Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Habits Related Abstracts

4 Health Behaviours of Patients Qualified for Bariatric Surgery

Authors: A. Gazdzinska, P. Jagielski, E. Kaniewska, S. P. Gazdzinski, M. Wylezol

Abstract:

Background: In the multi-factor etiology of obesity, an increasing degree of importance is attributed to behavioral factors. Lifestyle and health-oriented behaviors heavily influence the treatment of multiple diseases, including obesity. However, only a few studies evaluated health-related behaviors exhibited by patients qualified for bariatric surgery. None of them was performed in Polish population. Aim: Assessment of health behaviors of obese patients according to the degree of mood disorders. Method: The study involved 93 patients (66 females) who were qualified for bariatric surgery in the Department of Surgery of the Military Institute of Aviation Medicine in Warsaw. Diagnostic instrument was the Juczynski’s Inventory of Health Behavior (HBI), which evaluates health behavior in four categories, i.e. proper nutrition habits (PNH), preventive behavior (PH), health practices (HP) and positive mental attitude (PMA). The average HBI falls in the range between 24 and 120 points, for each category of health behaviors fall between 1 and 5 (higher score means higher severity declared healthy behaviors). The depressive symptoms in patients were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). All analyses were conducted using STATISTICA 12. Results: The average age was 44.2 ± 11.5 years, mean BMI was 44.3 ± 10.5 kg/m2 and 46.8 ± 7.6 kg/m2, in females and males respectively. According to BDI, 32% patients had mild level of depression, 10% moderate and 14% severe depression. BDI scores were not different between females and males. Low results with regard to the health behaviors declared were obtained by 35.5 % of patients, medium by 44.0%, while high ones by only 20.5%. On average, patients gained 3.28 points in PNH, 3.37 points in PH, 3.29 points in HP, while 3.42 in the PMA category, showing average intensity of these behaviors. These health behaviors were practiced significantly more often by women (p = 0.04). The average HBI was 80.2; with average score of 81.5 for females and 76.6 for males, respectively (p = 0.03). Women were better in the PNH category (p = 0.02). A positive correlation was found between age and all categories of health behaviors, in particular PNH (R = 0.38; p = 0.001), PH (R = 0.26; p = 0.01), HP (R = 0.27; p = 0.01) and PMA (R = 0.24; p = 0.02), independent of gender. The severity of depression had a significant impact only on the behaviors associated with proper eating habits, which saw a negative correlation between BDI scores and the PNH (R = -0.21; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Majority of morbidly obese patients qualified for bariatric surgery obtained low to average scores in health behavior questionnaire. However, these results are similar in comparison with the Polish adult population. In accordance to these results, it seems that healthy behaviors, among them eating behaviors, do not appear to be a cause of obesity epidemic or they might be acquired when the disease is already underway. Female gender and age had a positive effect, and depression had a negative effect on the level of health behaviors among patients qualified for bariatric surgery.

Keywords: Obesity, Depression, Habits, health behaviours

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3 Habits: Theoretical Foundations and a Conceptual Framework on a Managerial Trap and Chance

Authors: K. Piórkowska

Abstract:

The overarching aim of the paper is to incorporate the micro-foundations perspective in strategic management and offering possibilities to bridge the macro–micro divide, to review the concept of habits, as well as to propose research findings and directions in terms of further exploring the habit construct and its impact on higher epistemological level phenomena (for instance organizational routines, which is a domain inherently multilevel in nature). To realize this aim, the following sections have been developed: (1) habits’ origins, (2) habits – cognitive constellations, (3) interrelationships between habits and mental representations, intentions, (4) habits and organizational routines, and (5) habits and routines linkages with adaptation. The conclusions that have been made support recent and current studies linking the level of individual heterogeneous agents with the level of macro (organizational) outcomes.

Keywords: behaviorism, Habits, micro-foundations, routines

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2 Drivers of Energy Saving Behaviour: The Relative Influence of Normative, Habitual, Intentional, and Situational Processes

Authors: Karlijn Van Den Broek, Ian Walker, Christian Klöckner

Abstract:

Campaigns aiming to induce energy-saving behaviour among householders use a wide range of approaches that address many different drivers thought to underpin this behaviour. However, little research has compared the relative importance of the different factors that influence energy behaviour, meaning campaigns are not informed about where best to focus resources. Therefore, this study applies the Comprehensive Action Determination Model (CADM) to compare the role of normative, intentional, habitual, and situational processes on energy-saving behaviour. An online survey on a sample of households (N = 247) measured the CADM variables and the data was analysed using structural equation modelling. Results showed that situational and habitual processes were best able to account for energy saving behaviour while normative and intentional processes had little predictive power. These findings suggest that policymakers should move away from motivating householders to save energy and should instead focus their efforts on changing energy habits and creating environments that facilitate energy saving behaviour. These findings add to the wider development in social and environmental psychology that emphasizes the importance of extra-personal variables such as the physical environment in shaping behaviour.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, Values, Behavioural Modelling, Habits, environmental psychology theory

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1 Association between Bottle-Feeding Habit and Occlusal Disorders in Children 4-6 Years Old

Authors: Livia Eisler, Kurt Faltin Jr., Gustavo Mota, Roberta S. Ilinsky, Cristina Lucia Feijó Ortolani

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of occlusal disorders associated with bottle feeding habits in children aged 4-6 years old. A cross-sectional study was performed in a sample of 466 preschool children aged 4-6 years, attending state preschools in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Parents and caregivers answered a questionnaire about children’s oral habits, including bottle-feeding habit, and signed the Informed Consent form. The students underwent an oral examination to evaluate occlusal disorders. Data were analyzed by the SPSS 2.2 program (IBM, USA) and treated with non-parametric chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression with a significance level of p < 0.05. There was association between bottle-feeding and occlusal disorders (OR = 3.058, 95% CI = 1.561-5.991, PI < 0.001), with a higher significance for anterior open bite (OR = 2.855, 95% CI = 1.769-4.606, PI < 0.001) and canine class II (OR = 0.667, 95% CI = 0.449-0.990, PI < 0.045). There was no relationship between bottle-feeding habit and other occlusal disorders examined. It was possible to conclude that children who were bottle fed during childhood are more likely to develop occlusal disorders, especially anterior open bite and canine class II.

Keywords: Malocclusion, Habits, anterior open-bite, bottle-feeding

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