Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

hand function Related Abstracts

3 Factors Associated with Hand Functional Disability in People with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Best-Evidence Synthesis

Authors: J. Adams, Hisham Arab Alkabeya, A. M. Hughes


Background: People with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) continue to experience problems with hand function despite new drug advances and targeted medical treatment. Consequently, it is important to identify the factors that influence the impact of RA disease on hand function. This systematic review identified observational studies that reported factors that influenced the impact of RA on hand function. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAL, AMED, PsychINFO, and Web of Science database were searched from January 1990 up to March 2017. Full-text articles published in English that described factors related to hand functional disability in people with RA were selected following predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Pertinent data were thoroughly extracted and documented using a pre-designed data extraction form by the lead author, and cross-checked by the review team for completion and accuracy. Factors related to hand function were classified under the domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) framework and health-related factors. Three reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the included articles using the quality of cross-sectional studies (AXIS) tool. Factors related to hand function that was investigated in two or more studies were explored using a best-evidence synthesis. Results: Twenty articles form 19 studies met the inclusion criteria from 1,271 citations; all presented cross-sectional data (five high quality and 15 low quality studies), resulting in at best limited evidence in the best-evidence synthesis. For the factors classified under the ICF domains, the best-evidence synthesis indicates that there was a range of body structure and function factors that were related with hand functional disability. However, key factors were hand strength, disease activity, and pain intensity. Low functional status (physical, emotional and social) level was found to be related with limited hand function. For personal factors, there is limited evidence that gender is not related with hand function; whereas, conflicting evidence was found regarding the relationship between age and hand function. In the domain of environmental factors, there was limited evidence that work activity was not related with hand function. Regarding health-related factors, there was limited evidence that the level of the rheumatoid factor (RF) was not related to hand function. Finally, conflicting evidence was found regarding the relationship between hand function and disease duration and general health status. Conclusion: Studies focused on body structure and function factors, highlighting a lack of investigation into personal and environmental factors when considering the impact of RA on hand function. The level of evidence which exists was limited, but identified that modifiable factors such as grip or pinch strength, disease activity and pain are the most influential factors on hand function in people with RA. The review findings suggest that important personal and environmental factors that impact on hand function in people with RA are not yet considered or reported in clinical research. Well-designed longitudinal, preferably cohort, studies are now needed to better understand the causality between personal and environmental factors and hand functional disability in people with RA.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, factors, systematic review, hand function

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2 Effects of Robot-Assisted Hand Training on Upper Extremity Performance in Patients with Stroke: A Randomized Crossover Controlled, Assessor-Blinded Study

Authors: Hsin-Chieh Lee, Fen-Ling Kuo, Jui-Chi Lin


Background: Upper extremity functional impairment that occurs after stroke includes hemiplegia, synergy movement, muscle hypertonicity, and somatosensory impairment, which result in inefficient and inaccurate movement. Robot-assisted rehabilitation is an intensive training approach that is effective in sensorimotor and hand function recovery. However, these systems mostly focused on the proximal part of the upper limb rather than the distal part. The device used in our study was Gloreha Sinfonia, which focuses on the distal part of the upper limb and uses a dynamic support system to facilitate the whole limb function. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of robot-assisted therapy (RT) with Gloreha device on sensorimotor, and ADLs in patients with stroke. Method: Patients with stroke (N=25) participated AB or BA (A = 12 RT sessions and B = 12 conventional therapy (CT) sessions) for 6 weeks (60 min at each session, twice a week), with 1-month break for washout period. The performance of the patients was assessed by a blinded assessor at 4 time points (pretest 1, posttest 1, pretest 2, posttest 2) which including the Fugl–Meyer Assessment-upper extremity (FMA-UE), box and block test, electromyography of the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) and brachioradialis, a grip dynamometer for motor evaluation; Semmes–Weinstein hand monofilament and Revision of the Nottingham Sensory Assessment for sensory evaluation; and the Modified Barthel Index (MBI) for assessing the ADL ability. Result: RT group significantly improved FMA-UE proximal scores (p = 0.038), FMA-UE total scores (p = 0.046), and MBI (p = 0.030). The EDC exhibited higher efficiency during the small block grasping task in the RT group than in the CT group (p = 0.050). Conclusions: RT with the Gloreha device might lead to beneficial effects on arm motor function, ADL ability, and EDC muscle recruitment efficacy in patients with subacute to chronic stroke.

Keywords: Stroke, activities of daily living, hand function, robotic rehabilitation

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1 The Effects on Hand Function with Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study

Authors: Hsin-Chieh Lee, Fen-Ling Kuo, Jui-Chi Lin, Han-Yun Hsiao


Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) usually suffered from mild to maximum upper limb dysfunction such as having difficulty in reaching and picking up objects, which profoundly affects their participation in activities of daily living (ADLs). Robot-assisted rehabilitation provides intensive physical training in improving sensorimotor function of the hand. Many researchers have extensively studied the effects of robot-assisted therapy (RT) for the paretic upper limb in patients with stroke in recent years. However, few studies have examined the effect of RT on hand function in children with CP. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of Gloreha Sinfonia, a robotic device with a dynamic arm support system mainly focus on distal upper-limb training, on improvements of hand function and ADLs in children with CP. Methods: Seven children with moderate CP were recruited in this case series study. RT using Gloreha Sinfonia was performed 2 sessions per week, 60 min per session for 6 consecutive weeks, with 12 times in total. Outcome measures included the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-upper extremity (FMA-UE), the Box and Block Test, the electromyography activity of the extensor digitorum communis muscle (EDC) and brachioradialis (BR), a grip dynamometer for motor evaluation, and the ABILHAND-Kids for measuring manual ability to manage daily activities, were performed at baseline, after 12 sessions (end of treatment) and at the 1-month follow-up. Results: After 6 weeks of robot-assisted treatment of hand function, there were significant increases in FMA-UE shoulder/elbow scores (p=0.002), FMA-UE wrist/hand scores (p=0.002), and FMA-UE total scores (p=0.002). There were also significant improvements in the BR mean value (p = 0.015) and electrical agonist-antagonist muscle ratio (p=0.041) in grasping a 1-inch cube task. These gains were maintained for a month after the end of the intervention. Conclusion: RT using Gloreha Sinfonia for hand function training may contribute toward the improvement of upper extremity function and efficacy in recruiting BR muscle in children with CP. The results were maintained at one month after intervention.

Keywords: Cerebral Palsy, activities of daily living, hand function, robotic rehabilitation

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