Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

guar gum Related Abstracts

4 Utilization Of Guar Gum As Functional Fat Replacer In Goshtaba, A Traditional Indian Meat Product

Authors: F. A. Masoodi, Adil Gani, Sajad A. Rather, Rehana Akhter, S. M. Wani


Modern trend towards convenience foods has resulted in increased production and consumption of restructured meat products and are of great importance to the meat industry. In meat products fat plays an important role in cooking properties, texture & sensory scores, however, high fat contents in particular animal fats provide high amounts of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and are associated with several types of non communicable diseases such as obesity, hypertension and coronary heart diseases. Thus, fat reduction has generally been seen as an important strategy to produce healthier meat products. This study examined the effects of reducing fat level from 20% to 10% and substituting mutton back fat with guar gum (0.5%, 1% & 1.5%) on cooking properties, proximate composition, lipid and protein oxidation, texture, microstructure and sensory characteristics of goshtaba- a traditional meat product of J & K, India were investigated and compared with high fat counterparts. Reduced- fat goshtaba samples containing guar gum had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher yield, less shrinkage, more moisture retention and more protein content than the control sample. TBARs and protein oxidation (carbonyl content) values of the control was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than reduced fat goshtaba samples and showed a positive correlation between lipid and protein oxidation. Hardness, gumminess & chewiness of the control (20%) were significantly higher than reduced fat goshtaba samples. Microstructural differences were significant (p ≤ 0.05) between control and treated samples due to an increased moisture content in the reduced fat samples. Sensory evaluation showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) reduction in texture, flavour and overall acceptability scores of treatment products; however the scores for 0.5% and 1% treated samples were in the range of acceptability. Guar gum may also be used as a source of soluble dietary fibre in food products and a number of clinical studies have shown a reduction in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia on consumption of guar gum, with the mechanism being attributed to an increased transit time in the stomach and small intestine, which may have been due to the viscosity of the meal hindering the access of glucose to the epithelium.

Keywords: traditional, Fat Reduction, acceptability, goshtaba, guar gum

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3 Laying Hens' Feed Fortified with Pectin, Xanthan Gum and Guar Gum Aims to Reduce the Cholesterol in Muscle and Egg Yolk

Authors: Novia Dwi Prabandari, Diah Ayu Asmarani


Soluble fiber can accelerate the metabolism of cholesterol. Pectin and gum has been used in the form of substance additive for material stabilizer and emulsifier. Pectin supplementation in laying hens can decimate the cholesterol content in egg yolk and muscle. Therefore, this laying hens’ feed is regular feed chickens enriched with soluble fiber (Pectin, Xanthan gum, and Guar gum) to produce eggs and muscle with lower cholesterol than usual.The ingredients are mixed in the ratio of concentrate 45%, corn flour 25%, soybean meal 20%, and extract of soluble fiber 10%. Once all the ingredients are mixed and then evaporated with temperature < 80 °C. Then put in the grinding machine resulting in a circular shape with holes 2-3 mm in diameter, after it dried up the water content in the feed is less than 14%. Eggs from laying hen with soluble fiber fortification feed intake will have lower cholesterol levels in eggs than regular feed. So even with the cholesterol content in the muscle, it is because chicken feed fortified with soluble fiber will accelerate the metabolism of cholesterol and cause cholesterol deposits in the chicken less. The use of this kind of laying hens feed is produce eggs with high protein content can be consumed more for people who have hypercholesterolemia.

Keywords: cholesterol, pectin, guar gum, xanthan gum, laying hen

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2 Azadirachta indica Derived Protein Encapsulated Novel Guar Gum Nanocapsules against Colon Cancer

Authors: Suman Chaudhary, Rupinder K. Kanwar, Jagat R. Kanwar


Azadirachta indica, also known as Neem belonging to the mahogany family is actively gaining interest in the era of modern day medicine due to its extensive applications in homeopathic medicine such as Ayurveda and Unani. More than 140 phytochemicals have been extracted from neem leaves, seed, bark and flowers for agro-medicinal applications. Among the various components, neem leaf protein (NLP) is currently the most investigated active ingredient, due to its immunomodulatory activities against tumor growth. However, these therapeutic ingredients of neem are susceptible to degradation and cannot withstand the drastic pH changes under physiological environment, and therefore, there is an urgent need of an alternative strategy such as a nano-delivery system to exploit its medicinal benefits. This study hypothesizes that guar gum (GG) derived biodegradable nano-carrier based encapsulation of NLP will improve its stability, specificity and sensitivity, thus facilitating targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. GG is a galactomannan derived from the endosperm of the guar beans seeds. Synthesis of guar nanocapsules (NCs) was performed using nanoprecipitation technique where the GG was encapsulated with NLP. Preliminary experiments conducted to characterize the NCs confirmed spherical morphology with a narrow size distribution of 30-40 nm. Differential scanning colorimetric analysis (DSC) validated the stability of these NCs even at a temperature range of 50-60°C which was well within the physiological and storage conditions. Thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis indicated high decomposition temperature of these NCs ranging upto 350°C. Additionally, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the SDS-PAGE data acquired confirmed the successful encapsulation of NLP in the NCs. The anti-cancerous therapeutic property of this NC was tested on colon cancer cells (caco-2) as they are one of the most prevalent form of cancer. These NCs (both NLP loaded and void) were also tested on human intestinal epithelial cells (FHs 74) cells to evaluate their effect on normal cells. Cytotoxicity evaluation of the NCs in the cell lines confirmed that the IC50 for NLP in FHs 74 cells was ~2 fold higher than in caco-2 cells, indicating that this nanoformulation system possessed biocompatible anti-cancerous properties Immunoconfocal microscopy analysis confirmed the time dependent internalization of the NCs within 6h. Recent findings performed using Annexin V and PI staining indicated a significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) in the early and late apoptotic cell population when treated with the NCs signifying the role of NLP in inducing apoptosis in caco-2 cells. This was further validated using Western blot, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) aided protein expressional analysis which presented a downregulation of survivin, an anti-apoptotic cell marker and upregulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (pro-apoptotic indicator). Further, both the NLP NC and unencapsulated NLP treatment destabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential subsequently facilitating the release of the pro-apoptotic caspase cascade initiator, cytochrome-c. Future studies will be focused towards granting specificity to these NCs towards cancer cells, along with a comprehensive analysis of the anti-cancer potential of this naturally occurring compound in different cancer and in vivo animal models, will validate the clinical application of this unprecedented protein therapeutic.

Keywords: Nanocapsules, guar gum, anti-tumor, neem leaf protein

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1 Characterization of Potato Starch/Guar Gum Composite Film Modified by Ecofriendly Cross-Linkers

Authors: Sujosh Nandi, Proshanta Guha


Synthetic plastics are preferred for food packaging due to high strength, stretch-ability, good water vapor and gas barrier properties, transparency and low cost. However, environmental pollution generated by these synthetic plastics is a major concern of modern human civilization. Therefore, use of biodegradable polymers as a substitute for synthetic non-biodegradable polymers are encouraged to be used even after considering drawbacks related to mechanical and barrier properties of the films. Starch is considered one of the potential raw material for the biodegradable polymer, encounters poor water barrier property and mechanical properties due to its hydrophilic nature. That apart, recrystallization of starch molecules occurs during aging which decreases flexibility and increases elastic modulus of the film. The recrystallization process can be minimized by blending of other hydrocolloids having similar structural compatibility, into the starch matrix. Therefore, incorporation of guar gum having a similar structural backbone, into the starch matrix can introduce a potential film into the realm of biodegradable polymer. However, hydrophilic nature of both starch and guar gum, water barrier property of the film is low. One of the prospective solution to enhance this could be modification of the potato starch/guar gum (PSGG) composite film using cross-linker. Over the years, several cross-linking agents such as phosphorus oxychloride, sodium trimetaphosphate, etc. have been used to improve water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films. However, these chemical cross-linking agents are toxic, expensive and take longer time to degrade. Therefore, naturally available carboxylic acid (tartaric acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, etc.) had been used as a cross-linker and found that water barrier property enhanced substantially. As per our knowledge, no works have been reported with tartaric acid and succinic acid as a cross-linking agent blended with the PSGG films. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the changes in water vapor barrier property and mechanical properties of the PSGG films after cross-linked with tartaric acid (TA) and succinic acid (SA). The cross-linkers were blended with PSGG film-forming solution at four different concentrations (4, 8, 12 & 16%) and cast on teflon plate at 37°C for 20 h. From the fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study of the developed films, a band at 1720cm-1 was observed which is attributed to the formation of ester group in the developed films. On the other hand, it was observed that tensile strength (TS) of the cross-linked film decreased compared to non-cross linked films, whereas strain at break increased by several folds. Moreover, the results depicted that tensile strength diminished with increasing the concentration of TA or SA and lowest TS (1.62 MPa) was observed for 16% SA. That apart, maximum strain at break was also observed for TA at 16% and the reason behind this could be a lesser degree of crystallinity of the TA cross-linked films compared to SA. However, water vapor permeability of succinic acid cross-linked film was reduced significantly, but it was enhanced significantly by addition of tartaric acid.

Keywords: guar gum, organic acids, cross linking agent, potato starch

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