Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

hand Related Abstracts

5 X-Glove: Case Study of Soft Robotic Hand Exoskeleton

Authors: Pim Terachinda, Witaya Wannasuphoprasit, Wasuwat Kitisomprayoonkul, Anan Srikiatkhachorn


Restoration of hand function and dexterity remain challenges in rehabilitation after stroke. We have developed soft exoskeleton hand robot in which using tendon-driven mechanism. Finger flexion and extension can be triggered by a foot switch and force can be adjusted manually depending on patient’s grip strength. The objective of this study is to investigate feasibility and safety of this device. The study was done in 2 stroke patients with the strength of the finger flexors/extensors grade 1/0 and 3/1 on Medical Research Council scale, respectively. Grasp and release training was performed for 30 minutes. No complication was observed. Results demonstrated that the device is safe, and therapy can be tailored to individual patient’s need. However, further study is required to determine recovery and rehabilitation outcomes after training in patients after nervous system injury.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Robot, Stroke, hand

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4 Genome-Wide Association Study Identify COL2A1 as a Susceptibility Gene for the Hand Development Failure of Kashin-Beck Disease

Authors: Feng Zhang


Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic osteochondropathy. The mechanism of hand growth and development failure of KBD remains elusive now. In this study, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of palmar length-width ratio (LWR) of KBD, totally involving 493 Chinese Han KBD patients. Affymetrix Genome Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 was applied for SNP genotyping. Association analysis was conducted by PLINK software. Imputation analysis was performed by IMPUTE against the reference panel of the 1000 genome project. In the GWAS, the most significant association was observed between palmar LWR and rs2071358 of COL2A1 gene (P value = 4.68×10-8). Imputation analysis identified 3 SNPs surrounding rs2071358 with significant or suggestive association signals. Replication study observed additional significant association signals at both rs2071358 (P value = 0.017) and rs4760608 (P value = 0.002) of COL2A1 gene after Bonferroni correction. Our results suggest that COL2A1 gene was a novel susceptibility gene involved in the growth and development failure of hand of KBD.

Keywords: hand, Kashin-Beck disease, genome-wide association study, COL2A1

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3 A Peg Board with Photo-Reflectors to Detect Peg Insertion and Pull-Out Moments

Authors: Hiroshi Kinoshita, Yasuto Nakanishi, Ryuhei Okuno, Toshio Higashi


Various kinds of pegboards have been developed and used widely in research and clinics of rehabilitation for evaluation and training of patient’s hand function. A common measure in these peg boards is a total time of performance execution assessed by a tester’s stopwatch. Introduction of electrical and automatic measurement technology to the apparatus, on the other hand, has been delayed. The present work introduces the development of a pegboard with an electric sensor to detect moments of individual peg’s insertion and removal. The work also gives fundamental data obtained from a group of healthy young individuals who performed peg transfer tasks using the pegboard developed. Through trails and errors in pilot tests, two 10-hole peg-board boxes installed with a small photo-reflector and a DC amplifier at the bottom of each hole were designed and built by the present authors. The amplified electric analogue signals from the 20 reflectors were automatically digitized at 500 Hz per channel, and stored in a PC. The boxes were set on a test table at different distances (25, 50, 75, and 125 mm) in parallel to examine the effect of hole-to-hole distance. Fifty healthy young volunteers (25 in each gender) as subjects of the study performed successive fast 80 time peg transfers at each distance using their dominant and non-dominant hands. The data gathered showed a clear-cut light interruption/continuation moment by the pegs, allowing accurately (no tester’s error involved) and precisely (an order of milliseconds) to determine the pull out and insertion times of each peg. This further permitted computation of individual peg movement duration (PMD: from peg-lift-off to insertion) apart from hand reaching duration (HRD: from peg insertion to lift-off). An accidental drop of a peg led to an exceptionally long ( < mean + 3 SD) PMD, which was readily detected from an examination of data distribution. The PMD data were commonly right-skewed, suggesting that the median can be a better estimate of individual PMD than the mean. Repeated measures ANOVA using the median values revealed significant hole-to-hole distance, and hand dominance effects, suggesting that these need to be fixed in the accurate evaluation of PMD. The gender effect was non-significant. Performance consistency was also evaluated by the use of quartile variation coefficient values, which revealed no gender, hole-to-hole, and hand dominance effects. The measurement reliability was further examined using interclass correlation obtained from 14 subjects who performed the 25 and 125 mm hole distance tasks at two 7-10 days separate test sessions. Inter-class correlation values between the two tests showed fair reliability for PMD (0.65-0.75), and for HRD (0.77-0.94). We concluded that a sensor peg board developed in the present study could provide accurate (excluding tester’s errors), and precise (at a millisecond rate) time information of peg movement separated from that used for hand movement. It could also easily detect and automatically exclude erroneous execution data from his/her standard data. These would lead to a better evaluation of hand dexterity function compared to the widely used conventional used peg boards.

Keywords: hand, dexterity test, peg movement time, performance consistency

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2 An Unexpected Hand Injury with Pluridigital Fractures Due to Premature Explosion of a Ramadan Cannon

Authors: Hakan Akgul


Purpose: The use of firecrackers (i.e., Ramadan Cannon) during the month of Ramadan is a traditional way of indicating that the fasting period is over in Muslim countries. Here, we report the rehabilitation of a case of hand injury with pluridigital fractures due to premature explosion of a Ramadan cannon. Materials and Methods: A 48-year old man admitted to the Emergency Department due to left hand injury as a result of a premature explosion of a Ramadan cannon. The patient was immediately taken to operation room because of the multiple fractures, tendon loss, and soft tissue loss in the left hand. Range of motion (ROM) of joints was measured with goniometer, pain and oedema were measured and splinting was performed. Results: Rehabilitation team took over the patient at postoperative 9th week. During the 3 month rehabilitation, range of motion increased, oedema was taken under control, pain was reduced, the colour of the skin turned to the normal tone. According to the visual analog scale (VAS), pain decreased from 9 to 4. Oedema, around the metacarpofalangeal (MCP) joints, decreased from 27,5 cm to 23,5 cm. Total active range of motion of the wrist increased from 5 degrees to 50 degrees.Total active range of motion of supination and pronation increased from 55 degrees to 70 degrees. Discussion: The rehabilitation of multiple hand injury is quite difficult. Different aspects of trauma should be taken into consideration when rehabilitation is planned. Factors such as waiting for the bone union, wound healing, and use of external fixators may delay rehabilitation process. Joint mobilization, massage for reducing oedema and preventing scar tissue, exercise within the range of motion are efficient measures. Poor patient compliance to treatment may lead to poor outcome. First of all, oedema and scar formation must be taken under control. Removing fixators should not be delayed depending on the bone union, and exercise within the range of motion should be started.

Keywords: fracture, Injury, explosion, hand

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1 Flood Mapping Using Height above the Nearest Drainage Model: A Case Study in Fredericton, NB, Canada

Authors: Morteza Esfandiari, Shabnam Jabari, Heather MacGrath, David Coleman


Flood is a severe issue in different places in the world as well as the city of Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. The downtown area of Fredericton is close to the Saint John River, which is susceptible to flood around May every year. Recently, the frequency of flooding seems to be increased, especially after the fact that the downtown area and surrounding urban/agricultural lands got flooded in two consecutive years in 2018 and 2019. In order to have an explicit vision of flood span and damage to affected areas, it is necessary to use either flood inundation modelling or satellite data. Due to contingent availability and weather dependency of optical satellites, and limited existing data for the high cost of hydrodynamic models, it is not always feasible to rely on these sources of data to generate quality flood maps after or during the catastrophe. Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND), a state-of-the-art topo-hydrological index, normalizes the height of a basin based on the relative elevation along with the stream network and specifies the gravitational or the relative drainage potential of an area. HAND is a relative height difference between the stream network and each cell on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM). The stream layer is provided through a multi-step, time-consuming process which does not always result in an optimal representation of the river centerline depending on the topographic complexity of that region. HAND is used in numerous case studies with quite acceptable and sometimes unexpected results because of natural and human-made features on the surface of the earth. Some of these features might cause a disturbance in the generated model, and consequently, the model might not be able to predict the flow simulation accurately. We propose to include a previously existing stream layer generated by the province of New Brunswick and benefit from culvert maps to improve the water flow simulation and accordingly the accuracy of HAND model. By considering these parameters in our processing, we were able to increase the accuracy of the model from nearly 74% to almost 92%. The improved model can be used for generating highly accurate flood maps, which is necessary for future urban planning and flood damage estimation without any need for satellite imagery or hydrodynamic computations.

Keywords: DTM, hand, rapid floodplain, simplified conceptual models

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