Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Happiness Related Abstracts

29 Factors Affecting Happiness Learning of Students of Faculty of Management Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Somtop Keawchuer

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The objectives of this research are to compare the satisfaction of students, towards the happiness learning, sorted by their personal profiles, and to figure out the factors that affect the students’ happiness learning. This paper used survey method to collect data from 362 students. The survey was mainly conducted in the Faculty of Management Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, including 3,443 students. The statistics used for interpreting the results included the frequencies, percentages, standard deviations and One-way ANOVA. The findings revealed that the students are aware and satisfaction that all the factors in 3 categories (knowledge, skill and attitude) influence the happiness learning at the highest levels. The comparison of the satisfaction levels of the students toward their happiness learning leads to the results that the students with different genders, ages, years of study, and majors of the study have the similar satisfaction at the high level.

Keywords: students, Happiness, learning satisfaction, Faculty of Management Science

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28 Form of Social Quality Moving Process of Suburb Communities in a Changing World

Authors: Supannee Chaiumporn

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This article is to introduce the meaning and form of social quality moving process as indicated by members of two suburb communities with different social and cultural contexts. The form of social quality moving process is very significant for the community and social development, because it will make the people living together with sustainable happiness. This is a qualitative study involving 30 key-informants from two suburb communities. Data were collected though key-informant interviews, and analyzed using logical content description and descriptive statistics. This research found that on the social quality component, the people in both communities stressed the procedure for social quality-making. This includes the generousness, sharing and assisting among people in the communities. These practices helped making people to live together with sustainable happiness. Living as a family or appear to be a family is the major social characteristic of these two communities. This research also found that form of social quality’s moving process of both communities stress relation of human and nature; “nature overpower humans” paradigm and influence of religious doctrine that emphasizes relations among humans. Both criteria make the form of social’s moving process simple, adaptive to nature and caring for opinion sharing and understanding among each other before action. This form of social quality’s moving process is composed of 4 steps; (1) awareness building, (2) motivation to change, (3) participation from every party concerned (4) self-reliance.

Keywords: Happiness, social quality, form of social quality moving process, different social and cultural context

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27 Happiness and Its Political Consequences: A Proposal for a Socially Constructed Object

Authors: Luciano E. Sewaybricker

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Psychology has faced many challenges in order to claim its right to study happiness. Probably the major issue has been to present a clear definition of happiness, which has a long history outside the scientific field and has been used imprecisely in the daily life. Even after years of great improvement, different meanings of happiness still have been seen in academic studies. This scenario allows to question if any definition is consistent enough to sustain the recent findings of the psychological processes behind happiness. Moreover, does it make sense to seek a single definition of happiness? By investigating the history of happiness and the theoretical foundations of Positive Psychology, it can be advocated that it’s proper for happiness to be polysemic. Since Ancient Greece most attempts to outline happiness consists of an appreciation of the "best way to live" and consequently requires a delineation of the most important things in life. Besides this generic definition, it’s hard to find consensus about happiness. In fact, what and how much something will be considered important to happiness depend on social influence. This compels happiness to vary between groups, historical periods, and even for the same person over time. Therefore, the same psychological processes will not necessarily be behind all forms of happiness. Consequently, three assumptions should be considered when studying happiness: it’s intrinsic of happiness to be transitory and socially influenced; happiness refers not only to what is possible in the present, but also to an ideal future; when someone (including a scientist) talks about happiness they describe and prescribe a better way to live. Because any attempt to define happiness will be limited in space and time, it's more suitable to study its variations than its universalities. This may have considerable consequences to political agenda on happiness evaluation and maximization, like Gross National Happiness and utilitarian initiatives. Happiness policies should be understood as an arbitrary choice amongst all kinds of happiness and as prescriptive of what “the best way to live” should be.

Keywords: Politics, Positive Psychology, Well-being, Happiness

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26 Relational and Personal Variables Predicting Marital Satisfaction

Authors: Sezen Gulec, Bilge Uzun

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Almost all of the world population marries at least once in their lifetime. Nevertheless, in reality, only half of all marriages last a lifetime. The most important factor in marriage to manage is the satisfaction that they obtain. It is reality that marital satisfaction does not only related to maintain the relationship but also related to the social and work relationships. In this respect, the purpose of the present research is to find the personal and relational factors predicted marital satisfaction. The sample including 378 (178 male and 200 females) married individuals were administered to marital life scale, multidimensional perfectionism scale, trait forgivingness scale, adjective based personality test and relationship happiness questionnaire. The findings revealed marital happiness, forgiveness and extravertedness and emotional inconsistency factors were found to be significant predictors of marital satisfaction.

Keywords: Perfectionism, Happiness, forgiveness, marital satisfaction, five factor personality

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25 Authentic Connection between the Deity and the Individual Human Being Is Vital for Psychological, Biological, and Social Health

Authors: Sukran Karatas

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Authentic energy network interrelations between the Creator and the creations as well as from creations to creations are the most important points for the worlds of physics and metaphysic to unite together and work in harmony, both within human beings, on the other hand, have the ability to choose their own life style voluntarily. However, it includes the automated involuntary spirit, soul and body working systems together with the voluntary actions, which involve personal, cultural and universal, rational or irrational variable values. Therefore, it is necessary for human beings to know the methods of existing authentic energy network connections to be able to communicate correlate and accommodate the physical and metaphysical entities as a proper functioning unity; this is essential for complete human psychological, biological and social well-being. Authentic knowledge is necessary for human beings to verify the position of self within self and with others to regulate conscious and voluntary actions accordingly in order to prevent oppressions and frictions within self and between self and others. Unfortunately, the absence of genuine individual and universal basic knowledge about how to establish an authentic energy network connection within self, with the deity and the environment is the most problematic issue even in the twenty-first century. The second most problematic issue is how to maintain freedom, equality and justice among human beings during these strictly interwoven network connections, which naturally involve physical, metaphysical and behavioral actions of the self and the others. The third and probably the most complicated problem is the scientific identification and the authentication of the deity. This not only provides the whole power and control over the choosers to set their life orders but also to establish perfect physical and metaphysical links as fully coordinated functional energy network. This thus indicates that choosing an authentic deity is the key-point that influences automated, emotional, and behavioral actions altogether, which shapes human perception, personal actions, and life orders. Therefore, we will be considering the existing ‘four types of energy wave end boundary behaviors’, comprising, free end, fixed end boundary behaviors, as well as boundary behaviors from denser medium to less dense medium and from less dense medium to denser medium. Consequently, this article aims to demonstrate that the authentication and the choice of deity has an important effect on individual psychological, biological and social health. It is hoped that it will encourage new researches in the field of authentic energy network connections to establish the best position and the most correct interrelation connections with self and others without violating the authorized orders and the borders of one another to live happier and healthier lives together. In addition, the book ‘Deity and Freedom, Equality, Justice in History, Philosophy, Science’ has more detailed information for those interested in this subject.

Keywords: Psychology, Biology, Sociology, Power, Justice, Equality, Energy Network, Freedom, Happiness, fear, hope, deity, sadness

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24 Happiness, Life Satisfaction, Self-Efficacy, Coping Strategies and Perceived Stress among High School Students

Authors: Mustafa Jahanara, Mohsen Shahbakhti

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The current study examined the relationship between happiness, life satisfaction, self-efficacy, coping strategies and perceived stress among high school students, Eshtehard city, Alboez province, Iran. One hundred and sixty-seven high school students were asked to complete the Subjective Happiness scale (SHS), The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), General Self-efficacy (GSE), the Brief COPE, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results revealed a positive correlation between happiness with life satisfaction, self-efficacy, problem-focused coping, adopted coping and it was a negative correlation with stress. Self-efficacy is a significant positive correlated with life satisfaction, problem-focused coping and it is negative correlated with stress. However, the findings suggest that self-efficacy and problem-focused coping could influence on happiness and life satisfaction.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Happiness, Life Satisfaction, perceived stress and coping strategies

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23 Ten Minutes Neighbourhood as a Basic PlanningUnit for Happiness in Egypt

Authors: Abeer Elshater

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This paper pursues the relationship between the inhabitants’ happiness and the right to the city in an Egyptian neighbourhood status quo. Although the optimum of getting the services comes from ten mints walking in a suitable ambiance, the happiness is not acquired. The research objective is, first, to review the literature that get a guideline of 10 minutes neighbourhoods. Second make a comparative content analysis to recent online articles to the right to the city. Third is to test the concluded principles in Egyptian neighbourhood settings. The idea of ten minutes neighbourhood is manageable. The hypothesis concerns a compliant design. The logic of people who live close to within ten minutes’ walk to essential settings in their area can minimize several problems and maximize a healthy lifestyle. The supposed issue makes the right to the city affect the relationship between ten minutes neighbourhood and citizen happiness. This assumption can be intervention through site observation and oriented questionnaire. The contribution comes from presenting new planning units in away suits the current context of the old cities in MENA region based on ten-minute walking or less distance with a reference to the right to the city. This planning unit can find it way to citizens' happiness.

Keywords: urban Design, Well-being, Happiness, ten-minute neighbourhood

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22 Humanistic Psychology Workshop to Increase Psychological Well-Being

Authors: Nidia Thalia Alva Rangel, Ferran Padros Blazquez, Ma. Ines Gomez Del Campo Del Paso

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Happiness has been since antiquity a concept of interest around the world. Positive psychology is the science that begins to study happiness in a more precise and controlled way, obtaining wide amount of research which can be applied. One of the central constructs of Positive Psychology is Carol Ryff’s psychological well-being model as eudaimonic happiness, which comprehends six dimensions: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self-acceptance. Humanistic psychology is a clear precedent of Positive Psychology, which has studied human development topics and it features a great variety of intervention techniques nevertheless has little evidence with controlled research. Therefore, the present research had the aim to evaluate the efficacy of a humanistic intervention program to increase psychological well-being in healthy adults through a mixed methods study. Before and after the intervention, it was applied Carol Ryff’s psychological well-being scale (PWBS) and the Symptom Check List 90 as pretest and posttest. In addition, a questionnaire of five open questions was applied after each session. The intervention program was designed in experiential workshop format, based on the foundational attitudes defined by Carl Rogers: congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy, integrating humanistic intervention strategies from gestalt, psychodrama, logotherapy and psychological body therapy, with the aim to strengthen skills in the six dimensions of psychological well-being model. The workshop was applied to six volunteer adults in 12 sessions of 2 hours each. Finally, quantitative data were analyzed with Wilcoxon statistic test through the SPSS program, obtaining as results differences statistically significant in pathology symptoms between prettest and postest, also levels of dimensions of psychological well-being were increased, on the other hand for qualitative strand, by open questionnaires it showed how the participants were experiencing the techniques and changing through the sessions. Thus, the humanistic psychology program was effective to increase psychological well-being. Working to promote well-being prompts to be an effective way to reduce pathological symptoms as a secondary gain. Experiential workshops are a useful tool for small groups. There exists the need for research to count with more evidence of humanistic psychology interventions in different contexts and impulse the application of Positive Psychology knowledge.

Keywords: Positive Psychology, Humanistic psychology, Happiness, psychological well-being, workshop

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21 Happiness of Undergraduate Nursing Students, College of Nursing, Ratchaburi, Thailand

Authors: Paveenapat Nithitantiwat, Kwanjai Pataipakaipet

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The purpose of this research was to study the happiness level of nursing students, Boromarajonani College of nursing, Ratchaburi, Thailand. A purposive sampling of 652 first to four-year nursing students was used. This research is descriptive research. The instruments were questionnaires that developed by the researcher. It included the demographic data and nursing student’s perception about healthcare, safety, life security, family, proud of oneself, education and activities, dormitories and environment in college, and how to improve their happiness. Frequencies, percentage, mean, and T-test is used to analysis the data. The results of the research have shown that family and moral value was an important thing in nursing student’s life. In addition, the mean of the happiness level was a high level. The first year nursing students had the higher mean score of the happiness level than the fourth year, second year, and the third year, respectively. Therefore, nursing students would realize that the important things in their life are family and Buddhism’s teaching. In addition, dharma is guideline how to be both academic achievements and successful in life.

Keywords: Happiness, nursing students, nursing students’ perceptions, bachelor program

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20 Happiness Determinants in MBA Student Life

Authors: Vivek Nair

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The objective of this research is to find out happiness determinants in MBA student life. To figure out the factors influencing happiness in life is sorted by their personal profiles. This paper used survey method to collect data. The survey was mainly conducted among Management Students and is based on three hypothesis viz. Family relationship, Friendship and God as a source of happiness, and whether happiness is manageable and controllable. The statistics used for interpreting the results included the frequencies, percentages, and z test analysis. The findings revealed that family relationships and friendship have the same effect on individual happiness.

Keywords: Family, Happiness, MBA students, friends

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19 The Impact of Governance on Happiness: Evidence from Quantile Regressions

Authors: Chiung-Ju Huang

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This study utilizes the quantile regression analysis to examine the impact of governance (including democratic quality and technical quality) on happiness in 101 countries worldwide, classified as “developed countries” and “developing countries”. The empirical results show that the impact of democratic quality and technical quality on happiness is significantly positive for “developed countries”, while is insignificant for “developing countries”. The results suggest that the authorities in developed countries can enhance the level of individual happiness by means of improving the democracy quality and technical quality. However, for developing countries, promoting the quality of governance in order to enhance the level of happiness may not be effective. Policy makers in developed countries may pay more attention on increasing real GDP per capita instead of promoting the quality of governance to enhance individual happiness.

Keywords: Governance, Quantile regression, Happiness, multiple regression

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18 Marital Status and Happiness among Employed People in Thailand

Authors: Sirinan Kittisuksathit, Wannee Hutaphat

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This paper investigates employed people in relation to family happiness, work-life balance, and individual happiness. The employed people in this study are categorized by their marital statuses namely, single, married and living together, married and living apart, cohabitation, and divorced. The 13,906 sample of employed people collected in 2015 by using the Self-Administered Questionnaire. The analysis utilizes ANOVA to analyze the differences between group means and their associated procedures. The findings show that two types of employed people are more likely to obtain the highest average happiness scores: married and living together, and cohabitation. The two groups are subsequently followed by single employed people, and divorced employed people. The lowest average happiness scores were achieved by employed people who are married and living apart.

Keywords: Thailand, Happiness, marital status, employed people

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17 Towards a Methodology for the Assessment of Neighbourhood Design for Happiness

Authors: Tina Pujara

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Urban and regional research in the new emerging inter-disciplinary field of happiness is seemingly limited. However, it is progressively being recognized that there is enormous potential for social and behavioral scientists to add a spatial dimension to it. In fact, the happiness of communities can be notably influenced by the design and maintenance of the neighborhoods they inhabit. The probable key reasons being that places can facilitate human social connections and relationships. While it is increasingly being acknowledged that some neighborhood designs appear better suited for social connectedness than others, the plausible reasons for places to deter these characteristics and perhaps their influence on happiness are outwardly unknown. In addition, an explicit step wise methodology to assess neighborhood designs for happiness (of their communities) is not known to exist. This paper is an attempt towards developing such a methodological framework. The paper presents the development of a methodological framework for assessing neighborhood designs for happiness, with a particular focus on the outdoor shared spaces in neighborhoods. The developed methodological framework of investigation follows a mixed method approach and draws upon four different sources of information. The framework proposes an empirical examination of the contribution of neighborhood factors, particularly outdoor shared spaces, to individual happiness. One of the main tools proposed for this empirical examination is Jan Gehl’s Public Space Public Life (PSPL) Survey. The developed framework, as presented in the paper, is a contribution towards the development of a consolidated methodology for assessing neighborhood designs for happiness, which can further serve as a unique tool to inform urban designers, architects and other decision makers.

Keywords: Methodology, Happiness, neighbourhood design, outdoor shared spaces

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16 Locus of Control and Sense of Happiness: A Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

Authors: Ivanna Shubina

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Background/Objectives and Goals: Recent interest in positive psychology is reflected in a plenty of studies conducted on its basic constructs (e.g. self-esteem and happiness) in interrelation with personality features, social rules, business and technology development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of self-esteem, exploring the relationships between self-esteem and happiness, self-esteem and locus of control (LOC). It hypothesizes that self-esteem may be interpreted as a predictor of happiness and mediator in the locus of control establishment. A plenty of various empirical studies results have been analyzed in order to collect data for this theoretical study, and some of the analysed results can be considered as arguable or incoherent. However, the majority of results indicate a strong relationship between three considered concepts: self-esteem, happiness, the locus of control. Methods: In particular, this study addresses the following broad research questions: i) Is self-esteem just an index of global happiness? ii) May happiness be possible or realizable without a healthy self-confidence and self-acceptance? iii) To what extent does self-esteem influence on the level of happiness? iv) Is high self-esteem a sufficient condition for happiness? v) Is self-esteem is a strong predictor of internal locus of control maintenance? vi) Is high self-esteem related to internal LOC, while low self-esteem to external LOC? In order to find the answers for listed questions, 60 reliable sources have been analyzed, results of what are discussed more detailed below. Expected Results/Conclusion/Contribution:It is recognized that the relationship between self-esteem, happiness, locus of control is complex: internal LOC is contributing to happiness, but it is not directly related to it; self-esteem is a powerful and important psychological factor in mental health and well-being; the feelings of being worthy and empowered are associated with significant achievements and high self-esteem; strong and appropriate self-esteem (when the discrepancy between “ideal” and “real” self is balanced) is correlated with more internal LOC (when the individual tends to believe that personal achievements depend on possessed features, vigor, and persistence). Despite the special attention paid to happiness, the locus of control and self-esteem, independently, theoretical and empirical equivocations within each literature foreclose many obvious predictions about the nature of their empirical distinction. In terms of theoretical framework, no model has achieved consensus as an ultimate theoretical background for any of the mentioned constructs. To be able to clarify the relationship between self-esteem, happiness, and locus of control more interdisciplinary studies have to take place in order to get data on heterogeneous samples, provided from various countries, cultures, and social groups.

Keywords: Mediation, Happiness, self-esteem, locus of control

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15 Happiness Levels and Factors Affect Happiness in Thailand: A Comparative Study of 4 Periods

Authors: Kalayanee Senasu

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Research on happiness has been growing in recent decades. In the early stages, scholars were primarily concerned with establishing the validity of happiness measures and with exploring socio-economic correlates of happiness. More recent studies have focused on outcomes of happiness as well as the identification of happiness policies. This research investigates the happiness levels and influences of quality of life in terms of mental health satisfaction, family satisfaction, community satisfaction, and work satisfaction as determinants of happiness in Thailand during 2009-2014. The data collected by the National Statistic Office of Thailand in the project of Socio-economic Survey inclusion of Mental Health Survey in 2009, 2010, and 2012; and in the project of Labor Force Survey inclusion of Mental Health Survey in August 2014 were employed. There was a total of 59,430, 64,720, 54,736, and 9,997 respondents who were at least 15 years old in the survey during 2009-2014. Statistical analyses include both descriptive and inferential statistics. All research hypotheses were tested by means of hierarchical regression analysis. The analysis results reveal that happiness means during the studied period are quite at high levels (in the range of 7.42 to 7.60 from the scale 0-10). And the results indicate that all model variables (i.e., mental health satisfaction, family satisfaction, community satisfaction, and work satisfaction), have positive effects on happiness in Thailand. Additionally, the mental health satisfaction plays the most important role in predicting happiness. Further, our results indicate significant positive relationship between education, and income/expense and happiness, while other socio-economic variables reveal variety relationships during the studied period. Our results not only validate research findings in other countries but also verify the importance of quality of life (in terms of mental health satisfaction, family satisfaction, community satisfaction, and work satisfaction) as important factors of happiness for public policy makers. One conclusion stands firm in our study: happiness can be advanced in many ways. At the society level, greater happiness for people can be achieved by policies that aim to promote good health, an engaged family relationship, a high community as well as work qualities. A contented population is advantaged in many ways over one that is not. Government or policy makers should understand and realize that happiness is a valuable and tangible aspect of the population for which they are responsible. Therefore, they should include happiness issues in their political agenda.

Keywords: Thailand, Happiness, community satisfaction, work satisfaction, family satisfaction, mental health satisfaction

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14 The Meaning of Happiness and Unhappiness among Female Teenagers in Urban Finland: A Social Representations Approach

Authors: Jennifer De Paola

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Objectives: The literature is saturated with figures and hard data on happiness and its rates, causes and effects at a large scale, whereas very little is known about the way specific groups of people within societies understand and talk about happiness in their everyday life. The present study contributes to fill this gap in the happiness research by analyzing social representations of happiness among young women through the theoretical frame provided by Moscovici’s Social Representation Theory. Methods: Participants were (N= 351) female students (16-18 year olds) from Finnish, Swedish and English speaking high schools in the Helsinki region, Finland. Main source of data collection were word associations using the stimulus word ‘happiness’ and word associations using as stimulus the term that in the participants’ opinion represents the opposite of happiness. The allowed number of associations was five per stimulus word (10 associations per participant). In total, the 351 participants produced 6973 associations with the two stimulus words given: 3500 (50,19%) associations with ‘happiness’ and 3473 (49,81%) associations with ‘opposite of happiness’. The associations produced were analyzed qualitatively to identify associations with similar meaning and then coded combining similar associations in larger categories. Results: In total, 33 categories were identified respectively for the stimulus word ‘happiness’ and for the stimulus word ‘opposite of happiness’. In general terms, the 33 categories identified for ‘happiness’ included associations regarding relationships with key people considered important, such as ‘family’, abstract concepts such as meaningful life, success and moral values as well as more mundane and hedonic elements like food, pleasure and fun. Similarly, the 33 categories emerged for ‘opposite of happiness’ included relationship problems and arguments, negative feelings such as sadness, depression, stress as well as more concrete issues such as financial problems. Participants were also asked to rate their own level of happiness on a scale from 1 to 10. Results indicated the mean of the self-rated level of happiness was 7,93 (the range varied from 1 to 10; SD = 1, 50). Participants’ responses were further divided into three different groups according to the self-rated level of happiness: group 1 (level 10-9), group 2 (level 8-6), and group 3 (level 5 and lower) in order to investigate the way the categories mentioned above were distributed among the different groups. Preliminary results show that the category ‘family’ is associated with higher level of happiness, whereas its presence gradually decreases among the participants with a lower level of happiness. Moreover, the category ‘depression’ seems to be mainly present among participants in group 3, whereas the category ‘sadness’ is mainly present among participants with higher level of happiness. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study indicates the prevalent ways of thinking about happiness and its opposite among young female students, suggesting that representations varied to some extent depending on the happiness level of the participants. This study contributes to bringing new knowledge as it considers happiness as a holistic state, thus going beyond the literature that so far has too often viewed happiness as a mere unidimensional spectrum.

Keywords: Female, Social Representations, Happiness, unhappiness

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13 Computational Analysis and Daily Application of the Key Neurotransmitters Involved in Happiness: Dopamine, Oxytocin, Serotonin, and Endorphins

Authors: Hee Soo Kim, Ha Young Kyung

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Happiness and pleasure are a result of dopamine, oxytocin, serotonin, and endorphin levels in the body. In order to increase the four neurochemical levels, it is important to associate daily activities with its corresponding neurochemical releases. This includes setting goals, maintaining social relationships, laughing frequently, and exercising regularly. The likelihood of experiencing happiness increases when all four neurochemicals are released at the optimal level. The achievement of happiness is important because it increases healthiness, productivity, and the ability to overcome adversity. To process emotions, electrical brain waves, brain structure, and neurochemicals must be analyzed. This research uses Chemcraft and Avogadro to determine the theoretical and chemical properties of the four neurochemical molecules. Each neurochemical molecule’s thermodynamic stability is calculated to observe the efficiency of the molecules. The study found that among dopamine, oxytocin, serotonin, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin, beta-endorphin has the lowest optimized energy of 388.510 kJ/mol. Beta-endorphin, a neurotransmitter involved in mitigating pain and stress, is the most thermodynamically stable and efficient molecule that is involved in the process of happiness. Through examining such properties of happiness neurotransmitters, the science of happiness is better understood.

Keywords: Positive Psychology, Neurotransmitters, Serotonin, Dopamine, Happiness, oxytocin, endorphins

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12 Importance of Positive Education: A Focus on the Importance of Character Strength Building

Authors: Hajra Hussain

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Positive education, the inclusion of social, emotional and intellectual skills across a curriculum, is fundamental to the optimal functioning of young people in any society because it combines the best teaching practices with the principles of positive psychology. While learning institutions foster academic skills, little attention is being paid to the identification and development of character strengths and their integration into teaching. There is an increasing recognition of the important role education plays in equipping today’s youth with 21st century social skills. For youth to succeed in this highly competitive environment, there is a need for positive education that is focused on character strengths such as the growth of social, emotional and intellectual skills that promote the flourishing of well-rounded individuals. Character strength programs and awareness are a necessity if the human capital within a region is to be competitive, productive and happy. The Counselling & Wellbeing Centre at Amity University Dubai has consistently implemented Character Strength awareness workshops and has found that such workshops have increased student life satisfaction due to individual awareness of signature strengths. A positive education/positive psychology framework with its key focus on the development of character strengths can be fundamental to individual's confidence and self-awareness; thus allowing both optimum flourishing and functioning.

Keywords: Positive Psychology, strengths, Youth, Happiness, positive education

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11 Determinants of Happiness and Its Relation towards Life Satisfaction among Adult Community of Kampung Jaya Bakti

Authors: Khairul Abid Awang

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Happiness and life satisfaction are the vital components in assessing the well-being of the societies and their social progress. These components varies and changes within communities and across time. Thus, due to low level of happiness and life satisfaction, it might affect mental health status psychologically and generally disrupt the health pattern of the individual. Hence, this present study aims to identify the happiness determinants, assessing the happiness and life satisfaction level, as well as examine the relation between happiness among Kampung Jaya Bakti adult community. Quantitative and cross-sectional study with total of 100 observations of 18 years old and above was participated in this study. The study was done in a semi-rural village which is geocentric towards river that branched from South East Asia Sea. Several happiness and life satisfaction instruments was used, inclusive of Individual Determinants of Happiness Scale (IDoHS) that had been developed in this study, in order to identify the determinants of happiness in the area based on the listed determinants. The listed determinants in IDoHS are: i) Daily activities. ii) Adaptation. iii) Goals. iv) Life Events. v) Living condition. vi) Self-confidence. vii) Personality traits. viii) Religion. The results revealed that 98% of the respondents agreed that the listed determinants in IDoHS are statistically significant in determining the happiness. The happiness level revealed that 71 percent (%) of the respondents are ‘very happy’, followed by 26% (‘moderately happy’) and 3% (‘neutral’), while life satisfaction level revealed that 70% of the respondents are ‘very highly satisfied’, followed by 29% (‘highly satisfied’) and 1% (‘moderately satisfied’). Pearson Correlation (Pearson’s r) shows that; happiness determinants listed in IDoHS are affecting happiness level (Pearson’s r: .514, p < 0.01) and life satisfaction level (Pearson’s r: .504, p < 0.01) respectively, as well as happiness that are statistically significant in affecting life satisfaction (Pearson’s r: .653, p < 0.01; Pearson’s r; .546, p < 0.01). It is concluded that the listed determinants in IDoHS are the determinants that affecting happiness and it is also noted that happiness are affecting life satisfaction and vice versa.

Keywords: Happiness, Life Satisfaction, subjective well-being, determinants, adult community

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10 The Parental Involvement as Predictor of Happiness in School-Aged Children

Authors: Giedre Sirvinskiene, Kastytis Smigelskas

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Quality of family relations is an important factor of child development, however, the role of joint family activities on adolescent happiness still needs investigation. The aim of this study is to analyze associations between happiness of school-aged children and parental involvement. The analysis involves Lithuanian data from the cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School Aged Children (HBSC) study. The sample comprised 5730 children aged 11–15 years. Results: The odds of happiness was 2.38 times higher if children were living together with mother (95% CI: 1.81–3.13) and 1.81 times – with father (95% CI: 1.53–2.15). However, the likelihood of happiness was 7.21 times lower if adolescent had difficulties to talk with mother (95% CI: 5.42–9.61) and 6.40 times – with father (95% CI: 4.80–8.56). The joint daily adolescents-parents activities also predict the odds for happiness: joint TV watching by 5.96 times (95% CI: 4.21–8.43), having meals together by 7.02 times (95% CI: 4.77–10.32), going for a walk together 4.30 times (95% CI: 2.96–6.26), visiting places by 6.85 times (95% CI: 4.74–9.90), visiting friends and relatives by 7.13 times (95% CI: 4.87–10.43), sporting by 2.76 (95% CI: 1.83–4.18) as well as discussing various things by 7.35 times (95% CI: 5.50–9.82). Conclusions: Joint parents-adolescents activities and communication are related with greater happiness of adolescent. Though adolescence is a period when the relationships with peers get more importance, the communication and joint activities with parents remain a significant factor of adolescent happiness.

Keywords: Adolescent, Family, Happiness, school-age

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9 Happiness, Media and Sustainability of Communities in Donkeaw, Mearim District, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Authors: Panida Jongsuksomsakul

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This study of the ‘happiness’ and ‘sustainability’ in the community of Donkeaw, Amphoe Mae Rim, Chiang Mai Province during the non-election period in Thailand, noted that their happiness levels are in the middle-average range. This was found using a mixed approach of qualitative and quantitative methods (N = 386, α = 0.05). The study explores indicators for six aspects of well-being and happiness, including, good local governance, administrative support for the health system that maintains people’s mental and physical health, environment and weather, job security and a regular income aids them in managing a sustainable lifestyle. The impact of economic security and community relationships on social and cultural capital, and the way these aspects impact on the life style of the community, affects the sustainable well-being of people. Moreover, living with transparency and participatory communication led to diverse rewards in many areas.

Keywords: Communication, Well-being, Happiness, Donkeaw community, social and cultural capital

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8 Spirituality and Happiness among Youth: A Correlative Study

Authors: Harsh Shah

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Spirituality and happiness are two very important aspects of human life. After defining happiness, an attempt has been made in this paper to review research on the relationship between happiness and spirituality, and then to experimentally study their correlation among students aged between 18-24 years. The relation was assessed in 200 students from IIT Kharagpur, who rated their own spirituality, and happiness using the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) developed by Underwood, and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) developed by Lyubomirsky and Lepper, respectively. Students who were more spiritual in general, were happier as well, and the Pearson Correlation Coefficient method gave a high positive correlation between happiness and spirituality.

Keywords: Depression, correlation, Religion, Youth, Spirituality, Happiness

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7 The Finance of Happiness: Thinking Finance from the Science of Happiness Perspective

Authors: Renaud Gaucher

Abstract:

Research on happiness has developed significantly in the past fifty years and economics and the political science are starting to be influenced by advances in the field. Until recently, finance has stayed outside this movement. The goal of our research is to integrate finance into this movement conceptually. We explain the why, the what and the how of the finance of happiness. We then study the relationship between corporate finance and happiness. We discuss the optimization of the relationship between the financial performance of a firm and the happiness at work of its employees, and the reduction of financial risk by developing goods that foster the happiness of their users. Finally we look at the development of happiness investment funds, that is investment funds founded on happiness research, and the best ways to share risks and earnings to build a happier society.

Keywords: Finance, Risk, Happiness, investment fund

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6 Report of Happiness in the Iranian Educational System: A Qualitative Research

Authors: Babak Shamshiri, Najme Dastouri

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to understand the current situation of happiness in the Iranian educational system from the perspective of students, teachers and educational administrators. This research is done in qualitative paradigm. Data collection is done by in-depth interview method. Research participants were selected purposively according to sampling rules, with maximum variation and reaching the saturation point. According to most participants in this study, schools in Iran are not usually happy. This lack of happiness is associated with and related to the educational system, curriculum, teaching method, physical environment of schools and their facilities.

Keywords: Happiness, Iran, qualitative study, educational system

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5 The Relationship between Land Use Factors and Feeling of Happiness at the Neighbourhood Level

Authors: Z. Asadi-Shekari, M. Moeinaddini, M. Zaly Shah, Z. Sultan

Abstract:

Happiness can be related to everything that can provide a feeling of satisfaction or pleasure. This study tries to consider the relationship between land use factors and feeling of happiness at the neighbourhood level. Land use variables (beautiful and attractive neighbourhood design, availability and quality of shopping centres, sufficient recreational spaces and facilities, and sufficient daily service centres) are used as independent variables and the happiness score is used as the dependent variable in this study. In addition to the land use variables, socio-economic factors (gender, race, marital status, employment status, education, and income) are also considered as independent variables. This study uses the Oxford happiness questionnaire to estimate happiness score of more than 300 people living in six neighbourhoods. The neighbourhoods are selected randomly from Skudai neighbourhoods in Johor, Malaysia. The land use data were obtained by adding related questions to the Oxford happiness questionnaire. The strength of the relationship in this study is found using generalised linear modelling (GLM). The findings of this research indicate that increase in happiness feeling is correlated with an increasing income, more beautiful and attractive neighbourhood design, sufficient shopping centres, recreational spaces, and daily service centres. The results show that all land use factors in this study have significant relationship with happiness but only income, among socio-economic factors, can affect happiness significantly. Therefore, land use factors can affect happiness in Skudai more than socio-economic factors.

Keywords: Happiness, socio-economic factors, neighbourhood design, neighbourhood land use, generalised linear modelling

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4 Health Promotion Programs for Fifteen Years Decreased Loneliness and Increased Happiness for Elementary School Children in Yuzawa Town, Japan

Authors: Takeo Shibata, Arihito Endo, Akemi Kunimatsu, Chika Hiraga, Yoko Shimizu

Abstract:

Introduction: A health promotion program, Yuzawa family health plan, was initiated in 2002. It has been held for fifteen years. Yuzawa Town is famous with hot springs and ski resorts. We evaluated the changes in mental status in elementary school children. Methods: questionnaires survey had been held every five years. 196 questionnaires were corrected (94 boys and 102 girls). Changes for their anxieties, loneliness, confiding, problem-solving, risk breaching, communications, happiness, and life satisfaction were evaluated by chi-square test. Results: The rate of loneliness and life dissatisfactions decreased. The rates of happiness, confiding in grandparents, and risk breaching, increased. Especially, happiness rates increased for boys, loneliness rate decreased for girls, confiding in grandparents and risk breaching rate increased for girls. Conclusion: Our health promotion programs could increase mental health status in elementary school children.

Keywords: Health Promotion, Happiness, Elementary school, loneliness, mental status

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3 Sustainable Happiness of Thai People: Monitoring the Thai Happiness Index

Authors: Kalayanee Senasu

Abstract:

This research investigates the influences of different factors on the happiness of Thai people, including both general factors and sustainable ones. Additionally, this study also monitors Thai people’s happiness via Thai Happiness Index developed in 2017. Besides reflecting happiness level of Thai people, this index also identifies related important issues. The data were collected by both secondary related data and primary survey data collected by interviewed questionnaires. The research data were from stratified multi-stage sampling in region, province, district, and enumeration area, and simple random sampling in each enumeration area. The research data cover 20 provinces, including Bangkok and 4-5 provinces in each region of the North, Northeastern, Central, and South. There were 4,960 usable respondents who were at least 15 years old. Statistical analyses included both descriptive and inferential statistics, including hierarchical regression and one-way ANOVA. The Alkire and Foster method was adopted to develop and calculate the Thai happiness index. The results reveal that the quality of household economy plays the most important role in predicting happiness. The results also indicate that quality of family, quality of health, and effectiveness of public administration in the provincial level have positive effects on happiness at about similar levels. For the socio-economic factors, the results reveal that age, education level, and household revenue have significant effects on happiness. For computing Thai happiness index (THaI), the result reveals the 2018 THaI value is 0.556. When people are divided into four groups depending upon their degree of happiness, it is found that a total of 21.1% of population are happy, with 6.0% called deeply happy and 15.1% called extensively happy. A total of 78.9% of population are not-yet-happy, with 31.8% called narrowly happy, and 47.1% called unhappy. A group of happy population reflects the happiness index THaI valued of 0.789, which is much higher than the THaI valued of 0.494 of the not-yet-happy population. Overall Thai people have higher happiness compared to 2017 when the happiness index was 0.506.

Keywords: Sustainability, Quality of Life, Happiness, Thai Happiness Index

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2 Happiness of Thai People: An Analysis by Socioeconomic Factors

Authors: Kalayanee Senasu

Abstract:

This research investigates Thai people’s happiness based on socioeconomic factors, i.e. region, municipality, gender, age, and occupation. The research data were collected from survey data using interviewed questionnaires. The primary data were from stratified multi-stage sampling in each region, province, district, and enumeration area; and simple random sampling in each enumeration area. These data were collected in 13 provinces: Bangkok and three provinces in each of all four regions. The data were collected over two consecutive years. There were 3,217 usable responses from the 2017 sampling, and 3,280 usable responses from the 2018 sampling. The Senasu’s Thai Happiness Index (THaI) was used to calculate the happiness level of Thai people in 2017 and 2018. This Thai Happiness Index comprises five dimensions: subjective well-being, quality of life, philosophy of living, governance, and standard of living. The result reveals that the 2017 happiness value is 0.506, while Thai people are happier in 2018 (THaI = 0.556). For 2017 happiness, people in the Central region have the highest happiness (THaI = 0.532), which is followed closely by people in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area (THaI = 0.530). People in the North have the lowest happiness (THaI = 0.476) which is close to the level for people in the Northeast (THaI = 0.479). Comparing age groups, it is found that people in the age range 25-29 years old are the happiest (THaI = 0.529), followed by people in the age range 55-59 and 35-39 years old (THaI = 0.526 and 0.523, respectively). Additionally, people who live in municipal areas are happier than those who live in non-municipal areas (THaI = 0.533 vs. 0.475). Males are happier than females (THaI = 0.530 vs. 0.482), and retired people, entrepreneurs, and government employees are all in the high happiness groups (THaI =0.614, 0.608, and 0.593, respectively). For 2018 happiness, people in the Northern region have the highest happiness (THaI = 0.590), which is followed closely by people in the South and Bangkok Metropolitan Area (THaI = 0.578 and 0.577, respectively). People in the Central have the lowest happiness (THaI = 0.530), which is close to the level for people in the Northeast (THaI = 0.533). Comparing age groups, it is found that people in the age range 35-39 years old are the happiest (THaI = 0.572), followed by people in the age range 40-44 and 60-64 years old (THaI = 0.569 and 0.568, respectively). Similar to 2017 happiness, people who live in municipal areas are happier than those who live in non-municipal areas (THaI = 0.567 vs. 0. 552). However, males and females are happy at about the same levels (THaI = 0.561 vs. 0.560), and government employees, retired people, and state enterprise employees are all in the high happiness groups (THaI =0.667, 0.639, and 0.661, respectively).

Keywords: Quality of Life, Happiness, socio-economic factors, Thai Happiness Index

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1 Super Mario Guide: An Updated Roadmap on Research with Travel Subjective Well-Being

Authors: Wu Hu

Abstract:

There is an increasing amount of research bridging the gap between transportation and subjective well-being (SWB). However, travel SWB research in this area is still sporadic. Therefore, we are in need of a more systematic body of work that examines travel SWB considering various work occupations, working conditions, commuting variabilities, and other related variables, and develops updated qualitative and quantitative methods to inform the transportation design. In this Super Mario Guide, the author reflects on the related elements involved with travel SWB under four categories (having Super Mario as the protagonist): 1. the starting point including variables like living conditions; 2. the commuter including the commuter’s age, gender, occupation, and others; 3. the commuting including commuting environment, vehicles, commuting time, commuting vehicles flexibility and variability and others; 4. destination including the workplace conditions, the corporate culture on working flexibility, the employer supportiveness and others. In addition, with the rise of new vehicles such as auto-driving, this research can play a significant role to better understand travel SWB and to guide the design of more efficient travelling systems so as to improve worker performance and general SWB. The author also shares thoughts on promising areas for future research.

Keywords: Transportation, Happiness, commuting, subjective well-being (SWB)

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