Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

halal Related Abstracts

9 Supply Chain Improvement of the Halal Goat Industry in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao

Authors: Josephine R. Migalbin


Halal is an Arabic word meaning "lawful" or "permitted". When it comes to food and consumables, Halal is the dietary standard of Muslims. The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) has a comparative advantage when it comes to Halal Industry because it is the only Muslim region in the Philippines and the natural starting point for the establishment of a halal industry in the country. The region has identified goat production not only for domestic consumption but for export market. Goat production is one of its strengths due to cultural compatibility. There is a high demand for goats during Ramadhan and Eid ul-Adha. The study aimed to provide an overview of the ARMM Halal Goat Industry; to map out the specific supply chain of halal goat, and to analyze the performance of the halal goat supply chain in terms of efficiency, flexibility, and overall responsiveness. It also aimed to identify areas for improvement in the supply chain such as behavioural, institutional, and process to provide recommendations for improvement in the supply chain towards efficient and effective production and marketing of halal goats, subsequently improving the plight of the actors in the supply chain. Generally, the raising of goats is characterized by backyard production (92.02%). There are four interrelated factors affecting significantly the production of goats which are breeding prolificacy, prevalence of diseases, feed abundance and pre-weaning mortality rate. The institutional buyers are mostly traders, restaurants/eateries, supermarkets, and meat shops, among others. The municipalities of Midsayap and Pikit in another region and Parang are the major goat sources and the municipalities in ARMM among others. In addition to the major supply centers, Siquijor, an island province in the Visayas is becoming a key source of goats. Goats are usually gathered by traders/middlemen and brought to the public markets. Meat vendors purchase them directly from raisers, slaughtered and sold fresh in wet markets. It was observed that there is increased demand at 2%/year and that supply is not enough to meet the demand. Farm gate price is 2.04 USD to 2.11 USD/kg liveweight. Industry information is shared by three key participants - raisers, traders and buyers. All respondents reported that information is through personal built-upon past experiences and that there is no full disclosure of information among the key participants in the chain. The information flow in the industry is fragmented in nature such that no total industry picture exists. In the last five years, numerous local and foreign agencies had undertaken several initiatives for the development of the halal goat industry in ARMM. The major issues include productivity which is the greatest challenge, difficulties in accessing technical support channels and lack of market linkage and consolidation. To address the various issues and concerns of the various industry players, there is a need to intensify appropriate technology transfer through extension activities, improve marketing channels by grouping producers, strengthen veterinary services and provide capital windows to improve facilities and reduce logistics and transaction costs in the entire supply chain.

Keywords: autonomous region in Muslim Mindanao, halal, halal goat industry, supply chain improvement

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8 Influence of Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Protein Integrity and Quality of Chicken Meat

Authors: Nafees Ahmed, Nur Izyani Kamaruzman, Saralla Nathan, Mohd Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury, Anuar Zaini Md Zain, Iekhsan Othman, Sharifah Binti Syed Hassan


Meat quality is always subject to consumer scrutiny when purchasing from retail markets on mislabeling as fresh meat. Various physiological and biochemical changes influence the quality of meat. As a major component of muscle tissue, proteins play a major role in muscle foods. In meat industry, freezing is the most common form of storage of meat products. Repeated cycles of freezing and thawing are common in restaurants, kitchen, and retail outlets and can also occur during transportation or storage. Temperature fluctuation is responsible for physical, chemical, and biochemical changes. Repeated cycles of ‘freeze-thaw’ degrade the quality of meat by stimulating the lipid oxidation and surface discoloration. The shelf life of meat is usually determined by its appearance, texture, color, flavor, microbial activity, and nutritive value and is influenced by frozen storage and subsequent thawing. The main deterioration of frozen meat during storage is due to protein. Due to the large price differences between fresh and frozen–thawed meat, it is of great interest to consumer to know whether a meat product is truly fresh or not. Researchers have mainly focused on the reduction of moisture loss due to freezing and thawing cycles of meat. The water holding capacity (WHC) of muscle proteins and reduced water content are key quality parameters of meat that ultimately changes color and texture. However, there has been limited progress towards understanding the actual mechanisms behind the meat quality changes under the freeze–thaw cycles. Furthermore, effect of freeze-thaw process on integrity of proteins is ignored. In this paper, we have studied the effect of ‘freeze-thawing’ on physicochemical changes of chicken meat protein. We have assessed the quality of meat by pH, spectroscopic measurements, Western Blot. Our results showed that increase in freeze-thaw cycles causes changes in pH. Measurements of absorbance (UV-visible and IR) indicated the degradation of proteins. The expression of various proteins (CREB, AKT, MAPK, GAPDH, and phosphorylated forms) were performed using Western Blot. These results indicated the repeated cycles of freeze-thaw is responsible for deterioration of protein, thus causing decrease in nutritious value of meat. It damges the use of these products in Islamic Sharia.

Keywords: Protein, western blot, halal, chicken meat, freeze-thaw

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7 Readiness of Thai Restaurant in Bangkok in Applying for Certification of Halal Food Services Standard for Tourism

Authors: Pongsiri Kingkan


This research aims to study the Readiness of Thai Restaurant in Bangkok in Applying for Certification of Halal Food Services Standard for Tourism. This research was conduct by using mix methodology; both quantitative and qualitative data were used. 420 questionnaires were used as tools to collected data from the samples, the restaurant employees. The results were divided into two parts, the demographic data and the Readiness of Thai Restaurant in Bangkok in Applying for Certification of Halal Food Services Standard for Tourism. The majority of samples are single female age between 18–30 years old, who earn about 282.40 US dollars a month. The result of Thai restaurant readiness study demonstrated that readiness in foods and restaurant operating processes were scored at the lowest level. Readiness in social responsibility, food contact persons and food materials were rated at the low level. The readiness of utensils and kitchen tools, waste management, environmental management, and the availability of space to implement the establishment of halal food were scored at the average level. Location readiness, foods service safety and the relationship with the local community were rated at high level. But interestingly there is none of them rated at the highest level.

Keywords: Availability, Bangkok, readiness, halal, Thai restaurant

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6 Halal Education in TVET : Roles of Malaysian Polytechnics in Creating Halal Competent Workforce

Authors: Ahmad Sahir Jais


This paper is focusing on the roles played by Malaysian polytechnics in halal education in the context of technical, vocational education and training (TVET). A critical review of the previous literature, as well as documents analysis of the curriculum structure, highlighted several theme concerning dietary halal sectors in Malaysia as well as the depth of halal education ingrained in Malaysia polytechnics education system. Dietary halal in Malaysia has gained prominence exposure lately, due to the heighten awareness among Muslim consumers. Therefore, this has contributed to a surge in demand for halal food. Growth in halal sub sectors has a consequent effect with the demand for halal competent human capital resulting in demands for halal competent human capital by the industries cannot be matched by the educational institution. It can be concluded that, Malaysian Polytechnics has taken up the lead role in halal education in comparison with other academic institution in filling the needs for halal competent workers by offering halal related courses at diploma level as well as short courses for the local communities. They has successfully positioned themselves as an academic institution that meets the demands of the industry as the demand for halal competent workers which is expected to grow significantly due to new legislation introduces by the government, expansion of halal economy and increase awareness and interest in halal among consumer.

Keywords: halal, TVET, halal in TVET, Malaysian polytechnics

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5 Android Application on Checking Halal Product Based on Augmented Reality

Authors: Saidatul A'isyah Ahmad Shukri, Haslina Arshad


This study was conducted to develop an application that provides Augmented Reality experience in identifying halal food products and beverages based on Malaysian Islamic Development Department (JAKIM) database for Muslim consumers in Malaysia. The applications is operating on the mobile device using the Android platform. This application aims to provide a new experience to the user how to use the Android application implements Augmentation Reality technology The methodology used is object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD). The programming language used is JAVA programming using the Android Software Development Kit (SDK) and XML. Android operating system is selected, and it is an open source operating system. Results from the study are implemented to further enhance diversity in presentation of information contained in this application and so can bring users using these applications from different angles.

Keywords: Food, Augmented Reality, products, xml, android, Malaysia, halal

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4 Comparison of Real-Time PCR and FTIR with Chemometrics Technique in Analysing Halal Supplement Capsules

Authors: Mohd Sukri Hassan, Ahlam Inayatullah Badrul Munir, M. Husaini A. Rahman


Halal authentication and verification in supplement capsules are highly required as the gelatine available in the market can be from halal or non-halal sources. It is an obligation for Muslim to consume and use the halal consumer goods. At present, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most common technique being used for the detection of porcine and bovine DNA in gelatine due to high sensitivity of the technique and higher stability of DNA compared to protein. In this study, twenty samples of supplements capsules from different products with different Halal logos were analyzed for porcine and bovine DNA using RT-PCR. Standard bovine and porcine gelatine from eurofins at a range of concentration from 10-1 to 10-5 ng/µl were used to determine the linearity range, limit of detection and specificity on RT-PCR (SYBR Green method). RT-PCR detected porcine (two samples), bovine (four samples) and mixture of porcine and bovine (six samples). The samples were also tested using FT-IR technique where normalized peak of IR spectra were pre-processed using Savitsky Golay method before Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was performed on the database. Scores plot of PCA shows three clusters of samples; bovine, porcine and mixture (bovine and porcine). The RT-PCR and FT-IR with chemometrics technique were found to give same results for porcine gelatine samples which can be used for Halal authentication.

Keywords: Chemometrics, real-time PCR, halal, gelatine

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3 The Use of Gelatin in Biomedical Engineering: Halal Perspective

Authors: Syazwani Ramli, Norhidayu Muhamad Zain


Nowadays, the use of gelatin as biomaterials in tissue engineering are evolving especially in skin graft and wound dressing applications. Towards year 2018, Malaysia is in the way of planning to get the halal certification for biomedical device in order to cater the needs of Muslims and non-Muslims in Malaysia. However, the use of gelatins in tissue engineering are mostly derived from non-halal sources. Currently, gelatin production mostly comes from mammalian gelatin sources. Moreover, within these past years, just a few studies of the uses of gelatin in tissue engineering from halal perspective has been studied. Thus, this paper aims to give overview of the use of gelatin from different sources from halal perspectives. This review also discussing the current status of halal for the emerging biomedical devices. In addition, the different sources of gelatin used in tissue engineering are being identified and provides better alternatives for halal gelatin. Cold- water fish skin gelatin could be an effective alternative to substitute the mammalian sources. Therefore, this review is important because the information about the halal biomedical devices will delighted Muslim consumers and give better insight of halal gelatin in tissue engineering application.

Keywords: Tissue Engineering, Gelatin, Biomedical device, halal, skin graft

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2 The Concepts of Ibn Taymiyyah in Halal and Haram and Their Relevance to Contemporary Issues

Authors: Muhammad Fakhrul Arrazi


Ibn Taymiyyah is a great figure in Islam. His works have become the reference for many Muslims in implementing the fiqh of Ibadah and Muamalat. This article reviews the concepts that Ibn Taymiyyah has initiated in Halal and Haram, long before the books on Halal and Haram are written by contemporary scholars. There are at least four concepts of Halal and Haram ever spawned by Ibn Taymiyyah. First, the belief of a jurist (Faqih) in a matter that is Haram does not necessarily make the matter Haram. Haram arises from the Quran, Sunnah, Ijma’ and Qiyas as the tarjih. Due to the different opinions among the ulama, we should revisit this concept. Second, if a Muslim involves in a transaction (Muamalat), believes it permissible and gets money from such transaction, then it is legal for other Muslims to transact with the property of this Muslim brother, even if he does not believe that the transactions made by his Muslims brother are permissible. Third, Haram is divided into two; first is Haram because of the nature of an object, such as carrion, blood, and pork. If it is mixed with water or food and alters their taste, color, and smell, the food and water become Haram. Second is Haram because of the way it is obtained such as a stolen item and a broken aqad. If it is mixed with the halal property, the property does not automatically become Haram. Fourth, a treasure whose owners cannot be traced back then it is used for the benefit of the ummah. This study used the secondary data from the classics books by Ibn Taymiyyah, particularly those entailing his views on Halal and Haram. The data were then analyzed by using thematic and comparative approach. It is found that most of the concepts proposed by Ibn Taymiyyah in Halal and Haram correspond the majority’s views in the schools. However, some of his concepts are also in contrary to other scholars. His concepts will benefit the ummah, should it be applied to the contemporary issues.

Keywords: halal, Ibn Taymiyyah, fiqh Muamalat, haram

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1 Prospects of Oman as a Destination for Halal Tourism

Authors: Asad Rehman


Although a vast majority relates the concept of ‘halal’ or what is permissible in Islam to food only. However, halal industry covers many sectors such as food, fashion, transport, finance and even tourism. Halal tourism is not just about halal food; it is also about the overall experience, which is amenable with the Shariah (Islamic jurisprudence). Oman has a plethora of natural beauty and many places of interest for all types of tourists. It is one of the most secure and peaceful countries in the world. Having a well-developed Infrastructure, Oman is ready to take its tourism to new heights. The ever-hospitable Omanis are proud of their rich cultural and historical heritage. Thus, Oman appears to have all what it takes to become a prime destination for halal tourism. The objective of this study is to assess the prospects of Oman as a destination for halal tourism. Based on the interviews of experts like academicians, tourism professionals, officials and clerics, Oman’s competitiveness as a destination for halal tourism was assessed by developing a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) profile. The findings of the SWOT were compared with the data from the Global Muslim Travel Index (GMTI) from the year 2014 to 2018. Based on the analysis, Oman is found to have the right mix of environment and enabling services for halal tourism. However, it is found lacking in public transport, communication and customer outreach. Oman is also found to be losing its rank among the top 10 destinations for halal tourism to close competitors like Qatar, Bahrain, Morocco, etc. The concerned authorities need to make conscious efforts to resolve these issues as it becomes imperative for Oman to revamp its tourism strategy.

Keywords: Islam, Tourism, swot, halal, destination

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