Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

handwriting Related Abstracts

4 Cursive Handwriting in an Internet Age

Authors: Karen Armstrong

Abstract:

Recent concerns about the value of teaching cursive handwriting in the classroom are based on the belief that cursive handwriting or penmanship is an outdated and unnecessary skill in today’s online world. The discussion of this issue begins with a description of current initiatives to eliminate handwriting instruction in schools. This is followed by a brief history of cursive writing through the ages. Next considered is a description of its benefits as a preliminary process for younger children as compared with immediate instruction in keyboarding, particularly in the areas of vision, cognition, motor skills and automatic fluency. Also considered, is cursive’s companion, paper itself, and the impact of a paperless, “screen and keyboard” environment. The discussion concludes with a consideration of the unique contributions of cursive and keyboarding as written forms of communication, along with their respective surfaces, paper and screen. Finally, an assessment of the practical utility of each skill is followed by an informal assessment of what is lost and what remains as we move from a predominantly paper and pen world of handwriting to texting and keyboarding in an environment of screens.

Keywords: asemic writing, cursive, handwriting, keyboarding, paper

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3 Study of Pre-Handwriting Factors Necessary for Successful Handwriting in Children

Authors: Lalitchandra J. Shah, Katarzyna Bialek, Melinda L. Clarke, Jessica L. Jansson

Abstract:

Handwriting is essential to academic success; however, the current literature is limited in the identification of pre-handwriting skills. The purpose of this study was to identify the pre-handwriting skills, which occupational therapy practitioners deem important to handwriting success, as well as those which aid in intervention planning. The online survey instrument consisted of 33 questions that assessed various skills related to the development of handwriting, as well as captured demographic information. Both occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants were included in the survey study. The survey found that the respondents were in agreement that purposeful scribbling, the ability of a child to copy (vertical/horizontal lines, circle, squares, and triangles), imitating an oblique cross, cognitive skills (attention, praxis, self-regulation, sequencing), grasp patterns, hand dominance, in hand manipulation skills (shift, translation, rotation), bilateral integration, stabilization of paper, crossing midline, and visual perception were important indicators of handwriting readiness. The results of the survey support existing research regarding the skills necessary for the successful development of handwriting in children.

Keywords: Development, Occupational therapy, handwriting, visual perceptual skills

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2 Recognition of Cursive Arabic Handwritten Text Using Embedded Training Based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs)

Authors: Rabi Mouhcine, Amrouch Mustapha, Mahani Zouhir, Mammass Driss

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a system for offline recognition cursive Arabic handwritten text based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). The system is analytical without explicit segmentation used embedded training to perform and enhance the character models. Extraction features preceded by baseline estimation are statistical and geometric to integrate both the peculiarities of the text and the pixel distribution characteristics in the word image. These features are modelled using hidden Markov models and trained by embedded training. The experiments on images of the benchmark IFN/ENIT database show that the proposed system improves recognition.

Keywords: Recognition, handwriting, Arabic text, HMMs, embedded training

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1 The Reproducibility and Repeatability of Modified Likelihood Ratio for Forensic Handwriting Examination

Authors: Adeyinka O. Abiodun, Adesesan B. Adeyemo

Abstract:

The forensic use of handwriting depends on the analysis, comparison, and evaluation decisions made by forensic document examiners. When using biometric technology in forensic applications, it is necessary to compute Likelihood Ratio (LR) for quantifying strength of evidence under two competing hypotheses, namely the prosecution and the defense hypotheses, wherein a set of assumptions and methods for a given data set will be made. It is, therefore, important to know how repeatable and reproducible our estimated LR is. This paper evaluated the accuracy and reproducibility of examiners' decisions. Confidence interval for the estimated LR was presented so as not get an incorrect estimate that will be used to deliver wrong judgment in the court of law. The estimate of LR is fundamentally a Bayesian concept, and we used two LR estimators, namely Logistic Regression (LoR) and Kernel Density Estimator (KDE), for this paper. The repeatability evaluation was carried out by retesting the initial experiment after an interval of six months to observe whether examiners would repeat their decisions for the estimated LR. The experimental results, which are based on handwriting dataset, show that LR does have different confidence interval, which therefore implies that LR cannot be estimated with the same certainty everywhere. Though the logistics regression (LoR) performed better than the kernel density estimator (KDE) when tested using the same dataset, the two LR estimators investigated showed a consistent region in which LR value can be estimated confidently. These two findings advance our understanding of LR when used in computing the strength of evidence in handwriting using forensics.

Keywords: Reproducibility, KDE, confidence interval, handwriting, repeatability, kernel density estimator, logistic regression LoR

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