Mechanical Treatments of Cu-Ti Alloys

Authors: M. M. Morgham, A. A. Hameda, N. A. Zriba, H. A. Jawan

Abstract:

This paper aims to study the effect of cold work condition on the microstructure of Cu-1.5wt%Ti, and Cu-3.5wt%Ti and hence mechanical properties. The samples under investigation were machined and solution heat treated. X-ray diffraction technique is used to identify the different phases present after cold deformation by compression and also different heat treatment and also measuring the relative quantities of phases present. Metallographic examination is used to study the microstructure of the samples. The hardness measurements were used to indicate the change in mechanical properties. The results are compared with the mechanical properties obtained by previous workers. Experiments on cold compression followed by aging of Cu-Ti alloys have indicated that the most effective hardening of the material results from continuous precipitation of very fine particles within the matrix. These particles were reported to be β`-type, Cu4Ti phase. The β`-β transformation and particles coarsening within the matrix as well as a long grain boundaries were responsible for the averaging of Cu-1.5wt%Ti and Cu-3.5wt%Ti alloys. It is well know that plate like particles are β – type, Cu3Ti phase. Discontinuous precipitation was found to start at the grain boundaries and expand into grain interior. At the higher aging temperature a classic widmanstätten morphology forms giving rise to a coarse microstructure comprised of α and the equilibrium phase β. Those results were confirmed by X-ray analysis, which found that a few percent of Cu3Ti, β precipitates are formed during aging at high temperature for long time for both Cu- Ti alloys (i.e. Cu-1.5wt%Ti and Cu-3.5wt%Ti).

Keywords: Aging, Precipitation, Hardness, metallographic

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61 Effect of Structure on Properties of Incrementally Formed Titanium Alloy Sheets

Authors: Petr Homola, Lucie Novakova, Vaclav Kafka

Abstract:

Asymmetric incremental sheet forming (AISF) could significantly reduce costs incurred by the fabrication of complex industrial components with a minimal environmental impact. The AISF experiments were carried out on commercially pure titanium (Ti-Gr2), Timetal (15-3-3-3) alloy, and Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-Gr5) alloy. A special testing geometry was used to characterize the titanium alloys properties from the point of view of the forming zone and titanium structure effect. The structure and properties of the materials were assessed by means of metallographic analyses and microhardness measurements.The highest differences in the parameters assessed as a function of the sampling zone were observed in the case of alpha-phase Ti-Gr2at the expense of the most substantial sheet thinning occurrence. A springback causes a smaller stored deformation in Timetal (β alloy) resulting in less pronounced microstructure refinement and microhardness increase. Ti-6Al-4V alloy exhibited early failure due to its poor formability at ambient temperature.

Keywords: Hardness, Titanium Alloys, incremental forming, metallography

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
60 Characterising the Effects of Heat Treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 Stainless Steels

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

This paper reports on the effects of heat treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 stainless steel grades. Heat treatment was conducted on the steel grades and cooled using two different media; air and water in order to study the effect of each medium on the evolving properties of the samples. The heat treated samples were characterized through the evolving microstructure and hardness. It was found that there was a significant grain size reduction in both the heat treated stainless steel specimens compared to the parent materials. The finer grain sizes were achieved as a result of impediment to growth of one phase by the other. The Vickers micro-hardness values of the heat treated samples were higher compared to the parent materials due to the fact that each of the steel grades had a proportion of martensitic structures in their microstructures.

Keywords: Hardness, austenite, ferrite, grain size, martensite, microstructure and stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
59 Preservation of Historical Zelkova carpinifolia Wooden Structure in Humid Weather

Authors: A. Mahshid Kakouei, B. Kumaran Suberamanin, C. Sabzali Musa Kahn, D. Mina Kakouei

Abstract:

This study aims to identify suitable conservative product for the conservation and restoration of historical Zelkova Carpinifolia wood located in humid weather. The superficial properties and hardness of 14 compounds treated with several consolidants were compared. The consolidants have been applied alone, with synthetic resin or with protein glues and natural resins by the brushing method. Colorimetric measurements, observation methods and hardness tests were conducted before and after aging to verify the possible changes of the treated wood and the consolidating resistance. The compound 1:2 of Butvar B98 and sandarac in 5% ethanol was found to be more effective, providing a suitable compound compared to the other consolidants tested.

Keywords: Hardness, Zelkova carpinifolia, consolidation, synthetic resin, penetration depth

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58 The Properties of Na2CO3 and Ti Hybrid Modified LM 6 Alloy Using Ladle Metallurgy

Authors: C. K. Kok, M. N. Ervina Efzan, H. J. Kong

Abstract:

The present work deals with a study on the influences of hybrid modifier on LM 6 added through ladle metallurgy. In this study, LM 6 served as the reference alloy while Na2CO3 and Ti powders were used as the hybrid modifier. The effects of hybrid modifier on the micro structural enhancement of LM 6 were investigated using optical microscope (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results showed fragmented Si-rich needles and strength enhanced petal/ globular-like structures without obvious formation of soft primary α-Al and β-Fe-rich inter metallic compound (IMC) after the hybrid modification. Hardness test was conducted to examine the mechanical improvement of hybrid modified LM 6. 10% of hardness improvement was recorded in the hybrid modified LM 6 through ladle metallurgy.

Keywords: Hardness, Ladle Metallurgy, Al-Si, hybrid modifier

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57 Preparation of Alumina (Al2O3) Particles and MMCS of (Al-7% Si– 0.45% Mg) Alloy Using Vortex Method

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to study the manner of alumina (Al2O3) particles dispersion with (2-10) mm size in (Al-7%Si-0.45% Mg) base of alloy melt employing of classical casting method. The mechanism of particles diffusions by melt turning and stirring that makes vortexes help the particles entrance in the matrix of base alloy also has been studied. The samples of metallic composites (MMCs) with dispersed particles percentages (4% - 6% - 8% - 10% - 15% and 20%) are prepared. The effect of the particles dispersion on the mechanical properties of produced samples were carried out by tension & hardness tests. It is found that the ultimate tensile strength of the produced composites can be increased by increasing the percentages of alumina particles in the matrix of the base alloy. It becomes (232 Mpa) at (20%) of added particles. The results showed that the average hardness of prepared samples increasing with increases the alumina content. Microstructure study of prepared samples was carried out. The results showed particles location and distribution of it in the matrix of base alloy. The dissolution of Alumina particles into liquid base alloy was clear in some cases.

Keywords: Hardness, Thermal Properties, matrix, base alloy, base metal MMCs

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56 Production of (V-B) Reinforced Fe Matrix Composites

Authors: Kerim Emre Öksüz, Mehmet Çevik, A. Enbiya Bozdağ, Ali Özer, Mehmet Simsir

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have gained a considerable interest in the last three decades. Conventional powder metallurgy production route often involves the addition of reinforcing phases into the metal matrix directly, which leads to poor wetting behavior between ceramic phase and metal matrix and the segregation of reinforcements. The commonly used elements for ceramic phase formation in iron based MMCs are Ti, Nb, Mo, W, V and C, B. The aim of the present paper is to investigate the effect of sintering temperature and V-B addition on densification, phase development, microstructure, and hardness of Fe–V-B composites (Fe-(5-10) wt. %B – 25 wt. %V alloys) prepared by powder metallurgy process. Metal powder mixes were pressed uniaxial and sintered at different temperatures (ranging from 1300 to 1400ºC) for 1h. The microstructure of the (V, B) Fe composites was studied with the help of high magnification optical microscope and XRD. Experimental results show that (V, B) Fe composites can be produced by conventional powder metallurgy route.

Keywords: Microstructure, powder metallurgy, Hardness, metal matrix composite (MMC)

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55 Thermally Stable Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloys Processed by Mechanical Alloying and High Frequency Induction Heat Sintering

Authors: Hany R. Ammar, Khalil A. Khalil, El-Sayed M. Sherif

Abstract:

The as-received metal powders were used to synthesis bulk nanocrystalline Al; Al-10%Cu; and Al-10%Cu-5%Ti alloys using mechanical alloying and high frequency induction heat sintering (HFIHS). The current study investigated the influence of milling time and ball-to-powder (BPR) weight ratio on the microstructural constituents and mechanical properties of the processed materials. Powder consolidation was carried out using a high frequency induction heat sintering where the processed metal powders were sintered into a dense and strong bulk material. The sintering conditions applied in this process were as follow: heating rate of 350°C/min; sintering time of 4 minutes; sintering temperature of 400°C; applied pressure of 750 Kgf/cm2 (100 MPa); cooling rate of 400°C/min and the process was carried out under vacuum of 10-3 Torr. The powders and the bulk samples were characterized using XRD and FEGSEM techniques. The mechanical properties were evaluated at various temperatures of 25°C, 100°C, 200°C, 300°C and 400°C to study the thermal stability of the processed alloys. The bulk nanocrystalline Al; Al-10%Cu; and Al-10%Cu-5%Ti alloys displayed extremely high hardness values even at elevated temperatures. The Al-10%Cu-5%Ti alloy displayed the highest hardness values at room and elevated temperatures which are related to the presence of Ti-containing phases such as Al3Ti and AlCu2Ti, these phases are thermally stable and retain the high hardness values at elevated temperatures up to 400ºC.

Keywords: Hardness, Mechanical Alloying, nanocrystalline aluminum alloys, elevated temperatures

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54 Comparative Study on the Precipitation Behavior in Two Al-Mg Alloys (Al-12 wt. % Mg and Al-8 wt. % Mg)

Authors: C. Amrane, D. Haman

Abstract:

Aluminum-magnesium alloys are widely used in industry thanks to their mechanical properties and corrosion resistivity. These properties are related to the magnesium content and to the applied heat treatments. Although they are already well studied, questions concerning the microstructural stability and the effect of different heat treatments are still being asked. In this work we have presented a comparative study on the behavior of the precipitation reactions during different heat treatment in two different Al-Mg alloys (Al–8 wt. % Mg and Al–12 wt. % Mg). For this purpose, we have used various experimental techniques as dilatometry, calorimetry, optical microscopy, and microhardness measurements. The obtained results shown that, the precipitation kinetics and the mechanical responses to the applied heat treatments, of the two studied alloys, are different.

Keywords: Precipitation, Hardness, heat treatments, Al-Mg alloys

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53 The Influence of Residual Stress on Hardness and Microstructure in Railway Rails

Authors: Muhammet Emre Turan, Sait Özçelik, Yavuz Sun

Abstract:

In railway rails, residual stress was measured and the values of residual stress were associated with hardness and micro structure in this study. At first, three rails as one meter long were taken and residual stresses were measured by cutting method according to the EN 13674-1 standardization. In this study, strain gauge that is an electrical apparatus was used. During the cutting, change in resistance in rail gave us residual stress value via computer program. After residual stress measurement, Brinell hardness distribution were performed for head parts of rails. Thus, the relationship between residual stress and hardness were established. In addition to that, micro structure analysis was carried out by optical microscope. The results show that, the micro structure and hardness value was changed with residual stress.

Keywords: Rail, Hardness, Residual Stress, micro structure, strain gauge

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52 Carbide Structure and Fracture Toughness of High Speed Tool Steels

Authors: Tae Kwon Ha, Jung-Ho Moon

Abstract:

M2 steels, the typical Co-free high speed steel (HSS) possessing hardness level of 63~65 HRc, are most widely used for cutting tools. On the other hand, Co-containing HSS’s, such as M35 and M42, show a higher hardness level of 65~67 HRc and used for high quality cutting tools. In the fabrication of HSS’s, it is very important to control cleanliness and eutectic carbide structure of the ingot and it is required to increase productivity at the same time. Production of HSS ingots includes a variety of processes such as casting, electro-slag remelting (ESR), forging, blooming, and wire rod rolling processes. In the present study, electro-slag rapid remelting (ESRR) process, an advanced ESR process combined by continuous casting, was successfully employed to fabricate HSS billets of M2, M35, and M42 steels. Distribution and structure of eutectic carbides of the billets were analysed and cleanliness, hardness, and composition profile of the billets were also evaluated.

Keywords: Microstructure, Hardness, high speed tool steel, eutectic carbide, fracture toughness

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51 Influence of the Compression Force and Powder Particle Size on Some Physical Properties of Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Tablets

Authors: Djemaa Megdoud, Messaoud Boudaa, Fatima Ouamrane, Salem Benamara

Abstract:

In recent years, the compression of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit powders (DP) to obtain date tablets (DT) has been suggested as a promising form of valorization of non commercial valuable date fruit (DF) varieties. To further improve and characterize DT, the present study aims to investigate the influence of the DP particle size and compression force on some physical properties of DT. The results show that independently of particle size, the hardness (y) of tablets increases with the increase of the compression force (x) following a logarithmic law (y = a ln (bx) where a and b are the constants of model). Further, a full factorial design (FFD) at two levels, applied to investigate the erosion %, reveals that the effects of time and particle size are the same in absolute value and they are beyond the effect of the compression. Regarding the disintegration time, the obtained results also by means of a FFD show that the effect of the compression force exceeds 4 times that of the DP particle size. As final stage, the color parameters in the CIELab system of DT immediately after their obtaining are differently influenced by the size of the initial powder.

Keywords: Hardness, erosion, Tablets, Color, Powder, disintegration time, date (Phoenix dactylifera L.)

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50 Investigation into the Possibility of Using Recycled Polyethelene to Replace Natural Rubber in the Production of Different Products

Authors: Otokiti Mojeed Jimoh

Abstract:

This work investigates the possibility of using recycled polyethylene LDPE as a base polymer in production of different products (shoe sole, foot mat, and many more) using carbon black as a filler to improve its mechanical properties, like hardness, tensile stress properties and elongation at break properties, from the result so far gotten there is a possibility that there is an increase in the mechanical properties of the sample compare to natural rubber sample.

Keywords: Hardness, recycled polyethylene, base polymer, stress properties

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49 Experimental Investigation and Hardness Analysis of Chromoly Steel Multipass Welds Using GMAW

Authors: S. Ramesh, A. S. Sasiraaju, K. Sidhaarth, N. Sudhan Rajkumar, V. Manivel Muralidaran

Abstract:

This work presents the result of investigations aimed at determining the hardness of the welded Chromoly (A 4130) steel plate of 2” thickness. Multi pass welding for the thick sections was carried out and analyzed for the Chromoly alloy steel plates. The study of hardness at the weld metal reveals that there is the presence of different micro structure products which yields diverse properties. The welding carried out using GMAW with ER70s-2 electrode. Single V groove design was selected for the butt joint configuration. The presence of hydrogen has been suppressed by selecting low hydrogen electrode. Preheating of the plate prior to welding reduces the cooling rate which also affects the weld metal microstructure. The shielding gas composition used in this analysis is 80% Ar-20% CO2. The experimental analysis gives the detailed study of the hardness of the material.

Keywords: Hardness, chromoly, gas metal arc weld (GMAW), multi pass weld, shielding gas composition

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48 Hardness and Microstructure of Rapidly Quenched Aluminum Alloys

Authors: Mehdi Ghatus

Abstract:

Two simple apparatus based on the hammer and anvil principle have been constructed and used to study the microstructure and micro-hardness characteristics of some AL-base alloys. Foils with thicknesses arranging from 20 µm up to 600 µm have been obtained. The cooling rate was estimated to be in the range 10^4 - 10^5 K/sec. Microstructure study of rapidly quenched Al-30% Si foils indicated that with decreasing the foil thickness the size of primary Si crystallites decreases in the whole investigated range (0.64-0.15 mm). However, the volume fraction of the primary Si crystals in the structure remained constant down to thickness the primary Si volume fraction started to decrease. Rapid quenching of Al- 14-16% Cu showed single phase cell structure. In foils up to 0.55 mm with decreasing the foil thickness the cell size decreases and micro-hardness increases particularly in foils below 0.3 mm in thickness. Isochronal annealing of theses foils show that the highly supersaturated Al-14-16% Cu solid solution decomposes readily at relatively low temperature and short time intervals. The maximum hardness is obtained after annealing at 100 °C for 30 minutes. However with decreasing the Cu content of the foils the precipitation process is largely delayed. Eight hours of annealing at 100 °C was not enough to achieve the maximum hardness in Al-4% Cu thin foils. The achieved hardness value was more than twice of the maximum hardness obtained in articles of similar composition but conventionally aged.

Keywords: Alloys, Hardness, Aluminum, quenched aluminum

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47 Investigation the Effect of Quenching Media on Abrasive Wear in Grade Medium Carbon Steel

Authors: Abbas S. Alwan, Waleed K. Hussan

Abstract:

In this paper, a general verification of possible heat treatment of steel has been done with the view of conditions of real abrasive wear of rotivater with soil texture. This technique is found promising to improve the quality of agriculture components working with the soil in dry condition. Abrasive wear resistance is very important in many applications and in most cases it is directly correlated with the hardness of materials surface. Responded of heat treatments were carried out in various media (Still air, Cottonseed oil, and Brine water 10 %) and follow by low-temperature tempering (250°C) was applied on steel type (AISI 1030). After heat treatment was applied wear with soil texture by using tillage process to determine the (actual wear rate) of the specimens depending on weight loss method. It was found; the wear resistance Increases with increase hardness with varying quenching media as follows; 30 HRC, 45 HRC, 52 HRC, and 60 HRC for nontreated (as received) cooling media as still air, cottonseed oil, and Brine water 10 %, respectively. Martensitic structure with retained austenite can be obtained depending on the quenching medium. Wear was presented on the worn surfaces of the steels which were used in this work.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Microstructures, Hardness, Abrasive Wear, soil texture

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46 The Friction and Wear Behavior of 0.35 VfTiC-Ti3SiC2 Composite

Authors: A. Haddad, M. Hadji, Y. Hadji

Abstract:

The effects of boronizing treatment on the friction coefficient and wear behavior of 0.35 Vf TiC- Ti3 SiC2 composite were investigated. In order to modify the surface properties of Ti3SiC2, boronizing treatment was carried out through powder pack cementation in the 1150-1350 °C temperature range. After boronizing treatment, one mixture layer, composed of TiB2 and SiC, forms on the surface of Ti3SiC2. The growth of the coating is processed by inward diffusion of Boron and obeys a linear rule. The Boronizing treatment increases the hardness of Ti3SiC2 from 6 GPa to 13 GPa. In the pin-on-disc test, i twas found that the material undergoes a steady-state coefficient of friction of around 0.8 and 0.45 in case of Ti3SiC2/Al2O3 tribocouple under 7 N load for the non treated and the boronized samples, respectively. The wear resistance of Ti3SiC2 under Al2O3 ball sliding has been significantly improved, which indicated that the boronizing treatment is a promising surface modification way of Ti3SiC2.

Keywords: Hardness, Wear, MAX phase, boronizing

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45 A Nanoindentation Study of Thin Film Prepared by Physical Vapor Deposition

Authors: Dhiflaoui Hafedh, Ben Cheikh Larbi Ahmed, Khlifi Kaouther

Abstract:

Monolayer and multilayer coatings of CrN and AlCrN deposited on 100Cr6 (AISI 52100) substrate by PVD magnetron sputtering system. The micro structures of the coatings were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM analysis revealed the presence of domes and craters which are uniformly distributed over all surfaces of the various layers. Nano indentation measurement of CrN coating showed maximum hardness (H) and modulus (E) of 14 GPa and 240 GPa, respectively. The measured H and E values of AlCrN coatings were found to be 30 GPa and 382 GPa, respectively. The improved hardness in both the coatings was attributed mainly to a reduction in crystallite size and decrease in surface roughness. The incorporation of Al into the CrN coatings has improved both hardness and Young’s modulus.

Keywords: Hardness, Nanoindentation, CrN, AlCrN coatings

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44 Reusing of HSS Hacksaw Blades as Rough Machining Tool

Authors: Raja V., Chokkalingam B.

Abstract:

For rough cutting, in many industries and educational institutions using carbon steels or HSS single point cutting tools in center lathe machine. In power hacksaw blades, only the cutter teeth region used to parting off the given material. The portions other than the teeth can be used as a single point cutting tool for rough turning and facing on soft materials. The hardness and Tensile strength of this used Power hacksaw blade is almost same as conventional cutting tools. In this paper, the effect of power hacksaw blades over conventional tool has been compared. Thickness of the blade (1.6 mm) is very small compared to its length and width. Hence, a special tool holding device is designed to hold the tool.

Keywords: Hardness, Tensile Strength, high speed steels, power hacksaw blade

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43 Effect of SPS Parameters on the Densification of ZrB2-Based Composites

Authors: Z. Balak, M. Zakeri, M.R.Rahimipur, M. Azizieh

Abstract:

Spark Plasma Sintering is a new technique which was used for ultra high temperature ceramics such as ZrB2-based composites in recent years. Taguchi design was applied to explore effective parameters for achieving the highest hardness. Nine factors including SiC, Cf, MoSi2, HfB2 and ZrC content, milling time of Cf and SPS parameters such as temperature, time and pressure in four levels were considered through the Taguchi technique. In this study, only the effect of SPS conditions on densification and hardness were investigated. ZrB2-based composites were prepared by SPS in different temperatures (1600°C,1700°C, 1800°C, 1900°C), times (4min, 8 min, 12 min, 16min) and pressures (10MPa, 20MPa, 30MPa and 40MPa). The effect of SPS parameters on the densification and hardness were investigated. It was found, by increasing the temperature and time, from level 1 to 4, densification improved continuously. Also, the results shows hardness increases continuously by increasing temperature and time. Finally, it is concluded that temperature and time have more significant effect on densification and harness rather than pressure.

Keywords: Hardness, Densification, spark plasma sintering (SPS), ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTCs)

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42 Analysis of Surface Hardness, Surface Roughness and near Surface Microstructure of AISI 4140 Steel Worked with Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Process

Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma, K. Jagannath, Achutha Kini U.

Abstract:

In the present study, response surface methodology has been used to optimize turn-assisted deep cold rolling process of AISI 4140 steel. A regression model is developed to predict surface hardness and surface roughness using response surface methodology and central composite design. In the development of predictive model, deep cold rolling force, ball diameter, initial roughness of the workpiece, and number of tool passes are considered as model variables. The rolling force and the ball diameter are the significant factors on the surface hardness and ball diameter and numbers of tool passes are found to be significant for surface roughness. The predicted surface hardness and surface roughness values and the subsequent verification experiments under the optimal operating conditions confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The absolute average error between the experimental and predicted values at the optimal combination of parameter settings for surface hardness and surface roughness is calculated as 0.16% and 1.58% respectively. Using the optimal processing parameters, the hardness is improved from 225 to 306 HV, which resulted in an increase in the near surface hardness by about 36% and the surface roughness is improved from 4.84µm to 0.252 µm, which resulted in decrease in the surface roughness by about 95%. The depth of compression is found to be more than 300µm from the microstructure analysis and this is in correlation with the results obtained from the microhardness measurements. Taylor Hobson Talysurf tester, micro Vickers hardness tester, optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometer are used to characterize the modified surface layer.

Keywords: Microstructure, Hardness, response surface methodology, surface roughness, central composite design, deep cold rolling

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41 Effect of Transition Metal Addition on Aging Behavior of Invar Alloy

Authors: Tae Kwon Ha, Young Sik Kim

Abstract:

High strength Fe-36Ni-base Invar alloys containing Al contents up to 0.3 weight per cent were cast into ingots and thermodynamic equilibrium during solidification has been investigated in this study. From the thermodynamic simulation using Thermo-Calc®, it has been revealed that equilibrium phases which can be formed are two kinds of MC-type precipitates, MoC, and M2C carbides. The mu phase was also expected to form by addition of aluminum. Microstructure observation revealed the coarse precipitates in the as-cast ingots, which was non-equilibrium phase and could be resolved by the successive heat treatment. With increasing Al contents up to 0.3 wt.%, tensile strength of Invar alloy increased as 1400MPa after cold rolling and thermal expansion coefficient increased significantly. Cold rolling appeared to dramatically decrease thermal expansion coefficient.

Keywords: Microstructure, Transition Metals, Hardness, invar alloy, phase equilibrium, aging behavior

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40 Changes in Textural Properties of Zucchini Slices with Deep-Fat-Frying

Authors: M. S. Turan, E. Karacabey, Ş. G. Özçelik, C. Baltacıoğlu, E. Küçüköner

Abstract:

Changes in textural properties of zucchini slices under effects of frying conditions were investigated. Frying time and temperature were interested process variables like slice thickness. Slice thickness was studied at three levels (2, 3, and 4 mm). Frying process was performed at two temperature levels (160 and 180 °C) and each for five different process time periods (1, 2, 3, 5, 8 and 10 min). As frying oil sunflower oil was used. Before frying zucchini slices were thermally processes in boiling water for 90 seconds to inactivate at least 80% of plant’s enzymes. After thermal process, zucchini slices were fried in an industrial fryer at specified temperature and time pairs. Fried slices were subjected to textural profile analysis (TPA) to determine textural properties. In this extent hardness, elasticity, cohesion, chewiness, firmness values of slices were figured out. Statistical analysis indicated significant variations in the studied textural properties with process conditions (p < 0.05). Hardness and firmness were determined for fresh and thermally processes zucchini slices to compare each others. Differences in hardness and firmness of fresh, thermally processed and fried slices were found to be significant (p < 0.05). This project (113R015) has been supported by TUBITAK.

Keywords: Hardness, sunflower oil, firmness, slice thickness, frying temperature, frying time

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39 Mechanical Properties of Ternary Metal Nitride Ti1-xTaxN Alloys from First-Principles

Authors: M. Benhamida, Kh. Bouamama, P. Djemia

Abstract:

We investigate by first-principles pseudo-potential calculations the composition dependence of lattice parameter, hardness and elastic properties of ternary disordered solid solutions Ti(1-x)Ta(x)N (1>=x>=0) with B1-rocksalt structure. Calculations use the coherent potential approximation with the exact muffin-tin orbitals (EMTO) and hardness formula for multicomponent covalent solid solution proposed. Bulk modulus B shows a nearly linear behaviour whereas not C44 and C’=(C11-C12)/2 that are not monotonous. Influences of vacancies on hardness of off-stoichiometric transition-metal nitrides TiN(1−x) and TaN(1−x) are also considered.

Keywords: Hardness, elastic constants, transition metal nitride materials, EMTO

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38 Effects of Hydrogen-Ion Irritation on the Microstructure and Hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V Alloy

Authors: Jing Zhang, Yongqin Chang, Yongwei Wang, Xiaolin Li, Shaoning Jiang, Farong Wan, Yi Long

Abstract:

Microstructural and hardening changes of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe irradiated with 100 keV hydrogen ions at room temperature were investigated. It was found that dislocation density varies dramatically after irradiation, ranging from dislocation free to dense areas with tangled and complex dislocation configuration. As the irradiated Fe-0.2wt.%V samples were annealed at 773 K, the irradiation-induced dislocation loops disappear, while many small precipitates with enriched C distribute in the matrix. Some large precipitates with enriched V were also observed. The hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe increases after irradiation, which ascribes to the formation of dislocation loops in the irradiated specimens. Compared with pure Fe, the size of the irradiation-introduced dislocation loops in Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy decreases and the density increases, the change of the hardness also decreases.

Keywords: Microstructures, Hardness, irradiation, Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy

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37 The Friction and Wear Behaviour of Ti2AlC MAX Phase

Authors: A. Haddad, M. Hadji, Y. Hadji

Abstract:

The effects of boronizing treatment on the friction coefficient and wear behavior of Ti2AlC were investigated. In order to modify the surface properties of Ti2AlC, boronizing treatment was carried out through powder pack cementation in the 1150-1350 °C temperature range. After boronizing treatment, one mixture layer, composed of TiB2 and SiC, forms on the surface of Ti2AlC. The growth of the coating is processed by inward diffusion of Boron and obeys a linear rule. The Boronizing treatment increases the hardness of Ti2AlC from 6 GPa to 13GPa. In the pin-on-disc test, it was found that the material undergoes a steady-state coefficient of friction of around 0.8 and 0.45 in case of Ti2AlC/Al2O3 tribocouple under 7N load for the non treated and the boronized samples, respectively. The wear resistance of Ti2AlC under Al2O3 ball sliding has been significantly improved, which indicated that the boronizing treatment is a promising surface modification way of Ti2AlC.

Keywords: Hardness, Wear, MAX phase, boronizing

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36 A Neural Network System for Predicting the Hardness of Titanium Aluminum Nitrite (TiAlN) Coatings

Authors: Omar M. Elmabrouk

Abstract:

The cutting tool, in the high-speed machining process, is consistently dealing with high localized stress at the tool tip, tip temperature exceeds 800°C and the chip slides along the rake face. These conditions are affecting the tool wear, the cutting tool performances, the quality of the produced parts and the tool life. Therefore, a thin film coating on the cutting tool should be considered to improve the tool surface properties while maintaining its bulks properties. One of the general coating processes in applying thin film for hard coating purpose is PVD magnetron sputtering. In this paper, the prediction of the effects of PVD magnetron sputtering coating process parameters, sputter power in the range of (4.81-7.19 kW), bias voltage in the range of (50.00-300.00 Volts) and substrate temperature in the range of (281.08-600.00 °C), were studied using artificial neural network (ANN). The results were compared with previously published results using RSM model. It was found that the ANN is more accurate in prediction of tool hardness, and hence, it will not only improve the tool life of the tool but also significantly enhances the efficiency of the machining processes.

Keywords: Hardness, prediction, Artificial Neural Network, titanium aluminium nitrate coating

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35 Phase Equilibria in Zn-Al-Sn Alloy for Lead-free Solder Application

Authors: Tae Kwon Ha, Seok Hong Min, Ji Chan Kim

Abstract:

The effect of Yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, which has been attracting intensive focus as a Pb-free solder material, was investigated in this study. Phase equilibrium has been calculated by using FactSage® to evaluate the composition and fraction of equilibrium intermetallic compounds and construct a phase diagram. In the case of Sn-8.8 Zn eutectic alloy, the as-cast microstructure was typical lamellar. With addition of 0.25 wt. %Y, a large amount of pro-eutectic phases have been observed and various YZnx intermetallic compounds were expected to successively form during cooling. Hardness of Sn-8.8 Zn alloy was not affected by Y-addition and both alloys could be rolled by 90% at room temperature.

Keywords: Microstructure, Hardness, Rolling, phase equilibrium, lead-free solder, zn-al-sn alloy

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34 Manufacturing and Characterization of Ni-Matrix Composite Reinforced with Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC; and Al-Matrix with Ti2SiC

Authors: A. Haddad, M. Hadji, Y. Hadji, N. Chiker

Abstract:

In this paper, we report for the first time on the synthesis and characterization of novel MAX phases (Ti3SiC2, Ti2AlC) reinforced Ni-matrix and Ti2AlC reinforced Al-matrix. The stability of MAX phases in Al-matrix and Ni-matrix at a temperature of 985°C has been investigated. All the composites were cold pressed and sintered at a temperature of 985°C for 20min in H2 environment, except (Ni/Ti3SiC2) who was sintered at 1100°C for 1h.Microstructure analysis by scanning electron microscopy and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction confirmed that there was minimal interfacial reaction between MAX particles and Ni, thus Al/MAX samples shown that MAX phases was totally decomposed at 985°C.The Addition of MAX enhanced the Al-matrix and Ni-matrix.

Keywords: Composites, Microstructures, Hardness, SEM, MAX phase

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33 Dependence of Densification, Hardness and Wear Behaviors of Ti6Al4V Powders on Sintering Temperature

Authors: Adewale O. Adegbenjo, Elsie Nsiah-Baafi, Mxolisi B. Shongwe, Mercy Ramakokovhu, Peter A. Olubambi

Abstract:

The sintering step in powder metallurgy (P/M) processes is very sensitive as it determines to a large extent the properties of the final component produced. Spark plasma sintering over the past decade has been extensively used in consolidating a wide range of materials including metallic alloy powders. This novel, non-conventional sintering method has proven to be advantageous offering full densification of materials, high heating rates, low sintering temperatures, and short sintering cycles over conventional sintering methods. Ti6Al4V has been adjudged the most widely used α+β alloy due to its impressive mechanical performance in service environments, especially in the aerospace and automobile industries being a light metal alloy with the capacity for fuel efficiency needed in these industries. The P/M route has been a promising method for the fabrication of parts made from Ti6Al4V alloy due to its cost and material loss reductions and the ability to produce near net and intricate shapes. However, the use of this alloy has been largely limited owing to its relatively poor hardness and wear properties. The effect of sintering temperature on the densification, hardness, and wear behaviors of spark plasma sintered Ti6Al4V powders was investigated in this present study. Sintering of the alloy powders was performed in the 650–850°C temperature range at a constant heating rate, applied pressure and holding time of 100°C/min, 50 MPa and 5 min, respectively. Density measurements were carried out according to Archimedes’ principle and microhardness tests were performed on sectioned as-polished surfaces at a load of 100gf and dwell time of 15 s. Dry sliding wear tests were performed at varied sliding loads of 5, 15, 25 and 35 N using the ball-on-disc tribometer configuration with WC as the counterface material. Microstructural characterization of the sintered samples and wear tracks were carried out using SEM and EDX techniques. The density and hardness characteristics of sintered samples increased with increasing sintering temperature. Near full densification (99.6% of the theoretical density) and Vickers’ micro-indentation hardness of 360 HV were attained at 850°C. The coefficient of friction (COF) and wear depth improved significantly with increased sintering temperature under all the loading conditions examined, except at 25 N indicating better mechanical properties at high sintering temperatures. Worn surface analyses showed the wear mechanism was a synergy of adhesive and abrasive wears, although the former was prevalent.

Keywords: powder metallurgy, Hardness, Wear, spark plasma sintering

Procedia PDF Downloads 120