Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

gyratory compactor Related Abstracts

2 Increased Stability of Rubber-Modified Asphalt Mixtures to Swelling, Expansion and Rebound Effect during Post-Compaction

Authors: Fernando Martinez Soto, Gaetano Di Mino

Abstract:

The application of rubber into bituminous mixtures requires attention and care during mixing and compaction. Rubber modifies the properties because it reacts in the internal structure of bitumen at high temperatures changing the performance of the mixture (interaction process of solvents with binder-rubber aggregate). The main change is the increasing of the viscosity and elasticity of the binder due to the larger sizes of the rubber particles by dry process but, this positive effect is counteracted by short mixing times, compared to wet technology, and due to the transport processes, curing time and post-compaction of the mixtures. Therefore, negative effects as swelling of rubber particles, rebounding effect of the specimens and thermal changes by different expansion of the structure inside the mixtures, can change the mechanical properties of the rubberized blends. Based on the dry technology, different asphalt-rubber binders using devulcanized or natural rubber (truck and bus tread rubber), have served to demonstrate these effects and how to solve them into two dense-gap graded rubber modified asphalt concrete mixes (RUMAC) to enhance the stability, workability and durability of the compacted samples by Superpave gyratory compactor method. This paper specifies the procedures developed in the Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Palermo during September 2016 to March 2017, for characterizing the post-compaction and mix-stability of the one conventional mixture (hot mix asphalt without rubber) and two gap-graded rubberized asphalt mixes according granulometry for rail sub-ballast layers with nominal size of Ø22.4mm of aggregates according European standard. Thus, the main purpose of this laboratory research is the application of ambient ground rubber from scrap tires processed at conventional temperature (20ºC) inside hot bituminous mixtures (160-220ºC) as a substitute for 1.5%, 2% and 3% by weight of the total aggregates (3.2%, 4.2% and, 6.2% respectively by volumetric part of the limestone aggregates of bulk density equal to 2.81g/cm³) considered, not as a part of the asphalt binder. The reference bituminous mixture was designed with 4% of binder and ± 3% of air voids, manufactured for a conventional bitumen B50/70 at 160ºC-145ºC mix-compaction temperatures to guarantee the workability of the mixes. The proportions of rubber proposed are #60-40% for mixtures with 1.5 to 2% of rubber and, #20-80% for mixture with 3% of rubber (as example, a 60% of Ø0.4-2mm and 40% of Ø2-4mm). The temperature of the asphalt cement is between 160-180 ºC for mixing and 145-160 ºC for compaction, according to the optimal values for viscosity using Brookfield viscometer and 'ring and ball' - penetration tests. These crumb rubber particles act as a rubber-aggregate into the mixture, varying sizes between 0.4mm to 2mm in a first fraction, and 2-4mm as second proportion. Ambient ground rubber with a specific gravity of 1.154g/cm³ is used. The rubber is free of loose fabric, wire, and other contaminants. It was found optimal results in real beams and cylindrical specimens with each HMA mixture reducing the swelling effect. Different factors as temperature, particle sizes of rubber, number of cycles and pressures of compaction that affect the interaction process are explained.

Keywords: Swelling, superpave mix-design, crumb-rubber, gyratory compactor, rebounding effect, sub-ballast railway

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1 Effect of Compaction Method on the Mechanical and Anisotropic Properties of Asphalt Mixtures

Authors: Mai Sirhan, Arieh Sidess

Abstract:

Asphaltic mixture is a heterogeneous material composed of three main components: aggregates; bitumen and air voids. The professional experience and scientific literature categorize asphaltic mixture as a viscoelastic material, whose behavior is determined by temperature and loading rate. Properties characterization of the asphaltic mixture used under the service conditions is done by compacting and testing cylindric asphalt samples in the laboratory. These samples must resemble in a high degree internal structure of the mixture achieved in service, and the mechanical characteristics of the compacted asphalt layer in the pavement. The laboratory samples are usually compacted in temperatures between 140 and 160 degrees Celsius. In this temperature range, the asphalt has a low degree of strength. The laboratory samples are compacted using the dynamic or vibrational compaction methods. In the compaction process, the aggregates tend to align themselves in certain directions that lead to anisotropic behavior of the asphaltic mixture. This issue has been studied in the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) research, that recommended using the gyratory compactor based on the assumption that this method is the best in mimicking the compaction in the service. In Israel, the Netivei Israel company is considering adopting the Gyratory Method as a replacement for the Marshall method used today. Therefore, the compatibility of the Gyratory Method for the use with Israeli asphaltic mixtures should be investigated. In this research, we aimed to examine the impact of the compaction method used on the mechanical characteristics of the asphaltic mixtures and to evaluate the degree of anisotropy in relation to the compaction method. In order to carry out this research, samples have been compacted in the vibratory and gyratory compactors. These samples were cylindrically cored both vertically (compaction wise) and horizontally (perpendicular to compaction direction). These models were tested under dynamic modulus and permanent deformation tests. The comparable results of the tests proved that: (1) specimens compacted by the vibratory compactor had higher dynamic modulus values than the specimens compacted by the gyratory compactor (2) both vibratory and gyratory compacted specimens had anisotropic behavior, especially in high temperatures. Also, the degree of anisotropy is higher in specimens compacted by the gyratory method. (3) Specimens compacted by the vibratory method that were cored vertically had the highest resistance to rutting. On the other hand, specimens compacted by the vibratory method that were cored horizontally had the lowest resistance to rutting. Additionally (4) these differences between the different types of specimens rise mainly due to the different internal arrangement of aggregates resulting from the compaction method. (5) Based on the initial prediction of the performance of the flexible pavement containing an asphalt layer having characteristics based on the results achieved in this research. It can be concluded that there is a significant impact of the compaction method and the degree of anisotropy on the strains that develop in the pavement, and the resistance of the pavement to fatigue and rutting defects.

Keywords: anisotropy, Mechanical Properties, permanent deformation, dynamic modulus, gyratory compactor, asphalt compaction, vibratory compactor

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