Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

hardening Related Abstracts

8 Characterization of Martensitic Stainless Steel Japanese Grade AISI 420A

Authors: T. Z. Butt, T. A. Tabish, K. Anjum, H. Hafeez

Abstract:

A study of martensitic stainless steel surgical grade AISI 420A produced in Japan was carried out in this research work. The sample was already annealed at about 898˚C. The sample were subjected to chemical analysis, hardness, tensile and metallographic tests. These tests were performed on as received annealed and heat treated samples. In the annealed condition the sample showed 0HRC. However, on tensile testing, in annealed condition the sample showed maximum elongation. The heat treatment is carried out in vacuum furnace within temperature range 980-1035°C. The quenching of samples was carried out using liquid nitrogen. After hardening, the samples were subjected to tempering, which was carried out in vacuum tempering furnace at a temperature of 220˚C. The hardened samples were subjected to hardness and tensile testing. In hardness testing, the samples showed maximum hardness values. In tensile testing the sample showed minimum elongation. The sample in annealed state showed coarse plates of martensite structure. Therefore, the studied steels can be used as biomaterials.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation, Tensile Testing, martensitic steel, microsrtucture, hardening, tempering

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7 Precipitation Kinetics of Al-7%Mg Alloy Studied by DSC and XRD

Authors: M. A. Ghebouli, M. Fatmi, T. Chihi, B. Ghebouli

Abstract:

This work presents the experimental results of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hardness measurements (Hv) and XRD analysis, for order to investigate the kinetics of precipitation phenomena in Al-7%wt. Mg alloy. In the XRD and DSC curves indicates the formation of the intermediate precipitation of β-(Al3Mg2) phase respectively. The activation energies associated with the processes have been determined according to the three models proposed by Kissinger, Ozawa, and Boswell. Consequently, the nucleation mechanism of the precipitates can be explained. These phases are confirmed by XRD analysis.

Keywords: Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, hardening, discontinuous precipitation, Al–Mg alloys

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6 Simulation of Hamming Coding and Decoding for Microcontroller Radiation Hardening

Authors: Mazhar B. Tayel, Rehab I. Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

This paper presents a method of hardening the 8051 microcontroller, that able to assure reliable operation in the presence of bit flips caused by radiation. Aiming at avoiding such faults in the 8051 microcontroller, Hamming code protection was used in its SRAM memory and registers. A VHDL code and its simulation have been used for this hamming code protection.

Keywords: Radiation, hardening, bitflip, hamming

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5 Effects of Pre-Storage Invigoration Treatments on Ageing Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Seeds

Authors: M. L. Sharma, Geetika Richa

Abstract:

Bamboo as an ancient herbal medicine has been used for thousands of years in Asia and goes by many names such as tabashir, banslochan etc. It is often used for its tonic and astringent properties. Modern analysis of bamboos show high amount of vitamins and minerals which makes them valuable as a curative. Bamboo leaf decoction and young shoots are known as remedy for intestinal worms, healing of ulcers and stomach disorders. Bamboos are known to be propagated by large scale plantations but propagation through seeds occurs very limited as they have very short viability of few months. Seeds loses viability over a period of time even under controlled conditions and important factors that affect seed viability is the decline in reserve food material, decrease in membrane integrity and fall in endogenous level of growth hormones. Invigoration treatments that include hydration, dehydration, incorporation of bioactive chemicals such as growth regulators, nutrients and antioxidants etc. improve the seed performance. Our studies were aimed to determine the most effective invigoration treatments to enhance vigour and viability of seeds by following invigoration treatments, i.e., hardening. Treated seeds were stored at controlled temperature and humidity (in desiccators at 4°C). In hardening, chemicals were applied in 3 different concentrations to three replicates of 10 seeds. Hardening was done withGA3, IAA, (each with concentrations of 10 ppm, 20 ppm and 50 ppm), calcium oxychloride, neem leaf powder and clay (each with concentrations of 2%, 5% and 10%). Statistically all the hardening materials were effective but GA3 50 ppm was the most effective one in maintaining germination percentage and vigour index. Hardening treatments increased the germination percentage of seeds, i.e. 86.2%, over control which showed germination percentage of 80.2%. It was concluded that in order to maintain seed viability during storage for longer period of time, invigoration treatments have been found to be very effective.

Keywords: seed quality, viability, hardening, decoction, invigoration, membrane integrity

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4 Effect of Treated Peat Soil on the Plasticity Index and Hardening Time

Authors: Rudy Tawie, Siti Nur Aida Mario, Farah Hafifee Ahmad

Abstract:

Soil Stabilization has been widely implemented in the construction industry nowadays. Peat soil is well known as one of the most problematic soil among the engineers. The procedures need to take into account both physical and engineering properties of the stabilized peat soil. This paper presents a result of plasticity index and hardening of treated peat soil with various dosage of additives. In order to determine plasticity of the treated peat soil, atterberg limit test which comprises plastic limit and liquid limit test has been conducted. Determination of liquid limit in this experimental study is by using cone penetrometer. Vicat testing apparatus has been used in the hardening test which the penetration of the plunger is recorded every one hour for 24 hours. The results show that the plasticity index of peat soil stabilized with 80% FAAC and 20% OPC has the lowest plasticity index and recorded the fastest initial setting time. The significant of this study is to promote greener solution for future soil stabilization industry.

Keywords: Additives, Soil Stabilization, plasticity index, hardening, peat soil

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3 In vitro Clonal Multiplication and Acclimatization of Large Cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.)

Authors: Krishna Poudel, Tahar Katuwal, Sujan Karki

Abstract:

A rapid propagation and acclimatization method of large cardamom was optimized in this study. Sprouted rhizome buds were collected. The excised rhizome bud explants were cultured on semi solid culture media. The explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with different concentration and combinations of BAP (6-Benzyl-amino-purine) and IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid) for shoot and root induction. Explants cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 gm/l IBA showed the highest rate of shoot multiplication. In vitro shoots were rooted on to the half-strength MS basal media supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IBA. Rooted shoots were transplanted in the screen house for hardening process. These hardened plants were subsequently shifted into the netted nursery for further multiplication process.

Keywords: Concentration, hardening, explants, rhizome

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2 Cyclic Plastic Deformation of 20MN-MO-NI 55 Steel in Dynamic Strain Ageing Regime

Authors: Ashok kumar, Sarita Sahu, H. N. Bar

Abstract:

Low cycle fatigue behavior of a ferritic, martensitic pressure vessel steel at dynamic strain ageing regime of 250°C to 280°C has been investigated. Dynamic strain ageing is a mechanism that has attracted interests of researchers due to its fascinating inexplicable repetitive nature for quite a long time. The interaction of dynamic strain ageing and cyclic plasticity has been studied from the mechanistic point of view. Dynamic strain ageing gives rise to identical serrated flow behavior in tensile and compressive halves of hysteresis loops and this has been found to gives rise to initial cyclic hardening followed by softening behavior, where as in non-DSA regime continuous cyclic softening has been found to be the dominant mechanism. An appreciable sensitivity towards nature of serrations has been observed due to degree of hardening of stable loop. The increase in degree of hardening with strain amplitude in the regime where only A type serrations are present and it decreases with strain amplitude where A+B type of serrations are present. Masing type of locus has been found in the behavior of metal at 280°C. Cyclic Stress Strain curve and Master curve has been constructed to decipher among the fatigue strength and ductility coefficients. Fractographic examinations have also shown a competition between progression of striations and secondary cracking.

Keywords: hardening, softening, low cycle fatigue, dynamic strain ageing

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1 The French, the Yoruba, and the H-Thing: Sharing and Realising Same Phenomenon Differently

Authors: Rose-Juliet Anyanwu

Abstract:

The principal objective of this paper is to investigate whether some sort of phonological processes, such as elision, aspiration, glottalisation, and hardening can be used to account for the behaviour of the glottal fricative (or approximant, as the case may be) ‘h’ in both French and Yoruba. French and Yoruba speakers generally tend to say, for instance ‘ockey’ and ‘amburger’, instead of ‘hockey’ and ‘hamburger’, respectively. Whereas the Yoruba conversely say, for instance ‘hadd’ for ‘add’, ‘heat’ for ‘eat’ on the one hand and ‘ard’ for ‘hard’, ‘eat’ for ‘heat’ on the other hand, on a similar note, it is not quite clear whether the French, however, if not at least in rare instances, would tend to force themselves to pronounce (in any form whatsoever) the h-sound. Recorded sentences containing h-initial as well as vowel-initial words will be used for the investigation. The present paper is meant to contribute to work on aspiration, compensation, elision, and glottalisation, as well as hardening.

Keywords: Compensation, hardening, aspiration, glottalisation

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